فهرست مطالب

فضای جغرافیایی - پیاپی 54 (تابستان 1395)
  • پیاپی 54 (تابستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • روح الله رضائی*، لیلا صفا صفحات 1-20
    هدف این تحقیق توصیفی-همبستگی اعتباریابی و پایایی سنجی مقیاس اندازه گیری اثرات خشکسالی با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی بود. جامعه آماری این تحقیق را تمامی سرپرستان خانوار در روستای سهرین تشکیل می دادند (603 =N) که با توجه به جدول کرجسی- مورگان، تعداد 220 نفر از آنان از طریق روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده برای انجام تحقیق انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه استفاده گردید. اعتبار محتوایی پرسشنامه با نظر پانلی از متخصصان و کارشناسان مورد تایید قرار گرفت. به منظور بررسی اعتبار سازه (شامل اعتبار همگرا، تشخیصی و منطقی) و پایایی ابزار تحقیق و برآورد مدل اندازه گیری پژوهش از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی از طریقنرم افزار AMOS20 استفاده شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که اهمیت هر چهار عامل بررسی شده در قالب مدل مفهومی پژوهش، بر اساس داده های میدانی مورد تایید قرار گرفته (برازش مناسب مدل) و این عامل ها شاملزیست محیطی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی-روانشناختی و اکولوژیکی دارای رابطه معنی داری با سازه اصلی مورد مطالعه یعنی اثرات خشکسالی بودند. مدل/مقیاس توسعه داده شده در این مطالعه می تواند در پژوهش های آتی برای اندازه گیری/ سنجش اثرات خشکسالی در مناطق روستایی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: خشکسالی، مناطق روستایی، اعتبار و پایایی ابزار، مدل اندازه گیری
  • مهناز کشاورز*، مجتبی قدیری معصوم، اطهره عیاشی، حسین سرپرست صفحات 21-46
    شهرستان خرم آباد از نخستین سکونتگاه های مردم ایران با تاریخ چند هزار ساله، با وجود تنوع اقوام و ایلات و جاذبه های گردشگری و غنای فرهنگی و طبیعی زمینه ساز توسعه گردشگری می باشد. هدف این مقاله، تحلیل راهبردهای توسعه پایدار گردشگری شهرستان خرم آباد با توجه به پتانسیل ها موجود در راستای توسعه صنعت گردشگری و تبدیل شهر به یک مقصد گردشگری بین المللی، پایدار و رقابتی می باشد. در این مقاله، ابتدا عوامل تاثیرگذار بر گردشگری خرم آباد تبیین گردیده، در گام بعدی از بین عوامل موثر، عوامل کلیدی استراتژیک موجود در هر زمینه شناسایی شدند، سپس اهمیت نسبی عوامل چهارگانه طبق مدل پیاده سازی ماتریس های ارزیابی داخلی و خارجی و با نظر کارشناسان گردشگری و مدیران منطقه بررسی گردید. در ادامه با توجه به رتبه بندی عوامل استراتژیک، مهم ترین فرصت ها و تهدیدها، نقاط قوت و ضعف گردشگری شهرستان در راستای توسعه این صنعت معرفی گردیدند و به کمک ابزار ماتریس داخلی–خارجی (IE matrix) و ماتریس SWOT، راهبردهایی در دو گروه عمده و خاص جهت توسعه صنعت گردشگری در شهرستان خرم آباد ارائه گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد توسعه جاذبه های گردشگری طبیعی و فرهنگی–تاریخی، گسترش ارتباطات، همایش های سراسری با هدف توسعه بیشتر گردشگری، ایجاد زمینه سرمایه گذاری بخش خصوصی، استقرار مدیریت یکپارچه، ایجاد وحدت رویه در عملکرد سازمان های دخیل در امور گردشگری شهری و جلوگیری از اتلاف منابع انسانی و مالی و فنی، با ارائه خدمات مطلوب تر به گردشگران، حفاظت و توسعه منابع و امکانات موجود، نقش موثرتری در نیل به اهداف توسعه پایدار گردشگری شهرخرم آباد ایفا خواهد کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار گردشگری، تحلیل استراتژیک سوات، ماتریس داخلی، خارجی، شهرستان خرم آباد
  • سعیده عینی، تقی طاوسی*، مهدی امیرجهانشاهی صفحات 47-67
    کاربرد وسیع اطلاعات دمایی در زندگی انسان سبب شده است که مطالعه نوسان، تغییر و پیش بینی دمایی در درازمدت مورد توجه جغرافیدانان و به ویژه اقلیم شناسان قرار گیرد. در این پژوهش، با استفاده از داده های کمینه دمایی ماهانه و سالانه ایستگاه های سینوپتیک کرمانشاه و کنگاور در فاصله زمانی ژانویه 1988 تا دسامبر 2010 و نیز با بهره گیری از مدل آریما، تغییرات زمانی کمینه دمای هوای شرق استان کرمانشاه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. روند داده های سالانه دو ایستگاه مورد مطالعه را با استفاده از تحلیل من کندال بررسی نموده که در هر دو ایستگاه کرمانشاه و کنگاور داده ها از روندی مشخص برخوردار بوده و نمودارهای جهش یا ui'' نیز روند تغییرات کمینه دمایی را رو به افزایش نشان می دهند. بررسی تفاضل نمودارهای خود همبستگی (ACF) که جهت تشخیص مرتبه میانگین متحرک مدل های فصلی استفاده می شود و نمودارهای خود همبستگی جزئی (PACF) در ایستگاه کرمانشاه مدل فصلی (1، 1، 4) (0، 1، 1) ARIMA و برای ایستگاه کنگاور مدل فصلی(1، 1، 3) (0، 1، 1) ARIMA جهت برازش و مدل سازی نشان داده می شود، نتایج حاصل از تحلیل و مدل سازی دمای ماهانه ایستگاه های مورد مطالعه با استفاده از مدل آریما و پیش بینی کمینه دمای ماهانه تا سال 2016 نشان داد که کمینه دمایی دو ایستگاه سینوپتیک کرمانشاه و کنگاور از یک مدل نهایی (1، 0، 1) (0،0، 1) ARIMA و در واقع از یک روند متشابه در تغییرات کمینه دمایی برخوردار می باشند که با روندی نسبتا ملایم در حال افزایش می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: شرق استان کرمانشاه، آزمون من کندال، مدل آریما، پیش بینی، کمینه دمایی
  • محمود قدیری*، سوگل ممسنی صفحات 69-96
    امروزه تحلیل پایداری درونی شهرها در ایران برای نیل به توسعه پایدار امری کلیدی است. در این ارتباط، با توجه به فقدان مطالعه ای مناسب از میزان پایداری توسعه شهر بوشهر، این پژوهش به تحلیل وضعیت نواحی مختلف شهر بوشهر از نظر سطح پایداری توسعه در ابعاد مختلف (اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست محیطی و نهادی-کالبدی) می پردازد. در این ارتباط، با بررسی مبانی نظری و پیشینه تحقیق و نیز ویژگی های شهر بوشهر؛ جهت سنجش میزان توسعه، مفهوم توسعه پایدار در چهار بعد و 44 شاخص تعریف عملیاتی گردید. داده های مورد نیاز بر حسب واحد فضایی نواحی شهرداری از طریق روش کتابخانه ای و مراجعه به سازمان هایی چون شهرداری، مسکن و شهرسازی، مرکز آمار و استانداری گردآوری شد و با استفاده از روش های امتیاز استاندارد شده، شاخص ناموزونی موریس و ArcGis تحلیل شد. نتایج ضمن تایید فرضیه تحقیق، اندازه توسعه هر یک از نواحی را برحسب شاخص های 44گانه به تفکیک شاخص های مثبت و منفی و نیز ترکیب آنها نشان داد. نتایج نهایی نیز بر حسب امتیاز ترکیبی توسعه نشان داد که ناحیه 3-2 با امتیاز 01/1 پایدار، نواحی 4، 6 و 7 به ترتیب با امتیازهای 47/0، 56/0 و 73/0 نیمه پایدار، نواحی 1 و 5 نیز به ترتیب با امتیاز 04/0 - و 03/0 بینابین، ناحیه 8 با امتیاز 48/0- نیمه ناپایدار، و ناحیه 9 با امتیاز 68/1- ناپایدار هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، تحلیل تطبیقی، شاخص های پایداری، نواحی شهر بوشهر
  • تاثیر بیوژئومورفولوژیکی دامنه های سنگریز بر پوشش گیاهی / مطالعه موردی: دامنه شمالی ارتفاعات جغتای سبزوار
    علی اکبر شایان یگانه، محمد علی زنگنه اسدی، جواد جمال آبادی، علیرضا شایان یگانه* صفحات 97-112
    گیاهان در مقابل فرآیندهای ژئومورفیک دامنه ای از قبیل جریان واریزه ها، سقوط سنگ ها و شستشوی روانابی واکنش نشان می دهند. معمولا گیاهان حجیم دامنه ها الگوی محلی جابجایی مواد دامنه ای و رسوب گذاری خرده سنگ ها را تغییر می دهند و حتی ممکن است مانع حرکت سریع سنگریزه ها شوند. ظهور ریشه و خمش ساقه درختان نشانه ای از حرکت مواد دامنه ای و میزان آن دارد. هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی روابط حاکم بین یک نمونه از دامنه های ناپایدار با پوشش گیاهی استقرار یافته بر سطح آن در یک قلمرو مورفوژنتیک نیمه خشک است. از دامنه ای به وسعت 7140 مترمربع 10 نمونه رسوب با متوسط وزن 45 کیلوگرم از مواد ریزش یافته در نقاط ارتفاعی مختلف برداشت شد. در این 10 نمونه مشخص شد که به طور میانگین 33% از پاره سنگ و 30% سنگریزه درشت و 17% سنگریزه متوسط و 20% از شن و ماسه و ریزتر از آن تشکیل شده است. الگوهای ریشه برای 20 قطعه گیاهی که عمدتا سماق هستند، مطالعه شده است. فرآیندهای دامنه ای، واریزه ها را به ریشه گیاه تحمیل می کند. سنگریزه ها به صورت پیش رونده، ریشه و قسمتی از ساقه ها را دفن می کنند که باعث تکثیر بوته می شود. بعضی ممکن است پاجوش های جدید زایشی را از میان سنگریزه های انباشته شده فراهم کند. فرآیندهای دامنه ای ممکن است گیاه را آسیب بزند. گیاهان حدود 23% از سطح دامنه را پوشانده اند. در ریشه های تمام نمونه ها عدم تقارن دیده می شود. این گونه توزیع ریشه های گیاهان نیز حاصل تحمیل حرکات دامنه ای از نوع تالوس است. 66% سماق در سنگریزه های پاره سنگی و درشت قرار دارد. بعضی درختان به خوبی با حالت رشد ساقه هایشان، حرکت واریزه ها را نشان می دهند؛ بنابراین همان گونه که تالوس بر رشد و انتقال گیاه تاثیر می گذارد درختان نیز به صورت زنده یا خشک مانع حرکت سریع واریزه ها شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: تالوس، پوشش گیاهی، سماق، بیوژئومورفولوژی، ارتفاعات جغتای سبزوار
  • محمدحسن صادقی روش* صفحات 113-133
    یکی از اهداف مهم انجام طرح های بیابان زدایی کاهش محرومیت (توسعه نیافتگی) و رفع تبعیض (نابرابری) بین مناطق مختلف بوده است. شناخت و تجزیه و تحلیل وضع موجود نواحی مختلف از دیدگاه بیابان زدایی نخستین گام در فرآیند توسعه پایدار منطقه ای و شناخت کمبودها و تنگناها می باشد. ضعف روش های اندازه گیری سنتی عملکرد، نیاز به ارائه روش های نوین و کمی را ایجاب می کند. بنابراین در این پژوهش سوال اصلی تحقیق این است که آیا فعالیت های انجام شده در سطح شهرستان های استان با توجه به وسعت اراضی بیابانی و منابع تحت تاثیر، مناسب بوده است؟ و همچنین آیا مدل آنتروپی در برآورد این پهنه بندی کارایی لازم را دارد؟ شاخص ها و متغیرهای توسعه فرآیند بیابان زدایی می توانند به خوبی وضع نواحی را نشان دهند که با توجه به آن می توان سیاست های بودجه بندی، نیروی انسانی و غیره را تعیین نمود. بنابراین اطلاعات اولیه در زمینه فعالیت های بیابان زدایی از مرکز ملی بیابان زدایی استان یزد به تفکیک شهرستان گردآوری و از روش آنتروپی شانون به منظور بررسی و رتبه بندی ساختار وضع موجود بیابان زدایی استفاده شد. این مدل با ساختار سلسله مراتبی به ارزیابی توسعه شهرستان ها از نظر توسعه شاخص های بیابان زدایی می پردازد و در انتها نتایج را به صورت نقشه های ارزیابی ارائه می دهد. نتایج حاصله نشان داد که شهرستان های یزد، تفت و مهریز به طور مشترک با درجه توسعه یافتگی 873/0- از نظر مجموع شاخص های بیابان زدایی در وضعیت نامناسبی می باشند و شهرستان های بافق، اردکان، صدوق و طبس به ترتیب با درجه توسعه یافتگی، 768/0 ، 596/0، 539/0و 479/0 از وضعیت مناسبی برخوردارند.
    کلیدواژگان: آنتروپی شانون، توسعه پایدار، شاخص های بیابان زدایی، یزد
  • کرامت الله زیاری*، امیر اشنویی، مجتبی روستا صفحات 135-153
    اهمیت فضاهای سبز در محیط شهری تا آن حد است که به عنوان یکی از شاخص های توسعه یافتگی جوامع مطرح بوده و در عین حال معیاری برای ارتقای کیفیت فضای زندگی محسوب می شوند. در همین راستا، پژوهش حاضر به بررسی عوامل موثر در احساس آرامش در فضاهای سبز و تفریحی در شهر کاشان پرداخته است. نوع تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و به دو صورت اسنادی و پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق را کلیه ساکنان شهر کاشان شامل تعداد 275325 نفر تشکیل می دهند که از این میان و به وسیله فرمول نمونه گیری کوکران، حجم نمونه برابر با 300 نفر به دست آمد. بدین منظور، پرسشنامه بررسی عوامل موثر در احساس آرامش در فضاهای سبز و تفریحی در شهر کاشان تهیه و به روش های آماری مرسوم استاندارد گردید. داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفت. 20 شاخص اولیه به 4 عامل شامل مکان های راحت برای لذت بردن، تجربه های متنوع، امنیت و حس مکان تقلیل یافته است. مقایسه میانگین ها نشان می دهد که بالاترین میانگین رضایت مندی، مربوط به متغیر مکان های راحت برای لذت بردن (617/3) می باشد و کم ترین میانگین مربوط به متغیر حس مکان (602/2) می باشد. نتایج آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن نشان دهنده وجود رابطه بین میزان مراجعه به فضاهای سبز و تفریحی و میزان احساس آرامش پاسخگویان می باشد. نتایج آزمون تحلیل عاملی نیز نشان می دهد عامل مکان های راحت برای لذت بردن با مقدار ویژه 61/3 بیش ترین تاثیر را در بین متغیرهای مورد بررسی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس آرامش، فضای سبز و تفریحی، رضایتمندی، شهر کاشان
  • اصغر رشیدی ابراهیم حصاری*، علی موحد، سیمین تولایی، میرنجف موسوی صفحات 155-176
    زیست پذیری یکی از بزرگ ترین ایده های برنامه ریزی شهری دوران معاصر است و ایجاد زیست پذیری در میان شهرهای جهان سوم مساله نگران کننده ای است. در این میان مسائل مرتبط با زیست پذیری در کشورهای جنوب به دلیل نرخ رشد شتابان جمعیت در مناطق کلان شهری به صورت حادتری بروز نموده است؛ بنابراین نوشتار حاضر در پی آن است که با هدف شناخت پایه ای از وضعیت حاکم بر زیست پذیری منطقه کلان شهری تبریز بپردازد. برای دستیابی به این هدف، با بهره گیری از روش کتابخانه ای-پیمایشی و ابزار پرسشنامه محقق ساخته؛ 384 نفر از شهروندان ساکن منطقه کلان شهری تبریز به روش نمونه گیری احتمالی (به روش تصادفی ساده) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته و اطلاعات گردآوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل های آزمون T تک نمونه ای؛ آزمون تحلیل واریانس (ANOVA)؛ و تحلیل مسیر در محیط نرم افزار spssمورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفته اند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که زیست پذیری منطقه کلان شهری تبریز با میانگین 86/2 و آماره t 75/4 در حد متوسط قرار داشته و با توجه به مطلوبیت عددی آزمون (3)، می توان گفت آماره T تمامی ابعاد زیست پذیری منطقه کلان شهری تبریز قابل قبول می باشد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد در تمامی نقاط این محدوده؛ شرایط زیست پذیری یکسان نیست و بین منطقه کلان شهری تبریز مورد مطالعه از نظر تفاوت شاخص زیست پذیری تفاوت معناداری دیده می شود. در این میان، شاخص اقتصادی با مقدار F، 205/47 بیش ترین مقدار اختلاف و تفاوت را دارد و می توان گفت که در شاخص اقتصادی، اختلاف زیست پذیری در منطقه کلان شهری تبریز بیش تر از سایر شاخصه ها است.
    کلیدواژگان: سازمان فضایی، منطقه کلان شهری تبریز، رویکرد زیست پذیری
  • برومند صلاحی* صفحات 177-194
    در این مقاله، تغییرات زمانی 12 متغیر موثر اقلیمی ایستگاه سینوپتیک اردبیل طی سال های 1976 تا 2005 با بهره گیری از مدل های خانواده ی آریما مدل سازی شدند. بررسی نمودارهای دنباله ی سری هر یک از متغیرها، نوسانات بسیاری را در آن متغیرها نشان داد. به همین دلیل و برای ایستا شدن متغیرها برای مدل سازی، داده ها تفاضلی شدند. سپس آزمون کولموگروف اسمیرنف برای باقی مانده های تفاضلی شده انجام شد. نتایج این آزمون برای همه متغیرها با اطمینان 95/0، فرض نرمال بودن باقیمانده های مدل را تایید کردند. مدل سازی در سه مرحله و به شکل گام به گام برای برازش بهترین مدل برای هر یک از متغیرها صورت گرفت. نتایج مدل مرتبه ی 2 آتورگرسیو و مدل مرکب (p ،q)، به دلیل پایین بودن ضریب احتمال همگنی مورد تردید بود و به همین دلیل، مدل نهایی برازش اجرا گردید که علاوه بر اتورگرسیو و میانگین متحرک، از تفاضل هم بهره گرفته شد. نتایج حاصل برازش مدل نهایی با ضریب احتمال قابل قبولی در همه ی متغیرها همراه بود. در برخی از پارامترها مدل نهایی با هم شبیه بوده که نشانگر یک روند مشخص و هماهنگ در روند تغییرات این متغیرها می باشد. بعضی از متغیرها از جمله سرعت تندبادهای سالانه و درجه روز گرمایش، دارای روند نامشخص تر و با نوسان تری در طول دوره آماری بودند. نتایج مدل نهایی نشان داد که متغیرهای روزهای گرد و غباری، روزهای با حداکثر درجه حرارت صفر و زیر صفر، روزهای با حداقل درجه حرارت صفر و زیر صفر، روزهای برفی یا تگرگ ریز و روزهای رگبارهای تندری از مدل (2، 2، 2) برخوردار هستند و متغیرهای میانگین حداکثر درجه حرارت روزانه و بیش ترین بارش روزانه نیز از مدل (3، 4، 2) تبعیت می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: ایستگاه سینوپتیک اردبیل، متغیرهای اقلیمی، مدل سازی، مدل آریما
  • علی اکبر رسولی، مهدی عرفانیان، بهروز ساری صراف، خدیجه جوان* صفحات 195-217
    بارندگی با تغییرات زمانی و مکانی زیاد، در چرخه هیدرولوژی نقش اصلی را ایفا کرده و عامل مهمی در مطالعات کشاورزی، منابع آب و اکوسیستم می باشد. بنابراین، اندازه گیری و برآورد دقیق مقدار آن اهمیت زیادی دارد. امروزه در سنجش از دور ماهواره ای روش های متعددی در زمینه برآورد مقادیر بارندگی مطرح شده است. هدف این تحقیق، ارزیابی تطبیقی مقادیر بارندگی شش ساعته ماهواره TRMM و بارش مشاهده شده ایستگاه های زمینی در حوضه دریاچه ارومیه می باشد. برای بررسی صحت عمکرد ماهواره TRMM در برآورد بارش، از شاخص های عملکرد خطا (bias)، احتمال تشخیص[1] (POD)، نسبت اخطار اشتباه[2] (FAR)، نسبت تشخیص درست[3] (PC) و نمره مهارت هیک[4] (HSS) استفاده گردید که میانگین این شاخص ها در کل حوضه به ترتیب 60/0، 52/0، 13/0، 68/0 و 39/0 به دست آمد. اعتبارسنجی داده های بارش TRMMبا استفاده از معیارهای آماری میانگین خطا (ME)، میانگین خطای مطلق (MAE) و جذر میانگین توان دوم خطا (RMSE) صورت گرفت که به ترتیب برابر 34/1-، 70/1 و 85/2 میلی متر می باشند. کالیبراسیون (واسنجی) برآوردهای ماهواره TRMM نیز با استفاده از داده های ایستگاه های زمینی و رگرسیون خطی صورت گرفت و ضریب همبستگی آن 69/0 به دست آمد که نشان دهنده انطباق نسبی داده های بارش TRMM با مقادیر زمینی می باشد.
    [1]- Probability Of Detection
    [2]- False Alarm Ratio
    [3]- Percentage of Corrects
    [4]- Heidke''s Skill Score
    کلیدواژگان: برآورد بارندگی، ماهواره TRMM، شاخص های عملکرد، حوضه دریاچه ارومیه
  • مهرنوش قدیمی*، ابراهیم مقیمی، محمودرضا صاحبی، طیبه اکبری ازیرانی صفحات 219-235
    این تحقیق به ارزیابی کیفیت و دقت مدل های رقومی ارتفاعی مستخرج از ASTER و داده های توپوگرافی 1:25000 در تحلیل مورفومتری شبکه آبراهه ها در سازندهای مختلف می پردازد. برای آزمون مدل رقومی ارتفاع ابتدا نقشه شبکه زهکشی منطقه مورد مطالعه از طریق مدل رقومی ارتفاعی ASTER و نقشه توپوگرافی در محیط Archydro تهیه شد. شبکه زهکشی رستری منطقه با اندازه سلولی 30، برای کل حوضه آبریز محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان می دهد از نظر مورفومتری، آبراهه های مستخرج از ASTER و توپوگرافی در هر سازند مشابه یکدیگر هستند ولی بین تعداد آبراهه های آن ها تفاوت بسیاری وجود دارد. بیش ترین تعداد و تراکم زهکشی آبراهه ها در سازند ایلام سروک و کم ترین آن ها در سازند سورمه مشاهده شده است. میزان دقت تعداد آبراهه های حاصل از مدل رقومی ارتفاعی Aster در مقایسه با آبراهه های حاصل از توپوگرافی در مناطق کوهستانی بسیار پایین است. تعداد آبراهه ها به جنس سازند و شیب بستگی دارد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه وتحلیل نشان می دهد که بین تراکم زهکشی و تعداد آبراهه ها رابطه مستقیم و با ریشه میانگین مربعات خطا رابطه عکس دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل رقومی ارتفاع، الگو و مورفومتری آبراهه ها، Aster، توپوگرافی، اشترانکوه
  • جواد حاجی علی زاده*، چمران موسوی، عطاله زرافشان صفحات 237-260
    مقاله حاضر با هدف سنجش میزان مشارکت شهروندان در مدیریت شهری شهر شیراز بر اساس الگوی حکمرانی خوب شهری تدوین شده است و به بررسی معناداری رابطه بین معیارهای حکمرانی شهری (شفافیت و پاسخگویی، عدالت اجتماعی، آگاهی شهروندی، اعتماد اجتماعی، کارآیی و اثربخشی) به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل با متغیر وابسته مشارکت شهروندان در مدیریت شهری پرداخته است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش مطالعه توصیفی-همبستگی می باشد. روش جمع آوری اطلاعات، پیمایشی و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS صورت گرفت. حجم نمونه تحقیق با استفاده از فرمول کوکران400 نفر محاسبه گردید. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که از بعد ذهنی تمایل شهروندان به مشارکت در مدیریت شهری بالاست و بستر بسیار مناسبی برای مشارکت در شهر مورد مطالعه وجود دارد. اما در بعد عینی مشارکت شهروندان از سطح حداقلی پیروی می کند. بر اساس نتایج آزمون همبستگی پیرسون، بین معیارهای حکمرانی با متغیر وابسته، مشارکت شهروندان در مدیریت شهری با اطمینان 99% درصد ارتباط معنی داری وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج آزمون مشخص کرد که بین معیارهای حکمرانی ارتباط متقابل و تنگاتنگی وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت شهری، مشارکت شهروندی، حکمرانی خوب شهری، شهر شیراز
  • حمیدرضا متین فر*، فاطمه قدوسی فرد صفحات 261-281
    در یک قرن گذشته فعالیت های صنعتی با افزایش میزان عناصر سنگین در خاک جوامع انسانی را با تهدیدی جدی مواجه ساخته است. با این وجود استفاده از روش های سنتی در تعیین این عناصر با صرف وقت و هزینه بسیاری همراه می باشد. امروزه طیف سنجی در محدوده مادون قرمز نزدیک با بررسی ویژگی طیفی، قابلیت شناسایی خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی مواد سطح زمین را فراهم کرده است. در این تحقیق با توجه به اهمیت عناصر سنگین در آلودگی محیط تلاش گردید میزان این عناصر با استفاده از جدیدترین تکنیک های طیف سنجی و سنجش از دوری برآورد گردد. به همین منظور پس از نمونه برداری از منطقه مورد مطالعه از 3 تکنیک رگرسیون حداقل مربعات جزئی، طبقه بندی جزء پیکسل و شاخص های طیفی، میزان سرب با استفاده از طیف اندازه گیری شده و تصویر ابرطیفی برآورد گردید. نتایج به دست آمده از طیف سنجی بیانگر آن است که محدوده های 500 تا 600 نانومتری به دلیل همبستگی با ماده آلی بیش ترین تاثیر را در برآورد میزان سرب با استفاده از مدل رگرسیون حداقل مربعات جزئی دارد. در ادامه از نسبت مشتق اول در این محدوده (620 و 580 نانومتری) برای برآورد میزان سرب در تصاویر ابرطیفی استفاده گردید. میزان ضریب تعیین و مربع میانگین خطای باقی مانده به دست آمده در این روش به ترتیب 579/0، 517/1 می باشد. همچنین روش طبقه بندی [1]MTMF با قابلیت مدل سازی 2 بعدی داده قبل از طبقه بندی نهایی می تواند با آستانه گذاری مناسب به شناسایی دقیق مناطق آلوده کمک نماید.
    [1]- Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering
    کلیدواژگان: طیف سنجی، تصاویر ابرطیفی، سرب، رگرسیون حداقل مربعات جزئی
  • حمیدرضا رخشانی نسب*، امیر ارسلان سنجری، حامد ارشد صفحات 283-303
    پیشرفت فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات منجر به پیدایش ابزارهای نوین ارتباطی و اطلاع رسانی در دنیای امروز گردیده، به گونه ای که اشکال متفاوتی از نحوه انجام فعالیت ها و ارائه خدمات در تمام عرصه ها پدید آورده است. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با هدف امکا ن سنجی استفاده و به کارگیری [1]ICT در برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهر زاهدان انجام شده است. داده ها و اطلاعات مورد نیاز با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه و بررسی های میدانی به دست آمده است. روش نمونه گیری داده ها بر اساس فرمول کوکران (تعداد 380 نمونه)، در سطح مناطق پنج گانه شهر زاهدان تعیین گردیده و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های آماری T-Test تک نمونه ای، رگرسیون خطی و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون در محیط SPSS انجام شده است. نتایج آزمون T-Test نشان می دهد که تلفن، کامپیوتر و فکس با میانگین 82/2، 12/2 و 09/2 بیش ترین میزان استفاده، و چت، ایمیل و اینترنت به ترتیب با میانگین 42/1، 55/1 و 9/1 کم ترین میزان استفاده از امکانات ICT را در محل کار به خود اختصاص می دهند. هم چنین رابطه معناداری بین میزان دسترسی به امکانات ICT در محل کار و میزان استفاده از این امکانات جهت انجام امور رایج شهری وجود دارد. میزان استفاده از امکانات ICT جهت انجام امور رایج شهری با میانگین 45/2 پایین تر از حد متوسط است که نشان دهنده استفاده کم مردم از این خدمات است. میزان رضایت شهروندان از خدمات ICT توسط سازمان ها و گرایش به استفاده از این خدمات با سطح معناداری 289/0، بیانگر ارتباط مثبت و مستقیم بین این دو متغیر با شدت پایین است. همچنین سطح سواد اطلاعاتی شهروندان و پذیرش مظاهر ICT با سطح معناداری 000/0 نشانگر سطح سواد اطلاعاتی مطلوب شهروندان است. بنابراین با تقویت زیرساخت ها به منظور ایجاد یک شهر هوشمند، می توان کاهش مشکلات شهری و برنامه ریزی شهری مناسب را در آینده انتظار داشت.
    4- Information Communication and Technology
    کلیدواژگان: رضایت مندی، شهروند الکترونیک، سواد اطلاعاتی، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، مدیریت شهری
  • ارسطو یاری حصار*، وکیل حیدری ساربان صفحات 305-324
    روستاهای کشور به لحاظ برخورداری از کیفیت پایین ابنیه، دارا بودن بافت های فرسوده و سازه های کم دوام و ناپایدار، آسیب پذیری بیش تری را در مخاطره طبیعی زمین لرزه دارند. طرح های هادی روستایی که جزیی از طرح های عمرانی می باشد؛ به منظور هدایت توسعه کالبدی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی روستا برای سال های آتی طراحی، مطالعه و اجرا می شوند. این طرح ها با رویکرد توسعه کالبدی-فضایی روستاها می توانند با مقاوم سازی خانه های روستایی از آسیب پذیری بیش تر آن ها بکاهد. هدف تحقیق حاضر، ارزیابی نقش این طرح ها در کاهش آسیب پذیری روستاها در برابر زلزله می باشد که مطالعه موردی آن شهرستان ورزقان می باشد دلیل انتخاب محدوده مورد مطالعه، تلفات جانی نزدیک به 306 نفر کشته و تخریب 500 روستا در این منطقه در سال 1391 است. روش تحقیق به صورت توصیفی-تحلیلی می باشد. داده های جمع آوری شده با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و SPSS مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. گفتنی است روستاییان آسیب دیده ناشی از بحران زلزله جامعه آماری این تحقیق را تشکیل می دهد؛ که با استفاده از جدول مورگان و با سطح اطمینان 95%، از 3788 جامعه آماری 351 نفر به عنوان نمونه آماری پژوهش حاضر انتخاب شدند. ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه محقق ساخته می باشد روایی صوری پرسشنامه با کسب نظرات صاحب نظران در دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی و دانشگاه تبریز و کارشناسان اجرایی مربوطه به دست آمد. آزمون مقدماتی برای به دست آوردن پایایی ابزار پژوهش انجام گرفت و ضرایب آلفای کرونباخ (α) برای بخش های مختلف پرسشنامه بین 72/0 الی 81/0 به دست آمد. نتایج یافته ها حاکی از آن است که مولفه ی کالبدی بیش ترین نقش را در آسیب پذیری روستاهای نمونه داشته است و تحلیل تطبیقی اثرات زلزله در روستاهای دارا و فاقد طرح هادی روستایی بیان گر آن است که یک ارتباط معناداری بین میزان آسیب پذیری روستاها و طرح های هادی وجود دارد. در واقع، میزان آسیب های وارده در روستاهای دارای طرح هادی و به ویژه در روستاهایی که ساخت وسازهای جدید با استفاده از پروانه ساختمانی احداث گردیده بودند تا حدود بسیار زیادی کاهش یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: زلزله، آسیب پذیری، توسعه روستایی، طرح های عمرانی، شهرستان ورزقان
  • علیرضا ایلدرمی*، علی دلال اوغلی، محمد قربانی صفحات 325-347
    امروزه صنعت توریسم به عنوان بزرگ ترین و متنوع ترین صنعت و نیز به عنوان هدفی قابل حصول در فرآیند توسعه پایدار، مورد توجه برنامه ریزان قرار گرفته است. طبیعت گردی در میان گونه های مختلف گردشگری از جایگاه ویژه ای برخوردار و در دو دهه اخیر رشد قابل توجهی داشته است. منطقه حفاظت شده لشگردر با وسعتی در حدود 16000 هکتار با جاذبه های اکوتوریسمی و اکوسیستم های کوهستانی، پویا و کم تر دست خورده با ویژگی های طبیعی و جوامع غنی گیاهی و جانوری در شرق و جنوب شرقی استان همدان واقع شده است. هدف از این تحقیق شناخت پتانسیل های اکولوژیکی و اکوتوریسمی منطقه با استفاده از مدل اکولوژیکی مخدوم در قالب لایه های اطلاعاتی مورد نیاز با استفاده از نرم افزار 9.3GIS می باشد. در این بررسی ابتدا نواحی مناسب تفرج گسترده، متمرکز و حفاظتی شناسایی و پهنه بندی گردید و در نهایت داده های اخذ شده مورد تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفت و ارزیابی داده ها صورت پذیرفت. نتایج این بررسی نشان می دهد که منطقه برای توسعه تفرج گسترده یا تفرج متمرکز از توان بالایی برخوردار بوده و اکثر روستاها توانمندی لازم برای توسعه گردشگری مناسب و اکوتوریسمی را دارند. در نهایت علیرغم کوهستانی و مرتفع بودن منطقه ناحیه دارای قابلیت های مناسب برای فعالیت های تفرج متمرکز و گسترده می باشد. نتایج نشان داد که منطقه حفاظت شده لشگردر دارای سه ناحیه شامل ناحیه حفاظتی، ناحیه گردشگری تفرج گسترده و گردشگری تفرج متمرکز می باشد. همچنین نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد که زون حفاظتی در رتبه اول و زون های تفرج گسترده و متمرکز در رتبه های بعدی قرار دارند. به طور کلی در لشگر در بعضی از مناطق آن برای بیش از یک کاربری مناسب هستند و این در صورتی که فعالیت ها تداخلی با یکدیگر نداشته باشند می توان از آن ها استفاده نمود. لیکن در تمام زون ها به حفظ محیط زیست و توسعه اکوتوریسم بدون توسعه فیزیکی توصیه می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوتوریسم، مدل اکولوژیکی سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، منطقه حفاظت شده، لشگردر
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  • Rohollah Rezaei*, Leila Safa Pages 1-20
    Introduction
    In recent decades, frequency and severity of drought have been predominated among the other natural disasters which influence the human societies. Droughts rank first among all natural hazards when measured in terms of the number of people affected. Although as a natural hazard, droughts differ from other natural hazards in several ways. First, the onset and the end of a drought are difficult to determine, the impacts of a drought increase slowly, often accumulate over a considerable period and may linger for years after termination. Therefore, a drought is often referred to as a creeping phenomenon. Second, it is difficult to define a drought which leads to confusion for not having a universal definition of drought. Third, drought impacts are nonstructural and spread over large geographical areas than damages that may result from other natural hazards. In contrast to floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes, a drought affects water bodies of water resources structures and it seldom results in structural damage. For this reason, the quantification of the impact and the provision for relief are far more difficult for droughts than for other natural hazards. Fourth, human activities can directly trigger a drought unlike other natural hazards, with exacerbating factors such as over-farming, excessive irrigation, deforestation, over-exploiting available water, and erosion, adversely impacting the ability of the land to capture and hold water. However, drought is a normal, recurrent feature of climate that occurs in virtually all climate zones, from very wet to very dry. Drought is a temporary aberration from normal climatic conditions, thus it can vary greatly from one region to another. Drought is different than aridity, which is a permanent feature of climate in regions where low precipitation is the norm, as in a desert. Given the importance of drought, it seems that precise study and understanding of drought and specially review and assess the its effects is the first step to manage and deal with drought. It is obvious that the study and understanding of any phenomenon (such as drought) requires to develop and apply scales and tools which can measure scientifically and accurately all aspects of a specific phenomenon.
    Matherials and
    Methods
    Regarding the importance of the issue, the main objective of this study was to construction and validation of a scale to measure drought effects using confirmatory factor analysis. The research method of the study in terms of the nature, rate and degree of control and method of data collection was quantitative, non-experimental and field research, respectively. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the heads of households in the Sohrein village (N= 603). According to the Krejcie & Morgan table, a sample size of 220 was selected using the random sampling technique (n=220). Data were collected by a questionnaire. In general, the questionnaire consisted of two parts including respondents’ profiles and respondents’ viewpoints about the importance of each drought effect (24 variables). A five-point Likert scale (from 1= very low to 5= very high) was used to measure the second part. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts. The confirmatory factor analysis was used in order to determine the construct validity (e.g. convergent, divergent and nomological validity) and the reliability of the instrument and estimate the measurement model using the AMOS20 software.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results showed that the importance of all four factors mentioned in the research conceptual model has been verified based on field data (appropriate fit of the model) and these factors including: environmental, economic, social- psychological and ecological had a significant relationship with construct of drought effects. Also, the results indicated that among the four mentioned factors, two latent variables of economic and environmental had the most effect on explaining the main research construct. In general, based on the results, it can be stated that the scale/ tool designed to assess the effects of drought had enough of validity and reliability and the model which was developed based on theoretical and experimental background (conceptual model), was well adopt to reality and was supported by field data. Thus, scale/ model developed in this study was appropriate to assess the effects of drought and can contribute to measure drought effects in the rural regions in the future research.
  • Mahnaz Keshavarz, Mojtaba Ghadiri, Athareh Ayashi, Hossein Sarparast Pages 21-46
    Introduction
    Tourism is regarded as a dynamic, diverse and clear activity as well as one of the growing parts in national economy system of countries. Therefore, all countries try to make use of abundant opportunities provided with tourism through which they can achieve a relative welfare for their present and future . According to the annual report of The World Tourism Organization (2012), 982 million tourists have travelled across the world in 2012. Compared to the statistics of 2011, this number has been increased with a growth rate of 4.6% (43 million people per year). Based on the report of The World Tourism Organization entitled “tourism towards 2030”, the statistic of the world’s tourism will reach to 1.4 milliard people and 1.8 milliard people by 2020 and 2030, respectively. According to predictions, in 2030, 5 million people per day will pass through international borders with the aim of spending leisure, business and other purposes. These figures indicate that paying attention to tourism industry and exploiting potentials and facilities of various regions should be the main priority of social-economic system of countries to take effective steps for comprehensive and sustainable development of an area, region or country by utilizing abundant economic, social, political, and cultural effects.
    Khorramabad is a region with many tourism attractions. This city has been selected as pilot to execute sustainable urban development design through tourism. Various historical and architectural attractions, moderate climate, natural resources, various vegetation with high various quality, beautiful perspectives, various historic attractions, especially in Khorramabad City are of high tourist attraction capabilities which can significantly influence the economics of the region. Khorramabad Township is from the first settlement of the Iranian people with a history of several thousand years, despite the diversity of ethnic groups and tribes, and the tourist attractions and cultural and natural richness is the development of tourism.The purpose of this article, is Analysis of strategies for sustainable tourism development in the Khorramabad Township with regard to the existing potential in the direction of tourism development and transforms the city into an international, sustainable and competitive tourist destination.
    Matherials and
    Methods
    Khorramabad City- the center of Lorestan Province is located at 47’ to 48” eastern longitudes and 32’ to 33” northern latitudes. It has 6 districts. Lorestan Province is one of the most important historical cities of Iran and it is regarded as one of the first settlements of Iranian people. The history of this city dates back to several thousand years B, C.Due to diverse ethnics, Khorramabad has a considerable rich culture which is highly important in terms of cultural tourism. In Khorramabad City, there are several attractions such as local music and dance, language and dialect, cultural customs handcraft industries, livestock products inspired by beliefs, events and natural phenomena. There are also many plains located between valleys with different ecosystems which widely influence ecotourism elements and geotourism elements .
    Due to its natural beauty and due to Anemone flowers across grasses, Khorramabad Plain has been called red Anemone land. Geomorphological features and land construction in the studied area causes the creation of various shapes which are considered as important tourism elements. Based on the comprehensive tourism scheme of the province, about 102 attractions have been identified in this city. While, there are 95 attractions in the city by itself. Some attractions of the city such as Falak Aflak have been recorded as international construction. This construction is visited by many foreign tourists. In this paper, Initially the factors affective on Khorramabad tourism have been explained, in the next step, strategically important factors were identified of the effective factors in every field. Then, the relative importance of four factors was evaluated based on internal- external evaluation matrix model and with tourism experts and regional managers opinion. In the following, according to the ranking of strategic factors, the most important opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses of the township tourism were introduced In order to develop this industry. Using the “Internal–external evaluation matrix” and “SWOT” model, strategies were presented in two major and specific groups, for developing tourism industry in the Khorramabad Township.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The research results proved the following to be more effective in tourism: tourism natural and cultural- historical attractions development, communications deployment, global conferences with the aim of further developing tourism, creating the field of private sector investment, the establishment of integrated management to establish a precedent in the performance of organizations involved in urban tourism and prevention of loss of human and financial and technical resources by providing better services to tourists, protection and develop the resources available. The results obtained from the model analysis indicated that factors such as “strategic location of the region in the country”, “biological, environmental and natural attractions”, “hospitality spirit”, “appropriate climate”, and “tourism designs” have less importance compared to other factors.
    With respect to the purposes and principles of sustainable tourism development, there is a need of cooperating various sectors and organizations in charge of urban development. Also, identifying factors influencing tourism development and optimal and sustainable use of tourism requires the supply of public leisure requirements of citizens and visitors at local and international levels. Among leisure activities, tourism has the highest variety, dynamicity and the widest spatial and temporal zone. Maybe, it can be said that tourism, especially urban tourism, involves all leisure activities; therefore, tourism planning and management is of complex and multi-aspect affair which demands special attention of urban mangers.
    The key strategic factors of the research that can be considered by mangers and planners of the city; create an opportunity for sustainable urban development based on tourism; cause to achieving desirable situation in local and international tourism area and change of the city into a sustainable and competitive tourism destination.
    In general, sustainable urban tourism development will show its effect on economic, political, social, and cultural sectors. This effect also leads to economic prosperity, job creation, local industries productivity, increasing economic power of the city, and increasing income of respective organizations of the city for better handling the city. Further, the research findings can help urban mangers enhance sustainable urban tourism development and increase local satisfaction as well as tourists’ satisfaction with the least environmental damage. The research results show that, tourism natural and cultural-historical attractions development, communications deployment, global conferences with the aim of further developing tourism, creating the field of private sector investment, the establishment of integrated management, to establish a precedent in the performance of organizations involved in urban tourism and prevent loss of human and financial and technical resources, by providing better services to tourists, protection and develop the resources available, all together will play More effective role in achieving the aims of sustainable tourism development.
  • Saeede Eini, Tagi Tavosi*, Mehdi Amir Jhanshahy Pages 47-67
    Introduction
    The reality is that climate is one of the most interesting issuses in recent decades and many researches have been conducted in the world , regional and local scales and also temperature is one of the main and most essential elements in determining the role and scattering the rest of the climate elements and is one of the main indicators in zoning and classifying the climate. So, changes and fluctuations of this element have high scientific and practical importance. Although historical study of time series cause to identify the factors that may cause changes in the series, but the most important aim of study of time series is the ability to predict the unknown value of series. By using these information, conscious selections can be done about investment, decision making for production, inventories and etc.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study ,we have been investigated time changes of minimum temperature in the east of Kermanshah province by using monthly and annually minimum temperature data in synoptic stations of Kermanshah and Kangavar in time interval of January 1998 to December 2010 and ARIMA model. Firstly, Mann Kendall's non-parameterized test has been used for calculating the data procedure. Mann- Kendall test similar to other statistical tests is based on comparison 0 and 1 assumption and finally decide to accept or reject null assumption. null assumption of this test is based on being random and lack of series procedure and accepting assumption 1 (rejecting assumption 0) show existence of procedure in data series. Then for investigating data series and predicting minimum data in studied stations, ARIMA model has been used. ARIMA models are suitable for situations which according to order of model current amount of a climate element depends on amounts of it in past times, or instantaneous effects and randomized elements of it in past and present and has been written in form of (p,d,q)ARIMA. In this form, P presents the dependence of a climate element in present to past effective values. In this regression model, every element is determined according to its past values. q determine the average order of moving which mark dependence of climate series to present random element. To validate the predictions of ARIMA test, mean squared of error has been used.
    Discussion of
    Results
    characteristics of descriptive statistics of annual and monthly temperatures in two mentioned stations show that in two stations of Kermanshah and Kangavar, the most changes for minimum temperature have been registered during January and February and the lowest minimum temperature is observed in these two monthes , but the lowest changes of minimum temperature in two studies stations is on April and the highest minimum temperature is observed in August and January. Mann- Kendall test investigated the procedure of annual data of two studied stations by using Mann- Kendall analysis and results showed that both stations of Kermanshah PACF) in station of Kermanshah show the season model of ARIMA (1,1,0) (4,1,1) and for station of Kangavar show the season model of ARIMA (1, 1, 0) (3, 1, 1) to model and fit. Results of analysis and modeling the monthly temperatures in studied stations by using ARIMA model and prediction of monthly minimum temperature to 2016 showed that minimum temperature in synoptic stations of Kangavar and Kermanshah have final model of ARIMA (1, 0, 0) ( 1,0,1) and have really a similar procedure minimum temperature changes that increases with fairly mild procedure. Results of this study showed that annual and monthly minimum temperature in semi east region of Kermanshah province is increasing with mild inclination. In finding the procedure of minimum temperature changes in studied stations, results of linear diagrams show an increasing procedure for minimum temperature , but kind of procedure doesnt present certain model.
    Conclusion
    Results of Mann – Kendall test showed that minimum temperature procedure for annual data is confirmed with ./95 possibility. Also results of modelling and analysis of monthly minimum temperature for two mentioned synoptic stations by using statistical models showed that seasonal ARIMA model or pattern of SARIMA (0,0,1) ( 0.1,1) with the least mean squared error amount can be selected as a suitable pattern for predicting the future values of monthly temperature of mentioned stations.
  • Mahmood Ghadiry, Sogol Mamasani Pages 69-96
    Introduction
    Cities were quickly developed after the industrial revolution. Alongside the population growth, various socio-economic problems also increased in the cities. These problems in return caused dangerous effects not only on environment but also on soul and body of inhabitants. In response to these problems and crises, new concepts and procedures were suggested for future developments. Some of these concepts are: sustainable development, bio-environmental justice, new urbanism and more recently intelligent growth. Therefore, understanding and analyzing of sustainability of cities and their inside differences including Boushehr city, is necessary for better planning and Sustainable development. Nowadays, with respect to the urbanization characteristics and necessity sustainability development, understanding and analyzing Sustainability of cities and their inner differences, for better planning and sustainable development is necessary. Thus as there is no study about Boushehr citys sustainable development, this research analyzes the situation of this city about sustainable development in different dimensions. Then, based on the investigation of theoretical bases and research background, and characteristics of Bushehr city, the following hypotheses wre offered: There is differences between various area of Boushehr city about the level of sustainability (in social, economic, environmental and physical aspects), so that south area of Boushehr city has lower sustainability level.
    Materials And Methods
    In this research, the sustainability of Boushehr city was analyzed by various social, economic and bio-environmental indexes. For testing hypothesis, first, operational definition of sustainability was offered at 4 dimensions and 44 indexes. With respect to the research hypotheses and their nature, research methodology was descriptive and analytical. To test the hypothesis, according to the operational definition and selected indexes, we used Morris Inequality Index, Standardized Score and ArcGIS Software.
    Discussion
    With confirmation of the hyphothesis, the results showed that the degree of sustainability is different between Boushehr districts based on the positive and negative indexes. Final results based on the synthetic value also showed that the district 2-3 with 1.01 degree is sustainable, districts 4, 6 and 7 with degree 0.47, 0.56 and 0.73 are semi- sustainable. Districts 1 and 5 with degrees -0.04 and 0.03 are in between, and district 9 with a degree of -1.68 is unsustainable. There fore, the hypothesis was confirmed based on the results of Z-score and Morris inequality indexes. Also, the results of this research were presented as suitable maps designed in ArcGIS Software.
    Conclusion
    The results indicated that there was inequality and difference between various areas of Boushehr city. Finally, although Boushehr city is sustainable in relation to urban points of country, but there is inequality between various areas of it. Thus the, reduction of these inequalities (in social, economic, environmental and physical aspects) is necessary for actual sustainability of Boushehr city. In this relation, we must prioritize the area and indexes that have lowest level of sustainability, such as district 9 and social and ecological indexes. Also, it is necessary to select reliable indexes for specific cities, because the assessment of sustainability is seriously dependent on selected indexes.
  • Ali Akbar Shayan Yeganeh, Mohamad Ali Zangane Asadi, Javad Jamalabadi, Alireza Shayan Yeganeh* Pages 97-112
    Introduction
    Talus slope is a part of a large geomorphological system composed of cliffs and talus components. cliff-talus system is one of the prospects of mountainous areas in most climates. Talus is formed by the accumulation of clastic chaotic particles downstream of rocky slopes. Talus often prevents seed growth and damaged or buried established plants. Vegetation rises with the reduced interference of larger rocks in the foot of the slopes. Traditionally, ecologists and geomorphologists have shown that one-sided relationship exist between plants and geomorphic domains. Essentially, vegetation and geomorphology studies have been done and developed in different ways. Ecologists often believe that plant distribution with all subdirectories are derived of the certain processes of talus slopes while geomorphologists focus on the dynamic range and rarely try to ascribe it to the vegetation patterns. In this study, we tried to explain and monitor the relationship and the interaction between plant species and the spatial patterns of morphodynamic in crystalline talus slopes on north face of Joghatai mountains. The study area consists debris cones to coordinate 57˚35ʹ 00ʺ north latitude and 36˚ 26ʹ 29ʺ eastern longitude mountains on the northern slopes of Joghatai Sabzevar.
    Matherials and
    Methods
    This study is based on field research and library. Using the map of 1:50000 and Google Earth images we identified the location and range area then through field visiting we preparated required survey sample. To search for grading the slopes and soil stratum were determined on 10 plates with a meter in size. We attempted sampling of morphometric rocks by drilling. Using metric equipment for measuring the features of range and shrubs and to show morphometric relationship between the roots and the direction of growth, 20 trees were uprooted with caution. In each situation, the relationship between the size of the stones and the soil was registered with vegetation. Percent of vegetation was calculated with panel handling and sorting photos.
    Discussion
    Sumac is a shrub whose its height varies between less than 1 meter to 3 meters. In this study, the highest percentage of rock (63%) was related to the large rocks and pebbles that indicate mechanical weathering active in the region. Factors such as steep and slow chemical weathering, causing the soil at the top of this range was too low. With different sampling on 50 shrubs of sumac, we located 21 samples in pebbles fragment, coarse pebbles and 7 of the 12 samples and 10 average pebbles samples in the sand. Plant density was measured in the bottom of the range, due to the difference in the slope, granulometry particles and the volume of water to downstream. Vegetation cover and vegetation types in the talus are chaotic. 32% of the roots, were located at the top of the tree and the top of the range composed of coarse roots. 41% of the roots, in the downstream composed mostly of coarse and fine roots. 27 % of origins date back to the right and left, composed of the roots of medium or fine. Some trees were bent and clearly diagnosed in curved case with plant growth and angulation in the new year then last year. Some trees were so bent that the connection completely was cut off on the roots with soil and dry shrubs. Dry trees were naturally able to catch debris flow rate.
    Conclusions
    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between biogeomorphology with plant processes on talus slopes. The samples were collected in Summer and Autumn. On the talus slopes there were two major vegetation types. Sumac is a shrub that has spread in 23 percent of range.Talus may damage plant or move plant downward. Gravel deposits can completely bury its roots and reproduce the trees, underbrush and layering. Roots had the tangible asymmetry. Some trees show good move mention debris with their shoot growth state. Along the talus impact on the growth and transmission of plants, live or dried trees were trying to prevent the fast moving debris.
  • Mohammad Hassan Sadeghi Ravesh* Pages 113-133
    Interoduction: Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid that happens as a result of various factors including climatic variations and human activities. Based on United Nations Conference of Desertification report desertification will threat more than 750 million peoples equivalent to 17.7% of the total world population living in arid area. Also in Iran 16 provinces with an area of 57.5 million ha have been located in desert conditions. Therefore, detection, control and management of desertification in a sustainable and balanced way seems essential. Necessary to achieve sustainable development is determining the degree of development of desertification criteria to provided ideal condition of appropriate framework in the distribution of facilities and services for arid land managers which can be determined and analyzed by the distance from them. This in addition to the protection of ecosystems fringe, also prevents the loss of national wealth. In the field of desert management except Sadeghiravesh researches which apply taxonomy and Morris model to study the development of regions from perspective of desertification, so far neither at international-level nor at national-level, have been conducted, and the assignment of resources and alternatives, only based on expert opinion and sometimes downward influence has been done.
    It should be noted that these models have fundamental flaw while in evaluating of effective indexes, just the absolute value of each index in each region was considered and their priority relative to each other in the process of desertification was not considered which led to unrealistic results. Hence, first we decided to estimate the priority of indexes using Shannon Entropy Model, and assess the development of working units from the perspective of desertification activities.
    The purpose of this study is to assess the degree of desertification development in regions, which was carried out in Yazd province by using the Shannon Entropy Model. The results of this study can be considered in planning for the sustainable development in desertification processes and the pattern of this model can be applicable in other parts of the country.
    Material and
    Methods
    The research was carried out by practical and analytical method. In this study, ten cities of Yazd province were analyzed by entropy Shannon method from viewpoint of desertification criteria development.
    After determining indices (desertification activities), performance rate was determined for each index and in each city frim the relevant organization performance statistics. Data matrix was formed based on entropy model framework (Xij), and the data matrix values were normalized (Zij). In addition to estimate entropy indices (Ej) the importance of indices to each other (Wj) was determined. After determining coefficient of important indices, the final priority of strategies was obtained by multiplying normalized decision matrix component (Zij) in indices of importance (WJ); and priority coefficient matrix of units to each indices (Aij) was
    formed. Finally from total row of the priority coefficient of each unit ( ∑ ij A ) , the
    final priority of units was estimated.
    For the ease and accuracy in analyzing the data and achieveing results based on the
    relative convergence of working units from de-desertification ideal working units and
    by using Arc View we attempted to prepare the map of developed cities.
    Discussion
    With regard to the total criteria, conducted analyses and combining results, the cities of Bafgh, Ardaghan and Sadough have the most appropriate status with the degree of development of 0.7679, 0.5957 and 0.5389 respectively. The cities of Tabas, Maybod and Abarkooh with development degree of 0.4749, 0.2279 and 0.1583 were on the next level in terms of desertification development activities, while Khatam city had improper status with development degree of –o.4156 and the cities of Yazd, Taft and Mehriz together with zero preference coefficient had the most unfavorable and unstable conditions.
    Conclusions
    Achieving sustainability in the units of study needs to balance the developed area from the perspective of de-desertification which requires identifying the level of development. As in the research literature said, no systematic studies have been done and the only study was assessing the developed area by using numerical taxonomy model and Morris models. Also by considering the both; value of each index in each working unit and preference of indexes towards each other more accurate results were preferred compared to others models.According to the subjects that were discussed in brief, it is necessary to consider these three following issues; the results of the current development of de-desertification indexes, potential resources under threat of desertification and area of desert lands; for future planning and investments in order to achieve sustainable development.
  • Keramatoollah Ziari*, Mojtaba Rusta, Amir Oshnooi Pages 135-153
    Introduction
    Importance of green spaces in urban environments has been raised to the extent that as an indicator of development of the society. the same time there are measures to improve quality of life. Urban parks have a social, economic and ecological, values and advantages such as the treatment of mental illness, favorable environment for raising children, social integration, maintaining peace and so on. The media, however, are considered as a measure to improve quality of life and community development. In this regard, one of the issues in Kashan, is uneven distribution of green spaces in different areas of the city. Per capita green space in Kashan 2/5 square meters. In some areas, the need for recreational areas and green space and parks per capita ratios have not been payid enough attention, so that psychological comfort and security of people living in the city is disrupted. Therefore, knowing the quantity and quality of these spaces in each region can play an effective role in urban planning. This study aimed to determine the satisfaction of Kashani citizens to parks and green spaces with review of capabilities to further optimize their use of these places. Thus the question can be raised following: factors affecting the feeling of relaxation in green spaces and recreation in the city of Kashan? What is the relationship between visiting green spaces and recreation and the relaxed feeling?
    Materials And Methods
    This article is based on an objective, applied research Using the library, the theoretical research has been collected. Field visits using a questionnaire to collect information was needed in action. After developing the questionnaire, using random sampling, the questionnaires were completed. The research population included all residents of the city of Kashan, the number is 325275 people. The sample size using formula, and with 95%, was 300. SPSS software was used in the questionnaires. Analysis Finally, using statistical analysis (Spearman) standardized coefficients of each criterion was calculated. In order to analyze the factors affecting the satisfaction of respondents from urban green spaces, factor analysis was used. The results obtained showed the reduction of 20 primary variables through Operating 4 in varimax rotation.
    Discussion
    Means comparison shows that the highest average satisfaction of the comfortable variables is places to enjoy (3/617)and the lowest average is of the variable sense of place (2/602. Spearman test results indicate a relationship between visiting of green spaces and recreation and the respondents are respondents feeling relaxed. This means that the higher the level of respondents feeling relaxedin green spaces and recreational areas would increase their willingness to participate in urban green spaces. Factor analysis also shows test results of comfortable places to enjoy the greatest impact among the variables under study. There fore, it is better to provide shelter and corner for further communication and interaction between citizens together and places to sit and relax.
    Conclusion
    Universal access to urban services and social justice requires that all classes of urban green spaces and urban parks and equal access to places of leisure enjoy, not to certain classes of people in parts of the city's most beautiful landscapes for his/ her life, and gradually all of these perspectives are reserved for the upper classes. But now if we see it also, in many cities in the contemporary urban landscapes, nothing but buildings and towers have been soaring and people are less able to escape from the mass of cement, iron, asphalt, etc. relaxed and enjoy life in cities. In the meantime, convenient access to urban green space of the issues that play an important role in guaranteeing the relative social and individual health, peace of mind and improve the quality of life of citizens.
    Overviewing previous studies, in general we can suggest that in a particular study the factors influencing the feelings of relaxation and recreation in the city's green spaces were fully observed. This study is from this perspective and can be a step forward in this area, but the study results are in line with Jacob, Sacrifice and Timur (1389), Ghasem Zadeh and colleagues (1392) confirms.
    A very important point in the selection of public green spaces, is green spaces and recreational social necessity. Location-spatial poor urban green spaces lead to problems such as low use of green spaces created by citizens, restricting the selection and arrangement of suitable vegetation, disturbance in the urban landscape, the lack of appropriate social interaction, mental, and social security to reduce and ultimately reduce citizens relaxation.
  • Asghar Rashidi Ebrahim Hesari*, Ali Movahhed, Simin Tavallaee, Mir Najaf Mousavi Pages 155-176
    Introduction
    Unequal distribution of resources as an inevitable result of high population, activities and services centralizations in some areas along with less weight and unevenness of population, activities and services in other areas that promoted the population flows has made authorities to face with numerous difficulties. This phenomenon causes smaller towns and villages to remain inactive during economic life of these areas, increased mobility of the population of small towns and unstoppable population growth of mega cities. It is natural that increase in above-mentioned centralizations has created many problems for managers and decision makers during its implementation. Accordingly, it seems that plans are not able to overcome or prevent the exacerbation of inequality and immoderations without taking proper distribution of possibilities and social services into account (Pour-Mohammadi et al., 2009: 30). However, it should be borne in mind that the necessary steps in this regard are to understand the present situation of each component of the planning bodies ranging from country, state, city and district and consequently understanding existing gaps and then making policies to eliminate and reduce inequalities in each part of these bodies. In this regard, paying attention to the regional inequalities in terms of livability1 approach is considered as one of the most important planning tools through which planners are able to evaluate the results of the programs within the context of geographical areas. If this issue is investigated in a logical and scientific way by the programmers, it can dramatically highlight the strengths and weaknesses of planning in different areas and specifies planning areas in terms of the amount of being privileged in the form of hierarchy and homogenous units. In other words, understanding livability approach can clarify how distributing facilities and services are done in different areas through comparative analysis of various economic, social and physical indicators. Indicators can comparatively show conditions of geographic limits and then rank and prioritize them in terms of facilities and bottlenecks. Thus, we should be able to show strengths and weaknesses of various geographic areas based on the utilization of services, infrastructure, etc. by the help of these indicators and then provide the tools necessary for decision making and goals setting. In this respect, the present study concentrates on the metropolitan area of Tabriz and tries to do situational analysis through suggesting livability approach. Understanding this process is undoubtedly the most important tool to achieve the old ideal preparation of metropolitan areas.
    Materials And Methods
    Considering the objectives of the study, the present research is of applied type in terms of its methodology and of descriptive-analytical type in its method. Library and documentary approach along with field study are used for data collection. Analytical methods, one-sample T-test, variance analysis (ANOVA) and path analysis test are used to analyze the data. SPSS software is used for data analysis and GIS is also used to display information.
    According to the dimensions and indicators considered in the theoretical foundation and subject of the questionnaire designed for researchers and specialists, some of the indicators and dimensions pass through pre-testing filter and were ultimately used in the final questionnaire. Resident population of Tabriz metropolitan area is 1785722 people, out of which sample was calculated based on Cochran sampling formula with 5 percent error. For each 27 urban districts, 384 questionnaires were allotted and then based on population size each district was given a proper quota. Sampling is done through simple random sampling method.
    Questionnaire reliability was obtained by Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient. As per this test, coefficient is calculated to be more than 0.7 percent and this shows desired reliability of the questionnaire. As per the calculations, 0.78, 0.76, 0.72 and 0.75 percent are respectively calculated for social, environmental, Physical-spatial and managerial dimensions. Total alpha coefficient for the entire questionnaire is also calculated to be 0.74 percent.
    Discussion of
    Results
    The results of “T test” show that the livability index of Tabriz metropolitan area with the average of 2.86 and statistic t 4.75 are at the intermediate level and with regards to the numerical desirability of the test (3), it can be said that statistic T of all livability aspects of Tabriz metropolitan area is acceptable. In the meantime, the status of physical indicator with statistic t 6/387 is weaker than other indices and the status of economic indicator with statistic 11/258 is better than other indices. Then social indicator with statistic 8.756, environmental indicator with statistic 7 / 387 and physical indicator with statistic 3/387 are occupying next ranks. On the other hand, given that the significance level 0.000 which is less than P
    Conclusions
    Considering the fact that the significance level in all indicators is higher than 0.05, livability conditions are not the same in all parts of this range and there is a statistically significant difference between Tabriz metropolitan areas in terms of livability index difference. Meanwhile, economic indicator with F equal to 47.205 is having the highest amount of differences and it can be said that in the economic indicator, the livability difference at Tabriz metropolitan area is more than other indices. In the meantime, the results of path analysis also showed that the economic indicator (β=0.618) has the highest direct impact on livability. Social, environmental and physical indicators with (β=0.587), (β=0.422) and (β=0.385) are occupying next ranks respectively.
  • Bromand Salahi* Pages 177-194
    Introduction
    Changes in climate indices and their risky behavior in each geographical area could lead to the occurrence of some natural disasters in the region. Environmental crises always leave a lot of damage to human societies. Natural disasters have related with changes and behaviors of climate elements. By Modeling and forecasting of climatic factors, an important step will be taken in the management of natural disasters. Statistical methods such as time series have better performance to predict future climate indices. Ardebil city is always faced with natural disasters, especially climate crisis. Therefore, by the modeling of climate indices in this city we can perform some management schemes to reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of natural disasters.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, some climatic indices in Ardabil synoptic station include average of maximum daily temperature, average of minimum daily temperature, speeds of gusty winds, the highest daily precipitation, heating degree days, dusty days, days with maximum temperature below zero and zero days with minimum temperature below zero and zero snowy days with small hail, thunderstorm days and days with visibility less than or equal 2km during 1976- 2005 were modeled using winters, autoregressive and ARIMA models respectively. For data modeling, the sequence of data was drawn. According to the non-static data, to perform modeling, a series difference method was used. for investigation of significance of residuals, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. In addition, ACF and PACF graphs were plotted. In implementation of model that supplies a combination of autoregressive and moving average delays were considered. In choosing the best model among the models for time series prediction, prediction error rate was a useful framework for identifying model. There are several indices for the validation of the study, the indices of the coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error are used.
    Discussion
    The results of this study suggest that amounts of 12 climatic variables in Ardebil synoptic station, have a specific model for future conditions. In reversible process for all the variables a specific model (2, 0, 0) has been used but the results of the model error rate for any of the studied variables were not approved. Average of maximum daily temperature and the highest daily precipitation variables also have (2, 4, 3) model. But average of minimum daily temperature, speeds of annual gusty winds and heating degree days have different models. Dusty days, days with maximum temperature below zero and zero days with minimum temperature below zero and zero snowy days with small hail and thunderstorm days prove (2,2,2) model. Based on the results, variable of average of maximum daily temperature, speeds of annual gusty winds, heating degree days, days with minimum temperature below zero and zero and days with visibility less than or equal 2km have positive coefficients. Variables of average of minimum daily temperature, dusty days, snowy days with small hail and thunderstorm days have negative coefficients.
    Conclusions
    Investigation of sequence diagrams of series of each variable showed more fluctuations in those variables. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was performed for the remaining differential. The results of this test for all variables with 0.95 confidence, confirmed the assumption of normality of the model residuals. The results of the final model accompanied with an acceptable probability for all variables. Some of the parameters in the final model were similar which indicate a clear and consistent trend of changes of these variables. Some variables such as annual fastest wind direction and speed and heating degree day, have more uncertain and fluctuating trend during the statistical period. The final model results showed that number of days with dust, number of days with maximum temperature equal 00 and below, number of days with minimum temperature equal 00 and below, number of days with snow or sleet and number of days with thunder storm have (2, 2, 2) model and average of maximum daily temperature and greatest daily of precipitation follow (2, 4, 3) model.
  • Ali Akbar Rasouli, Mehdi Erfanian, Behrouz Sari Sarraf, Khadeja Javan* Pages 195-217
    Introduction
    Rainfall is one of the most important elements in determining the climate that has been regarded by experts in various fields. This element with spatial and temporal changes is one of the most important inputs of the hydrological systems that is necessary its study and measurement in several different conditions, such as Climate modeling, climate change, prediction of atmospheric condition, study of runoff, groundwater, flood modeling. Therefore, it is important to accurately estimate of its value.
    A comprehensive estimation of precipitation remains one of the most difficult observational challenges of meteorology, especially during convective rainfall events, since these types of precipitation events develop quickly and do not always last very long. Although rain gauges provide a direct measurement of rainfall, rain gauge networks will always be too coarse. Rain gauges are also unevenly distributed and, most importantly, they provide point source data and not a representation of a spatial domain.
    Radar rainfall can be used to provide an indirect measurement of rainfall, but then the radar systems need to cover the entire area of interest, be well correlated and have appropriate radar rainfall relationships according to the type of precipitation. For most developing countries and even more so for least developed countries radar systems will remain too expensive and difficult to maintain and thus not a feasible option for this purpose.
    Satellite based estimates of rainfall are not as accurate as gauges or radar rainfall, but has the advantage of high temporal resolution and spatial coverage, even over oceans, in mountainous regions and sparsely populated areas. In areas where there are very few rain gauges and no radar systems, satellite-derived rainfall can be a critical tool for identifying hazards from smaller-scale rainfall and flood events. Satellite based Precipitation Estimators should not be considered as a replacement for radar rainfall estimates and gauges, but as a complement to these fields, if at all possible.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative evaluation of TRMM estimated rainfall amounts and rainfall recorded by ground stations in Lake Urmia Basin.
    Materials And Methods
    The Lake Urmia Basin is located between 35°40ʹ to 38°30ʹ latitude and 44°14ʹ to 47°53ʹ longitude in northwest Iran and covers an area of 51,800 km2which composes 3.15 % of the entire country and includes 7 % of the total surface water in Iran. The Lake Urmia is the largest lake in the country and is also the second hyper saline lake (before September 2010) in the world and it is an important natural asset with considerable cultural, economic, aesthetic, recreational, scientific, conservation and ecological value. The lake basin includes 14 main sub basins that surround the lake with the areas varying from 431 to 11,759 km2.
    In this study, the daily and hourly rainfall data of 16 synoptic stations in Lake Urmia Basin during the period 2005 to 2011 and the three-hourly rainfall rate of TRMM 3B42-V6 at 0.25 ° resolution are used. The Run Test was used to investigate the homogeneity of data. To study the performance of TRMM in rainfall estimation, the performance measures were used such as Proportion Correct (PC), bias, Probability of Detection (POD), False alarm Ratio (FAR), and Heidke's Skill Score (HSS) that are defined by using the standard 2 × 2 contingency tables. To validation of TRMM rainfall data, the statistical criteria like the mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used and calibration of TRMM rainfall amounts were used by ground station's data and linear regression.
    Discussion and
    Conclusions
    TRMM rainfall amounts downloaded by netcdf format and were converted to the raster map in ArcGIS 10. To study the performance of TRMM in rainfall estimation, the performance indices of bias, Probability of Detection (POD), False alarm Ratio (FAR), Percentage of Corrects (PC) and Heidke's Skill Score (HSS) were used. Average of these indices in the basin was respectively 0.60, 0.52, 0.13, 0.68 and 0.39. As it can be seen, Bias value is less than one. So we can conclude that TRMM underestimated rainfall. High values of POD and low values of FAR indicated that this satellite has acceptable performance in rainfall estimation. According to PC, TRMM Has estimated Properly In 60% to 70%. According to HSS amounts, it can be said that there is relative match between satellite data and observed data. To validation of TRMM rainfall data, the statistical criteria like mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used and respectively were -1.34, 1.70 and 2.58 mm which accuracy is acceptable. Calibration of TRMM rainfall amounts were used by ground station's data and linear regression and its correlation coefficient was 0.69, which indicates the relative match of TRMM rainfall with ground station's data. Regression analysis using the F-statistic and Significant test of the regression line slope using the t test represents a significant match of TRMM rainfall with observed data at the 1% significance level. This research was conducted in the six-hour time scale. Therefore, it is suggested to the other researchers to evaluate The TRMM rainfall data on daily, monthly and annual scale and in other basins.
  • Mehr Noosh Ghadimi*, Ebrahim Moghimi, Mahmoud Reza Sahebi, Tayyebeh Akbari Azirani Pages 219-235
    Introduction
    This study aims to evaluate the quality and accuracy of the DEMs extracted from ASTER and topographic data of 1:25000 for morphometric analysis of stream patterns in different formations.
    Matherials and
    Methods
    To examine the DEM, first the map of drainage network of the studied area was prepared based on ASTER DEM and topographic map in Arc hydro medium.
    In the next step, the Raster drainage network of the area was calculated in 30 thresholds values for the whole catchment area. Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results imply from the morphometry perspective the stream patterns extracted from ASTER and topography in all the formations are similar but different in number of stream patterns.
    Although absolute accuracy of the topography DEM seems to be low, compared to the DEM data obtained from ArcGIS it is more valuable.
    Also, the raster layers are not a reliable and precise source for comparison of the results obtained from the two extraction methods of stream patterns. In case of conversion to vector layers, the results will be clearer and more obvious.
    The computer algorithms are not suitable and accurate sources for determination of the length and number of stream patterns. The reason lies in this fact that in the regions with a steep slope, there are many errors in estimation of the length of Grade 1 stream patterns when using manual layers and the precision is poor.
    In contrary, in low slope regions the computer algorithms are unable to analyze the length of river and in mild slope regions this ability is improved.
    Owing to the mountainous nature of the region, the results obtained from the Aster DEM are less accurate than those obtained from the topographic maps.
    In addition, the Ilam-Sarvak formation (made of limestone with black shale limestone) with drainage density of 52.35, has the highest number of stream patterns versus other formations (Table 1).
    The width of the grade 1 stream patterns in this formation, due to the higher amount of shale is larger than that in other formations and the RMSE magnitude of the Ilam-Sarvak formation is 192.82.
    The Soormeh formation (made of limestone and dolomite limestone), containing the least number of stream patterns and the drainage density of 0.059, shows the lowest magnitude of RMSE (0.01). The morphometry obtained from ASTER DEM and topographic maps seems alike.
    But, the results related to the number, length and drainage density of the stream patterns are discrepant. Furthermore, the results of RMSE in various formations (Table 5) verify their accuracy.
    In mountainous regions, the accuracy of the number of stream patterns obtained from ASTER DEM is much lower than that obtained from topography.
    The number of stream patterns depends on the material and slope of formations.
    The results obtained from analysis show there is a direct correlation between drainage density and number of stream patterns and an indirect correlation between drainage density and RMSE.
  • Javad Hajializadeh*, Chamran Mosavi, Ataolah Zarafshan Pages 237-260
    Introduction
    Today urbanization is one of the important challenges; its highest rates are in Asia, Africa and Latin America and 60 million people are added annually to the poorest countries of these areas (Stephens and Stterthwaire, 2008: 300). Urban environment is complex, dynamic and diverse and requires high capacity management and the urban governance has this capability. Good governance theory can institutionalize the concept of partnership and promotion of democratic values with features such as seeking participation, stability or sustainability, right and decision making, justice, efficiency and effectiveness, transparency and accountability, citizen-orientation and civic obligations and security (UN-Habitat, 2009: 12). In this model, the responsible of urban public administration is divided among three institutions of government, civil society and private sector all of which are parts of human development (Imani et al., 2002: 9). The pattern of good urban governance is defined as development participatory process whereby all stakeholders including government, private sector and civil society provide means of solving urban problems (McCarney et al, 1995: 8). In fact, ruling deals with individuals and organizations who are involved in decision-making process and implementation of decisions (Un- Habitat, 2009,126). One of the important aspects of good urban governance theory is participation aspect because the theory basis and principle is based on government of people; the government where people govern (Dekker and Kempen, 2004: 43). In this study, we focus on participation aspect due to the extension of urban governance in order to achieve good urban governance and study its rate in Shiraz urban management. The present paper examines objectives including level of citizen participation (in terms of subjective and objective aspects) and significant relationship between good urban governance criteria (including transparency and accountability, social justice, efficiency and effectiveness, civil rights, and social trust) and citizen participation in. Thus, the first question of present study can be raised as: Is there a significant relationship between urban good governance pattern and citizen participation in Shiraz?
    Matherials and
    Methods
    The present study tries to combine two branches of urban good governance and participation; such a research requires a view with ability of comprehensive approach. The study is applied-development and the research method is documentary, analytical and survey study. First class sources such as questionnaires were used in order to complete information; statistical population included citizens of Shiraz (Census of 2011). The sample size was estimated to be 400 subjects using Cochran method with 95% confidence level. Five-point Likert scale and T-test were used in order to investigate the participation and other factors. Pearson correlation test and SPSS software were used for final analysis of data. The preliminary questionnaire was referred first to a number of specialists in order to determine reliability and validity of measurement tools and finally validity of measurement tools was obtained through removing and modifying items by professors and academic experts. Cronbach alpha coefficient was used in order to investigate the reliability of indicators.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results showed that participation in subjective dimension has very high in Shiraz city and there is very good vision to participation in studied city and participation platform is present in Shiraz city. But objective dimension of participation is at low level that was measured through citizen participation in institutions and social groups, the process of preparing plans, economic costs payment and monitoring and criticizing the performance of urban management. Fifth index is in the best situation among the indices (membership in institutions and social groups) .
    After concluding the objective participation assessment, results of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between objective participation of citizens and citizen participation in urban management (R = 0.67). There is fairly strong and direct correlation between different aspects of objective citizen participation and urban good governance, so that Pearson correlation coefficient among four dimensions of citizens objective participation and urban good governance variable were "0.473", "0.601", "0.635" and "0.649", respectively.
    Also, in determining the correlation between different aspects of citizen participation (both subjective and objective) and urban good governance it can be said that in case of good urban governance and Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.666, 0.642, 0.473, 0.601, 0.635, 0.649, a dimension of citizen participation that is highly changed includes willingness to undertake various activities in city (The citizen participation is one of the mental aspects). Good urban governance is not realized through mutual collaboration of city council, people and government and virtual participation and cooperation of three sides of urban management do not play any role in implementation of urban good governance.
    Criteria such as citizen participation, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency, openness, accountability, transparency, rule of law, consensus orientation, equity, strategic insight and decentralization are raised. Given the important factors of improving governance, three components of citizen participation, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency are more effective on urban good governance.
    Moreover, the position of good governance has been studied including principles such as participation, accountability, citizenship, transparency, effectiveness, rule of law in order to investigate people role in planning process for these projects and interaction between sides of government (officials, public and private sector).
    Research results included reduced role of government and increased role of non-governmental organizations in social life administration and land and urban management; lack of internal and external conditions in order to implement urban good governance; implementing urban good governance depends on minimum governance, broad market and desirable policy; complex urban issues and problems related to poor urban management. Effective and more weighted citizen participation, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency of achieving good urban governance are considered as humanist urban paradigm for better governance and reduced problems of citizens. This study trieds to complete previous studies in order to apply this management though activating and highlighting citizens’ role in achieving urban good governance. The results of this study are in line with objectives of study and are summarized as follows; according to studies it was found that willingness to participation is very high from subjective dimension and there is a very good vision to participation in studied city and Shiraz provides participation platform. The objective dimension of participation is at a low level that is measured through citizen participation in social institutions and groups, process of preparing plans, economic costs payment and monitoring and criticizing the performance of urban management. Fifth index is in the best situation among indices.
  • Hamid Reza Matinfar, Fatemeh Godosifard Pages 261-281
    Introduction
    Any change in the properties of the constituents of the soil is known to change the quality of the soil. Pollutants, including heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, lead, chemical pesticides and herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, fertilizers, waste, sewage, and oil might damage the soil. Lead continuous distribution and the cumulative result of industrialization and urbanization are rapidly causing serious problems for the environment and food security (Zhang et al., 2010). Previous studies show heavy metals in the visible and near infrared region have a specific spectrum and feature that can be used to identify and trace elements (Kemper and Sommer, 2003; Choe et al., 2008; Ji et al., 2010 ). Hyperspectral sensors in a continuous, very narrow and several spectrum bands, range in the visible, near infrared, mid-infrared and thermal infrared imaging track. Spectroscopic method with a lower cost is faster and can be used on a wider level. The purpose of this research is to identify the spectral changes associated with heavy metals in soil using spectroscopy, following the determination of distribution of heavy metals using hyper spectral images.
    Study area: The study area is located in the south-western city of Khorramabad. According to soil moisture and temperature regimes of the Iran map, is soil moisture regime is xeric and its thermal regime is thermic. A total of 17 samples up to 30 cm depth were taken in areas where there was the risk of further contamination.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, Hyperion data was used in the processing levels LIR.
    Laboratory
    Method
    Lead levels were measured using atomic absorption. The lead levels were measured using spectroscopy, which meant using spectrophotometric spectral reflectance of each sample in the range of 200 to 2400 nm being measured in every 10 nm.
    Discussion of
    Results
    Results reflected from the sample surface using a spectrometer in the range of 200 to 2500 nm at 10 nm (Figure 1) are observed:The basic assumption in the detection of heavy metals is that soil reflectance decreases with increasing amount of them (Pandit et al, 2010). Graph spectral samples 1, 2, 9 and 10 are also visually compatible with that the assumption and sample 1 with the highest lead levels had lower reflectance and sample No. 10 with the lowest lead is the highest reflection.
    Partial least squares regression: In this research lead levels were identified directly using the method of least squares either (using spectra) and indirectly using spectroscopy and other soil elements. In this method estimating the amount of lead was performed in the four different ways: 1 – The lead estimated using spectrum in the range of 200 to 2100 nm 2 – estimation using the clay content 3 – estimation using the amount of organic matter and spectrum 4- estimation using the amount of clay, organic matter and spectrum. Principal component analysis was applied because more than 95% of the variance between the data had raised the estimated clay content using partial least squares models.
    Verification: Methods used in these models included a sample for each time which was removed for estimation accuracy and the estimation of accuracy amount. Results of overall accuracy verification and also the calibration show that combined with clay models with the lowest mean square error are the best estimates. Lead Index According to this research, with regard to the relationship between reflection and organic matter, lead levels were calculated using hyper-spectral images. Therefore,according to the first derivative of spectrum with soil properties, the first derivative of spectrum in all areas first was calculated according to the following equation: Eq.1 In this regard, d the first derivative spectra in the wavelength ,  Wavelength,   The distance between the range 1  i  and 1  i  the wavelength is. The correlation between organic matter and lead is a function of the following equation: Pb  0.458OC  0.7243 Eq.2 The coefficient of determination obtained from the mean square error obtained using respectively 0.579 square mean error remaining 1.517 is.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study indicate that a combination of visible and near-infrared spectral range can be used to detect heavy metals. Interestingly, we found a high lead correlation with the amount of clay and organic matter. High effect of wavelengths 500 to 600 nm in estimating lead was achieved due to the existence of organic material. Therefore, it seems that the estimation of heavy metals in areas with clay that is the ability to have a lot of storing organic matter prove higher accuracy. The use of indexes or relationships to estimate the amount of lead using hyper-spectral images can be successful when the relationship between the elements with other soil properties is identified. The results of the models PLSR, MTMF and Lead indicators suggest that the techniques employed have been able to identify the lead content effects in contamination, except that the outputs are different for each for number, classification and images that can be used according to the purpose.
  • Hamid Reza Rakhshaninasab*, Amir Arsalan Sanjari, Hamed Arshad Pages 283-303
    Introduction
    The advancement of ICT has resulted in the advent of modern communication and information instruments in the contemporary world in such a way that it has created different forms of doing activities and providing services in all domains.
    Materials And Methods
    Accordingly, the present study was conducted with the aim of feasibility study of using ICT in urban planning and management of the Zahedan City. The required data and information were obtained using the instrument of questionnaire and field research. The sampling method was conducted using Cochran’s formula (380 samples) at five regional levels in the City of Zahedan. The data analysis was conducted using statistical tests of one sample t-test, linear regression and Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS software program.
    Discussion of
    Results
    The results of t-test indicate that telephones, computers, and faxes, with the mean scores of 2.82, 2.12, and 2.09 respectively have the highest degree of being used and chatting, emails, and the Internet, with the mean scores of 1.42, 1.55 and 1.9 respectively, have the lowest degree of being used among the ICT facilities at work.
    Conclusions
    there is a significant correlation between the access to ICT facilities at work and the degree of using these facilities for doing urban current affairs. The degree of using ICT facilities for doing urban current affairs with the mean scores of 2.45 is lower than the moderate level, which indicates people’s low degree of using these services. The degree of citizens’ satisfaction with ICT services by organizations and the tendency to use these services with the significance level 0.289 which indicates a direct and positive correlation between these two variables with low intensity. Furthermore, citizens’ ICT literacy and acceptance of ICT representations at the significance level 0.000 indicates their literacy level. Therefore, by reinforcing the infrastructures to create a smart city, the reduction in urban problems and an appropriate urban planning can be expected.
  • Arastoo Yari Hesar*, Vakil Heidari Sareban Pages 305-324
    Introduction
    On the late afternoon of Saturday August 11, 2012 the northwest of Iran was shaken by two of the strong earthquake in Iranian history. First was hit by 6.4 Mw at 16:54 local time, and about 11 minutes later, a 6.3 Mw struck 10 km to the west. Preliminary estimate places, and the deaths were more than 330 persons and the number of injured persons was about 26000 and overall, more than 50000 persons have been resettled. As many as 365 villages, out of total 537 in the affected area, are heavily damaged (between %50 and %90) and 46 villages are completely devastated. Successively Varzeghan-Ahar earthquakes are the cluster ones or “earthquake sequence”, and involves more than hundreds moderate and small temblors and are centered Varzeghan. The villages of the country in terms of having a poor quality of buildings and structures distressed areas fleeting and unstable natural hazard of earthquake are more vulnerable. Hadi rural projects that are part of the projects, directed to development of physical, social, and economic future of the country for years, reading and running. These plans are prepared by the rural development approach to strengthing the physical space further reduce the vulnerability of rural households.
    Materials And Methods
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of this project is to reduce the vulnerability of rural areas in the earthquake case study because it is city Varzeghan select a range studied, lives close to 306 people were killed and destroyed 500 villages in the area. The research is descriptive-analytical method. Data using GIS and SPSS were analyzed. The population of this study includes over 3787 persons using Morgan and Krejcie's table. hundred and Fifty -one 351 of them were chosen randomly for sampling, and the tool used is a researcher’s questionnaire. Formal validity of questionnaire was proven by expert panels. A survey of the same population with 30 questionnaires was done, and a finding by the use of Cronbach alpha formula in the SPSS software, obtained a stability of questionnaire different sector 0.72-0.81.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that physical component had the largest role in the vulnerability of the rural sample and comparative analysis of earthquake effects in rural villages, with or without conductor pattern suggests that a significant relationship between the vulnerability of villages and conductor. In fact, the amount of damage in the villages, especially in the villages where made new conductor of the buildings permit had been construed to a very great extant been discounted.
  • Alireza Ildoromi*, Ali Dall Oghli, Mohammad Ghorbani Pages 325-347
    Introduction
    Among different branches of tourism ecotourism has a great importance and has had a significant growth in the past two decades. The natural environment has specific ecological carrying capacity for human use and in order to achieve ecological development, the framework of regional planning should be used for loading population.
    Materials And Methods
    Lashgardar protected area with approximately 16,000 ha and ecotourism attractions and mountain ecosystems, dynamic and less disturbed natural features and rich plant and animal communities is located in the east and southeast of Malayer, Hamedan province. In this study, the effective parameters such as slope, elevation, aspect, soil, flora and fauna, geology, geomorphology and independency were investigated and appropriate classification and extensive centralized and conserved areas of recreation were identified. Finally, gathered information and ecological data were statistically analyzed. In the next step in order to assess the ecological factors such as altitude, slope, aspect, elevation classes, statistics and water resources including rivers, canals and streams, geology, geomorphology, climate data, synoptic stations land use, and soil data were analyzed and also the information layers incorporation were prepared in the form of maps.
    Discussion of
    Results
    The relatively large area includes two mountain ranges having steep slope. The slope is an important factor in the ability to survey an area for recreation and tourism. Since easy access to some of the slope affected areas is not possible and tourism facilities and infrastructure are influenced by slope, thererfore, the slope in Lashgardar protected area is considered as a limiting factor for attractions accessability. This area of ecological conditions and the presence of permanent water fountains and some aqueducts, different mountainous habitats, cliffs and numerous valleys, is fertile ground for the emergence of ecotourism attractions and the biological balance. The results of the ecological study implies that environmental sustainability is very important and fundamental in the development of eco-tourism and ecotourism activities and should be extended in ecological zones with appropriate use. In general, intensive and extensive ecotourism activities in the region are programmable. Estimation of carrying capacity in all aspects of physical, and biological environment and economic feasability are essential for the region. In this study Lashgardar protected area was evaluated by ecological and tourism model.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that, due to factors such as fertile soil, favorable climate, vegetation and diversity of animal species, there is an ecological potential to expand and develop tourism in most areas. In this study, after identifying ecological resources in the Lashgardar region, it was shown that protection and extensive recreation zone to zone in the region were 84%, 13% and 3% respectively as well as intensive recreation zone is constituted. Due to the extensive nature of ecotourism, soil and rock conditions are important for pedestrians; otherwise, the soil parameter does not care much for extensive recreation. Furthermore, considering the types of ecotourism activities, the aspect and vegetation has a little importance. In general, some areas of Lashgardar are suitable for more than one use, wherase the activities do not overlap with each other, we can use them. Finally, despite the region's high and mountainous areas, the area has extensive capabilities and is suitable for intensive recreation activities. The results of the field studies show that in the spring, the wildlife has a greater tendency to slope above 70%. As a result, the most desirable areas is in spring and lowest is in autumn. The northern secure areas has a greater part of favorable wildlife habitats in its place (extensive and intensive recreation zones). Moreover, species tend to have a presence in adjacent rocky areas (protected zone) and the existence of these areas is increasing habitat for wildlife and ecotourism. Due to distance variable (road) and the tendancy of species to avoid such roads, the presence of these variables reduces habitat of species and should not be built in the area. This subject attratcts the policy makers to assess the ecological and segregated zones for visual tourism.
    The results suggested that the area has an extensive or intensive recreation potential for the development and most villages have a high power and ability to develop tourism and ecotourism. Lastly, despite the region's high and mountainous landscape, the area has extensive capabilities and is suitable for intensive recreation activities. The results showed that Lashgardar protected area has three areas including protective, extensive and intensive recreational areas. The results also indicated that the protective zone is in the first place and extensive and intensive recreation zones are in the next rankings. Generally, some areas of Lashgardar are appropriate for more than one use and if the activities do not interfere with each other, they can be used. But in all zones, protecting the environment and ecotourism development without physical development is recommended. Due to land use and the diversity of mountainous rangeland it can be used with different functions which are necessary for ecotourism development planning.