فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای روستایی - سال هفتم شماره 1 (بهار 1395)
  • سال هفتم شماره 1 (بهار 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/04/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • نرگیس وزین، عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری *، مهدی پورطاهری، افشین دانه کار صفحات 1-27
    اکوسیستم تالاب بعنوان یکی از مهمترین اکوسیستم های زمین نقش مهمی را از دیرباز بر توسعه جوامع پیرامون خود در ابعاد محیطی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی داشته است، اما الگوی زیست ناپایدار جوامع حاشیه آنرا دچار مشکل کرده است. برای برون رفت از مشکل، مدل اکوویلج الگویی برای زیست پایدار با اجرای شیوه های پایدار جهت رفع بی ثباتی های محیطی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی شکل گرفت. با توجه به اهمیت تالابها و تاثیر آن بر زندگی روستاییان، مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و پیمایشی در پی پاسخگویی به این سوال است که الگوی زیست پایدار براساس الگوی اکوویلج در روستاهای حاشیه تالاب چه نوع الگویی است؟ ابتدا با توجه به تجارب جهانی و نظرات خبرگان 15 شاخص ترکیبی بدست آمد، سهم هر یک از دیدگاه خبرگان سنجش شد و در 13 روستا در چهار شهرستان بهشهر، گلوگاه، بندرگز و ترکمن از حاشیه تالاب میانکاله و لپوی زاغمرز آزمون شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل از آزمون های آماری میانگین و t-test استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می دهد بعد اکولوژیک با میانگین 3.71 از سهم بیشتری جهت زیست پایدار براساس الگوی اکوویلج در روستاهای حاشیه تالاب برخوردار است. همچنین هر چند در روستاهای مورد مطالعه سطح پایداری الگوی زیست براساس اکوویلج پایین است. اما الگوی پیشنهادی برای زیست پایدار در روستاهای مورد مطالعه بر اساس اصول بنیادی الگوی اکوویلج و ارتباط جوامع روستایی با اکوسیستم تالاب، الگویی یکپارچه از سه بعد اکولوژیک، اقتصادی و اجتماعی- فرهنگی بصورت دوایر متداخل می باشد که بصورت فرایندی سازگار با منطقه مورد مطالعه و امکان پذیر است.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوسیستم تالاب پایدار، جوامع روستایی پایدار، الگوی زیست پایدار، الگوی اکوویلج، تالاب های میانکاله و لپوی زاغمرز
  • حسین ضرغامی*، حسین محمودیان صفحات 29-53
    مهاجرت پدیدهای رایج در بیشتر روستاهای ایران میباشد، با این همه در مورد اثرات این مهاجرتها بر کسانی که در روستا باقی ماندهاند، کمتر تحقیق شده است. این مقاله، به بررسی اثرات مهاجرت فرزندان بر حمایت اجتماعی سالمندان روستایی در شهرستان بردسکن میپردازد. در مناطق روستایی این منطقه، اغلب خانواده ها با تعدادی یا تمام فرزندان مهاجر مواجه هستند. برای رسیدن به هدف تحقیق، 357 سالمند روستایی دارای حداقل یک فرزند زنده، مورد مصاحبه ساختمند قرار گرفتند. روش تحقیق به صورت پیمایشی و با اتکاء بر پرسشنامه محققساخته بود که در تنظیم آن از پرسشنامه های استاندارد و معمول بهره گرفته شد. پاسخگویان به شیوه نمونهگیری چندمرحلهای و ترکیبی از روش نمونهگیری خوشهای و نمونهگیری تصادفی ساده از 9 روستا انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان داد که مهاجرت فرزندان اثری منفی بر حمایت عاطفی و حمایت ابزاری والدین سالمند دارد، در عین حال، والدین از حمایت مادی فرزندان مهاجر بهره میبرند. به نظر میرسد، فرزندان مهاجر با حمایت مادی بیشتر به دنبال جبران کاستی های خود در جنبه های دیگر حمایت اجتماعی هستند. به طور کلی، اثر مهاجرت فرزندان بر جنبه های مختلف حمایت اجتماعی والدین سالمند دیده شد اما اثرات آن به گونه متفاوتی است و والدین سالمند، از مهاجرت فرزندان خود هم متضرر و هم بهره مند میشوند.
    کلیدواژگان: حمایت اجتماعی، سالمند، مهاجرت، شبکه اجتماعی، بردسکن
  • مازیار آصفی*، شهین فرخی صفحات 55-80
    هدف از مقاله حاضر ارزیابی و تحلیل مسکن موقت آسیب دیدگان بعد از زلزله جهت شناخت نقاط قوت و ضعف آن در راستای بهینه سازی و ارائه راهکارهای بهبود کیفی آن متناسب با نیاز آسیب دیدگان می باشد. این مطالعه به روش ارزیابی بعد از اجرا، از نوع کاربردی بوده و در آن از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی استفاده گردیده است. و نیز برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از روش های مختلف اسنادی، کتابخانه ای و مطالعات میدانی از طریق انجام مصاحبه، مشاهده و تاکید بر پرسشنامه بهره گرفته شده است. در مجموع معیارهای مورد ارزیابی در جداولی جداگانه با امتیازدهی طیف لیکرت ارزیابی شده اند. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که آسیب دیدگان از مولفه های کالبدی و اجتماعی مسکن موقت رضایت کم و از مولفه های فنی آن رضایت متوسطی دارند. در این میان نیز مولفه های «امنیت» و «حفظ کرامت انسانی و حریم شخصی» و «ادراک محیطی» از معیار اجتماعی، مولفه های «بهداشت» و «فرم» و «معماری و طراحی» از معیار کالبدی و «تاسیسات و انرژی» از معیار فنی و سازه ای کمترین میزان رضایت آسیب دیدگان از مسکن موقت را دربرداشت. بنابراین با تدابیری مانند حصارکشی دور تادور چادرها، برپایی چادرهای فامیلی در کنار هم، مشخص کردن حدود و مرز هر چادر و غیره می توان از حدود مشکلات کاست.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، اسکان موقت، بلایای طبیعی، ویژگی های مسکن موقت، چادر
  • طاهره صادقلو *، آیدا صدرالسادات، زری افشار صفحات 81-111
    تفکیک اراضی روستایی به جداسازی قطعات زمین با هدف تخصیص به کاربری های مختلف و مشخص در درون و یا مجاورت بافت روستا اطلاق می گردد که به منظور تامین کمبود فضاهای مسکونی، اداری و خدماتی روستا و با رعایت دسترسی مطلوب بین قطعات روستایی صورت می پذیرد. در این تحقیق ضمن معرفی ابزارهای لازم در نظام مطلوب تفکیک اراضی روستایی شامل قوانین روستایی (اسناد و احکام، حقوق مالکیت، حقوق ارتفاقی) و (استانداردها و ضوابط و مقررات) این سوال مطرح می شود که چالش های پیش رو در جریان تفکیک اراضی در مناطق روستایی شهرستان مشهد کدامند؟ بر این اساس سعی گردیده با واکاوی قوانین روستایی (به کمک کارشناسان بنیاد مسکن) به بررسی نظام موجود قوانین تفکیک اراضی روستایی پرداخته شود و همچنین با بهره مندی از نظر صاحبنظران نظیر مشاوران طرح هادی روستایی، کارشناسان سایر ادارات همچون سازمان نظام مهندسی استان و ادارت ثبت چالش های احتمالی پیش روی طراحی و تفکیک اراضی روستایی واقع در محدوده طرح هادی روستایی شناسایی گردد. در تحقیق حاضر از روش شناسی کیفی با رویکردی تفسیرگرایانه و با استفاده از تئوری بنیانی استفاده شده است. گردآوری داده ها ابتدا در سطح کتابخانه ای برای بررسی نظری و قانونی تفکیک اراضی روستایی و سپس با مصاحبه های ساخت نیافته و باز انجام شده است. یافته های حاصل از تحقیق به استخراج مدل مفهومی چالش های پیش روی تفکیک اراضی منتهی شده است که شامل چالش های تامین زمین، محدودیت عوامل طبیعی و عوامل مصنوع، موانع حقوقی مالکیت اراضی و موانع اجرایی طرح تفکیک می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تفکیک اراضی، مناطق روستایی، حقوق روستایی، تئوری بنیانی، شهرستان مشهد
  • ناصر شفیعی ثابت*، بهزاد دوستی سبزی صفحات 113-138
    افزایش کیفیت خدمات ارائه شده در نواحی روستایی نیازمند بازخور و دریافت وجه نظر روستائیان و همچنین مشارکت دادن ساکنان روستایی در فرایند توسعه است. بی توجهی به خواست روستاییان چالش های فراوانی را در فراگرد توسعه روستایی در پی خواهد داشت. از این رو، بررسی و شناساندن نقاط قوت و ضعف خدمات ارائه شده در محیط روستا، برنامه ریزان روستایی و فعالان عرصه روستا را در جهت برنامه ریزی مناسب و کارآمد یاری خواهد رساند. براین مبنا، این تحقیق با هدف ارزیابی میزان رضایتمندی ساکنان روستایی از کیفیت خدمات ارائه شده توسط شرکت آبفار روستایی با استفاده از ابزار سرکوال صورت پذیرفت. تحقیق حاضر به روش توصیفی تحلیلی به صورت تصادفی بر روی 302 خانوار در سطح سکونتگاه های روستایی بخش مرکزی شهرستان دلفان به نسبت تعداد خانوار روستاها انجام شد. بررسی میانگین اهمیت و رضایت در هر یک از ابعاد مقیاس سروکوال گویای شکاف زیاد بین انتظار و ادراک ساکنان روستایی از خدمات آبفار روستایی در بعد محسوسات، قابلیت اعتماد ، اطمینان ، پاسخگویی و همدلی است. هرچند که در بعضی از گویه های ابعاد پنجگانه مذکور بهبود در وضعیت روستاها نسبت به گذشته حاصل شد. اما، بی توجهی به خواسته های ساکنان روستایی و مشارکت ندادن آن ها در فرآیند خدمات رسانی در افزایش شکاف بین ادراکات و انتظارات آن ها از خدمات اثر گذار بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: رضایتمندی، کیفیت، خدمات، آبفار، دلفان
  • روزبه میرزایی *، نفیسه رضایی صفحات 139-166
    رویدادهای فرهنگی فرصت های خوبی را فراهم می آورند تا در چارچوب آنها علاوه بر استحکام بخشیدن پیوندهای بین قومیت ها و بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنین، هویت و غرور ملی را نیز تقویت کرد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل انگیزشی موثر بر حضور بازدیدکنندگان در رویدادهای مبتنی بر جوامع محلی انجام شد. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی- اکتشافی است. تعداد نمونه 357 نفر، روش نمونه گیری در دسترس و جامعه آماری 7000 گردشگر بازدیدکننده از جشنواره گل غلتان در امیرآباد دامغان در سال 1394 هستند. تحلیل عاملی موارد انگیزشی، شش عامل مهم شامل گل غلتان و خانواده، اکتشاف فرهنگی، اجتماعی شدن، حمایت، تازگی رویداد و گریز را مشخص نمود. تحلیل عاملی تاییدی نیز روایی همگرا و واگرای پرسشنامه را مورد تایید دانست. نتایج حاکی از آن است که می توان این رویداد را به عنوان یک برنامه فراغت جمعی برای خانواده های جوان و فرهیخته ایرانی با سطوح مختلف درآمدی در نظر گرفت. در جهت توسعه این رویداد فرهنگی، به مدیران و بازاریابان جشنواره گل غلتان پیشنهاد می شود تمرکز اصلی خود را به ارتقای کیفیت برگزاری آن و تنوع بخشیدن به فعالیت های فراغتی جنبی مورد نیاز خانواده ها با محوریت بازسازی آیین های سنتی و تاریخی بخش امیرآباد معطوف نمایند.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری رویداد، انگیزش، جامعه محلی، جشنواره گل غلتان، بخش امیر آباد
  • سعیدرضا اکبریان رونیزی* صفحات 167-193
    تعیین روستاهای هدف گردشگری در کشور را می توان از جمله سیاستهای تاثیرگذار در فرآیند توسعه پایدار گردشگری در نواحی روستایی قلمداد نمود. در این رابطه نکته قابل تامل سنجش پایداری گردشگری در این روستاها می باشد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف سنجش سطح پایداری توسعه گردشگری در روستاهای هدف گردشگری شهرستان سپیدان(استان فارس) تدوین یافته است. این تحقیق از نوع کاربردی و روش انجام آن توصیفی تحلیلی است. به منظور جمع آوری داده های مورد نیاز از دو روش اسنادی و میدانی(پرسشنامه) استفاده شده است. سطح تحلیل پژوهش روستا و واحد تحلیل سرپرستان خانوارهای محلی(200 سرپرست) و مدیران محلی(18 مدیر) است. در راستای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش های آماری و غیر آماری(روش بارومتر) استفاده شده است. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می دهد که توسعه گردشگری در روستاهای هدف در مجموع در سطح متوسط پایداری قرار دارند که در بین ابعاد مورد مطالعه، بعد اجتماعی فرهنگی از وضعیت پایداری بهتری برخوردار است. همچنین نتایج نشان داد در بین روستاهای مورد مطالعه از لحاظ پایداری توسعه گردشگری تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد و روستای مارگون دارای بیشترین امتیاز پایداری و روستای ده کهنه از پایین ترین میزان امتیاز پایداری برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، گردشگری روستایی، روستاهای هدف، بارومتر پایداری، شهرستان سپیدان
  • لطیف حاجی، محمد چیذری*، شهلا چوبچیان صفحات 195-216
    تعاونی های کشاورزی اهرمی مناسب برای توسعه ی اقتصادی، اجتماعی و ابزاری برای گردآوری نیروها و منابع توسعه به شمار می آیند. هدف اصلی این مطالعه تدوین یک مدل ساختاری به منظور تحلیل اثرات عوامل اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست محیطی و نهادی بر توسعه ی پایدار تعاونی های تولید کشاورزی شهرستان نقده می باشد. برای دستیابی به این هدف یک مدل ساختاری با پنج متغیر نهفته و 22 شاخص آشکار تدوین شد. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها پرسشنامه و جامعه ی آماری نیز شامل اعضای تعاونی های تولید کشاورزی شهرستان نقده به تعداد 778 نفر بود. حجم نمونه با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان (1970) به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی با انتساب متناسب 260 نفر انتخاب شد. برای تعیین روایی ظاهری و محتوایی پرسشنامه ها از پانل متخصصان گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس استفاده شد. همچنین به منظور سنجش پایایی ابزار تحقیق از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که مقدار آن برای قسمت های مختلف پرسشنامه بین 78/0 تا 81/0 محاسبه شد. به منظور بررسی و برازش متغیرهای نهفته و آزمون فرضیه های پژوهش از روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با نرم افزار LISREL8.80 استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل عاملی تاییدی، پایایی و برازش متغیرهای نهفته ی پژوهش را تایید کردند. مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری نیز نشان داد که مولفه های اجتماعی (84/0= ، γ24/2=t)، اقتصادی (36/0= ، γ04/3=t)، زیست محیطی (52/0= ، γ14/3=t) و نهادی (35/0= ، γ96/2=t) تبیین کننده ی 63 درصد از تغییرات پراکنش توسعه ی پایدار تعاونی های تولید کشاورزی بودند و شاخص های برازش مدل در وضعیت خوبی قرار داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: تعاونی های تولید کشاورزی، توسعه ی پایدار، تحلیل عاملی تاییدی، مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری، شهرستان نقده
  • هادی الماسی *، جعفر توکلی، پرستو قوچی صفحات 217-242
    خشکسالی از مهم ترین بلاهای طبیعی است که زیان های بسیاری بر نقاط روستایی وارد می کند. کنترل و سازگاری با خشکسالی در مناطق روستایی از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. در این میان، روش های بومی راهکار مناسبی برای مدیریت بحران است. امروزه رویکرد واکنش به خشکسالی به عنوان یک ساختار دستوری- کنترلی، متمرکز و تکنولوژی محور جای خود را به رویکرد جدیدی به نام مدیریت اجتماع محور داده که به فرهنگ ها، ظرفیت ها و دانش های جوامع محلی توجه دارد. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی و الویت بندی راهبردهای بومی سازگاری با خشکسالی در استان کرمانشاه می باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و به شیوه پیمایشی است. شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات شامل روش های کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. تعداد کل روستاهای مورد مطالعه 4 روستا واقع در شهرستانهای استان به تفکیک شدت خشکسالی، شرایط طبیعی و پراکنش جغرافیایی در سطح استان می باشد. جامعه آماری پژوهش با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری کوکران و ضریب اطمینان 95/0 و دقت احتمال0.90 حجم نمونه 200 نفر محاسبه شده است. برای آزمون فرضیات از نرم افزارSPSS و آزمون های ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن، کروسکال والیس استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از آزمون فرضیات نشان می دهد که رابطه مثبت و معنا داری بین شدت و تکرار خشکسالی ادراک شده کشاورزان، اراضی ملکی، اراضی آبی، ویژگی های فردی و خانوادگی آنها با راهبردهای مدیریت بحران وجود دارد و بین روستاهای مورد بررسی در اتخاذ راهبردهای یاد شده تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: خشکسالی، راهبرد های سازگاری، مدیریت بحران، استان کرمانشاه
  • محبوبه خیراللهی*، امیرحسین علی بیگی، کیومرث زرافشانی صفحات 243-264
    کشاورزان جزء اقشاری هستند که به نظر می رسد آسیب های زیادی از ریزگردها می بینند و با وجود آسیب پذیری این جوامع، مطالعات محدودی در زمینه میزان آسیب پذیری آنان صورت گرفته است. بنابراین هدف پژوهش حاضر واکاوی آسیب پذیری کشاورزان در برابر ریزگردها می باشد. جامعه آماری تحقیق کشاورزان گندم کار شهرستان دهلران در دو بخش مرکزی و موسیان به تعداد 2105 نفر بودند که 330 کشاورز با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شد. ابتدا شاخص های توان سازگاری و حساسیت در برابر ریزگردها تهیه و با نظر 15 کارشناس در این زمینه با استفاده از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) بر اساس مقایسات زوجی در نرم افزارExpert choice وزن دهی شدند. سپس اقدام به ساخت شاخص ترکیبی شد و با استفاده از روش منطق فازی در نرم افزار Matlab، توان سازگاری، حساسیت و آسیب پذیری کشاورزان به دست آمد. بر اساس یافته های حاصل از روش منطق فازی، کشاورزان گندم کار دارای توان سازگاری بالا، حساسیت بالا و در نتیجه آسیب پذیری متوسط (رو به بالا) در برابر ریزگردها بودند. دستاوردهای حاصل از این پژوهش، به برنامه ریزان و مدیران جهت مقابله با ریزگردها کمک می کند تا با در نظر گرفتن میزان آسیب پذیری کشاورزان شهرستان دهلران، در تخصیص اعتبارات به آنان یاری رسانند و منبعی معتبر جهت برنامه ریزی های آینده برای سرمایه گذاری در راستای افزایش توان سازگاری، کاهش حساسیت و در نهایت کاهش آسیب پذیری کشاورزان این منطقه در برابر ریزگردها باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: ریزگرد، آسیب پذیری، توان سازگاری، حساسیت، منطق فازی
|
  • Nargis Vazin, Abdolreza Roknodin Eftekhari *, Mehdi Poortaheri, Afshin Danekar Pages 1-27
    Introduction
    Today we are facing many challenges in various fields such as climate change, economic crisis and inequality that mainly due to unsustainable pattern of life, and it created environmental issues such as reduction of resources, coastal and marine degradation, deforestation and threats to biodiversity. As we know, many of today's environmental problems are the result of unsustainable living patterns. Loss of wetland ecosystems is for unsustainable living pattern also. It is being increasingly recognized that the transition to more ecologically sustainable settlement with reduced ecological footprints will require them to be restructured to imitate the processes of natural ecosystems. These requirements imply a different approach to planning. In response to ecological, social and economic challenges of the unsustainable living patterns, Ecovillage model has been appearing worldwide. Also Ecovillage model define as a human scale, full featured settlement that harmlessly integrates human activities into the natural world, supports healthy human development and can be successfully continued into the indefinite future. These characteristics can be influenced to varying degrees by the cultural and socio-economic context within which the settlement exists. Considering the importance of wetlands and its impact on life of rural communities, this study aimed to evaluate level of Ecovillage model and determine sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage model in the villages of surrounding of Miankale and Lapo Zaghmarz wetlands. Therefore this article aimed to answer the question that suitable model for sustainable living based on Ecovillage model in villages of surrounding of wetlands model is?
    Methodology
    Methodology is descriptive- analytic and surveying. The independent variable in this research is sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. Based on research findings, 15 factors include of 6 factors for ecological sustainability, 4 factors for economic sustainability and 5 factors for social sustainability have been obtained to assess level of sustainability of lifestyle based on Ecovillage model. Research case study consisted of village’s of around of Miankale and Lapo wetlands in Mazandaran and Golestan Province, that based on factors of settling in basin of wetland, settling in 1000 meters to rivers, setting in 8 kilometers of wetland, Population density and economic dependence on wetland, 13 villages were selected. Research population consisted of experts and villager’s 13 villages in Behshar, Galoga, Bandargaz and torkman township (around of wetlands) that with Cochran method 360 were selected as research sample. Reliability of Questionnaire with Cronbach Alpha method (0.947) and validity of Questionnaire with KMO test were confirmed. After data gathering, it was analyzed by SPSS software. After determining the contribution of each indicator and assessment of sustainability level and gap analysis with one sample t-test test, sustainable living model was constructed.
    Results And Discussion
    The results show that the ecological dimension with a mean of 3.71 more importance than other dimensions of the Ecovillage model is. Also the study area results in terms of one sample t-test test and the mean value 1.77 indicate villages of surrounding of Miankale and Lapo wetland have a relatively poor level of sustainable lifestyle based on ecovillage model. The difference in the level of alpha 0.05 (Sig = 0.000) is significant. In terms of dimension, the results indicate low levels of sustainability based on Ecovillage model in all three in the study area. This difference is significant at the alpha level (Sig = 0.000). Also dimension of ecological with mean value 1.93 is more sustainable than social dimension with mean value 1.82 and economic dimension with mean value 1.56 for sustainable lifestyle in the villages of around wetland in studied area. Conceptual Framework for sustainable pattern of living, in terms of principles of Ecovillage model (live with nature, green consumption and Production of Community) and relationship between rural communities and wetland ecosystem, is integrated model of ecological social- cultural and economic dimensions, and 3-nested-dependencies model. This model of expert opinion as well as concentric circle and their constituent components were accepted.
    Conclusion
    Model for sustainable living in the villages surrounding of wetland in study area based on the fundamental principles of Ecovillage and relationship between rural communities and wetland ecosystem, is integrated model of ecological social-cultural and economic dimensions, and 3-nested-dependencies model (Economy is dependent on society and both are dependent on the environment). Importance of determining indicators of Ecovillage model measured by Experts and determining parameters of model were measured in the study area. The results are consistent with the model and ecological indicators to achieve the most contribution to sustainability rural communities and wetland ecosystems. The following indicators of social - cultural contribution had and Economic indicators have the least. This point can be derived that sustainable lifestyle based on Ecovillage for villages of wetland surrounding, ecological processes over other processes of social, economic and cultural , are important. Therefore for the protection of wetland ecosystems, Priority action for sustainable living in the villages along the wetland should be driven based on ecology. Another important finding of the survey, this is in addition to the preference of ecological dimension, Sustainability of wetland ecosystems and rural communities will be achieved, if all dimensions and parameters defining of Ecovillage be considered integrated. Therefore conceptual Framework for sustainable pattern of living in village’s of wetland surrounding, is integrated model of ecological social-cultural and economic dimensions, and 3-nested-dependencies model (Economy is dependent on society and both are dependent on the environment). This model of expert opinion as well as concentric circle and their constituent components were accepted. Since level of sustainability of living pattern in villages of the study area is very low, for the move from the current state to the desired state is necessary to implement strategies including Promote the preservation of wetland; Empowerment of villagers; strengthening the ecological infrastructure; Promotion of participatory management.
    Keywords: Sustainable Lifestyle, Ecovillage model, Miankale, Lapo wetlands, sustainable wetland ecosystem, Sustainable rural community
  • Hossein Zarghami *, Hossein Mahmoodian Pages 29-53
    Introduction
    Out-migration is a common phenomenon to the most villages in Iran, however, there are few studies about the effects of migration on those who left behind in the villages. In this paper, we attempt to find out the effects of children s out-migration on social support of aged parents who left behind in the villages of Bardaskan. In Rural areas of this region, most families faces with some or all children that migrate. Based on census data, between “2006-2011”, the rural population of Bardaskan has decrease about 2000. At the same time, In rural areas, the percentage of 60 years old and above persons have been 2 times more than urban areas (12.2 vs 6.2). This figure shows high out-migration of adults and youngsters while older people stay because they unable or unwilling to leave villages. Then, the study question is: what is the impacts of out-migration of children on older parents who stay in rural areas.
    Methodology
    For the purpose of the study, 357 older people that at least had one surviving child, have been interviewed by a structured questionnaire. Respondents have been selected based on multi-stage sampling and a combination of cluster and simple random sampling from 9 villages.to define dependent variables, We modified existing measures, taking into account the importance in the region context of the family and of children. We measured received support (instrumental, financial and emotional), and perceived adequacy of support from children. The answers contained a five option from very much to nothing. There were 2, 2 and 3 questions for measuring financial, emotional and instrumental support respectively. We defined an out-migrant child as a child living outside the parent’s district of residence (outside of village) for a minimum of the past 6 months. We used minimum of 6 months to avoid temporary absences. Considering asked name of destination of migration, we could calculate the interval of migration. In final analysis, the answers classified in 7 categories.
    Results
    in our research, 357 questioners used for analytical purposes. The number of males and females almost are the same and females are more just 3 people. At the time of study, about 64% of the interviewed persons (old parents) were married, but share of women of widows was very mush more and close to 83% of them were females. Most respondents were illiterate and just 103 people could read and write. close to 70% of sample had income below 5000000 and about 48% below 3000000 monthly. This figure shows the extent of poverty among rural elders. In the study sample of 357 parents, 68.1% lived with at least one child stayed in the district and at least one child migrated, 9% lived with all children (without any migrated children), and, others do not have any co-resident child. bivariate correlations showed The interval between child and parents (migration of children) have a positive relationship with financial support and negative relationship with instrumental and emotional support. other characteristics of children have a meaningful relation with social support and this shows that the personal characteristics of children is very important factors in providing social support. The interesting point is that the strongest relation have seen between social support (three types) and migration of children. Among characteristics of parents, some variables don t have a meaningful relation with sicial support. Especially, literacy status does not have any correlation with these three aspects of social support. Sex of parent have a positive relation with financial support, this means that children s financial support to mothers is more than fathers. To control most variables in one model, use of multivariate regression is appropriate and common. Here, based on level of measurement of variables (interval scales), we apply multivariate (stepwise method) regression for three aspect of social support. The results showed that out-migration of children highly limit family networks and interactions. Also, that have negative effects on emotional and instrumental support of elder parents. At the same time, elders have benefits of material supports of that migration.
    Results
    We find contradictory effect of migration of children on these three types, while it is positive effect on financial support, negative effects on instrumental and emotional have been seen.
    Conclusion
    It seems that the children who migrate, by financial support, are seeking the ways to compensate the shortages driven by other supports. In Sum, the effects of children s out-migration on aged parents have seen, but the effects are various and parents get benefits and losses. The reader should not forget the role of other variables in this processes. At least, 4 variables are very important including health, income and marital status of olds persons and income level of children. In fact, both characteristics of parents and children have their independent role.
    Keywords: Social Support, random, cluster Sampling, elder, social network, Bardaskan
  • Maziar Asefi * Shahin Farokhi Pages 55-80
    Introduction
    After the occurrence of a natural disaster, existing houses become useless and the affected families have to live in a place other than their ruined homes. In this situation they should be able to do their chores, stay safe from heat and cold and obtain their lost lull and they need to reside and live at the same time. However, many of the temporary shelters that are made and used today despite their some possible values, are in contrast with life and surrounding environment because of ignorance of the concepts of residence and unfortunately they (the temporary shelters) have too many flaws in both functional and physical terms.
    Considering the above issues, it is very important to pay careful attention to the design and construction of temporary housing by considering at least the basic requirements of the affected people. Therefore, the purpose of this study is the evaluation and analysis of temporary housing for victims of disaster after the earthquake and natural disasters to identify its strengths and weaknesses in order to optimize and provide solutions for improving its quality tailored to the needs of victims. This paper attempts to answer this question that what features and components are effective on satisfaction of temporary housing and what features these houses should have in order to be able to respond to the need of victims. In this regard, to answer these questions, this study will investigate the temporary housing after the earthquake in the rural areas of Sarand-Heris and will also classify and evaluate the factors and bring quality to the temporary housing.
    Methodology
    in this study, the main focus is on providing qualitative components that are needed for desirable design of temporary shelters after disasters.
    For this purpose, first, in a comparative study between the extracted criteria and characteristics of the previous temporary housing, the mail criteria that are closer to the nature of temporary housing spaces will be defined. In the next step, the extracted and defined criteria will be evaluated by use of the “Likert Scale” in separate tables. Each criterion has a range of minimum and maximum points. Therefore by dividing the obtained number from this range, three qualities of good, average and poor will be achieved for each criterion. In the following, each criterion and its quality will be evaluated according to certain methods including field data's and oral interview (about 54 interviewees of various age and sex groups). The results show that the victims have low satisfaction from the social and physical components of temporary housing and have moderate satisfaction from the technical components. In the meantime, the victims have the lowest level of satisfaction of temporary housing from components of "security" and "protection of human dignity and privacy" and "environmental perception " of social criterion, components of "health" and "from" and "architecture and designing" of physical criterion and "utilities and energy" of technical and structural criterion. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the problems with measures such as use of suitable covers for temporary housing, use of durable materials in the construction of temporary housing, fencing around tents, setting up family tent together, and determination of the boundary for each tent and the placement of entrance of tent in front of entrance of neighbor's tent.
    Results
    The result of this study also shows that some other arrangements can also improve the quality of temporary housing including proper access to work, suitable arrangements of the tents in camps, possibility of creating temporary recreation equipment's for children, use of durable, waterproof materials, use of the fire-resistant bodies, use of materials resistant to atmosphere, use of neutral and pale colors in bodies, use of bold and relaxing colors such as blue in the surface, placement of constant trash cans with hob guard, providing at least one large container in place to collect garbage, construction of temporary housing away from the trash, placement of enough prefabricated bathroom in place, avoiding unnecessary complexity, use of angles close to the curved form to pass the wind flow and for pressure drop and for being suitable for damaged moral, use of sharp and sloping roofs to prevent accumulation of rain water in bodies, possibility of expansion in the future, possibility of changing and replacement of parts, use of prefabricated products, adaptability of the prefabricated houses in order to adapt with different location and environment, considering cultural expression, having specific identity from the viewpoint of general technical and functional characteristics, possibility of shelving parts of interior space for storage, designing for people with disabilities, possibility of space separation, considering places to install steam vent and ventilation and stove, use of double-layer insole, use of tape in the seams, sue of double-glazed windows, adding the number of windows for improving lighting and ventilation level, good infrastructure including water supply, doing part of assembly stages in production location before the event, use of vernacular materials in manufacturing and setting up tents.
    Conclusion
    The result of this study shows that there are many factor including social, cultural and economic and technical that should be taken into consideration when devising a new home for affected people. The key point is that a balance should be made among these factors according to the people’s needs and requirements.
    Keywords: valuation, Temporary housing, disaster, temporary housing characteristics, tents Accommodation
  • Tahere Sadeghloo*, Aida Sadrolsadat, Zari Afshar Pages 81-111
    Introduction
    Rural land segregation predicate to intercepting the land pieces for devotion to different and variant uses inter or around of rural physical texture that its main goal is providing the healthy, safety and public welfare for rural people and also appropriate exploitation of land for rural reclamation with considering the shortage of residential, official and services spaces in rural area and also with observing the appropriate accessing of land pieces. In this paper, meanwhile of introducing the needed tools in suite structure of rural land segregation, including rural law and rights, standards and limitation, this question had been overturned that what are the main challenges of rural land segregation process in Mashhad rural area? Therefore, had been tried to analyzing of exist structure of rural land segregation by explanation of rural law and right through of expert and specialist of Bonyad Maskan office, and also some experts such as consultants of conducting projects in rural area and other institutions such as Engineering Organization and institution of document registration in Mashhad province. In addition of these sample study, had been tried to analyzing the possible challenges in land segregation process, from the perspective of land owners of case study area.
    Methodology
    Used methodology of this study is based on qualitative approaches and by using of Grounded Theory as a one of the explanative approaches of research. In first step, data gathering had been done by document and liberally resources for proving the theorical base of this process and in next step had been used of open and unstructured interviews. Gathered data had been analyzing by conceptual analysis techniques and after coding in three stages (open coding, axial coding and selected coding), finally conceptual model of land segregation challenges in rural area had been extracted from analyzed data that include land providing challenges, limitation of natural and physical factors, legal barriers of owners and executive limitation of land segregation that legal limitation is most important factor for shaping the land segregation process in rural area. Rural land segregation predicate to intercepting the land pieces for devotion to different and variant uses inter or around of rural physical texture that its main goal is providing the healthy, safety and public welfare for rural people and also appropriate exploitation of land for rural reclamation with considering the shortage of residential, official and services spaces in rural area and also with observing the appropriate accessing of land pieces. In this paper, meanwhile of introducing the needed tools in suite structure of rural land segregation, including rural law and rights, standards and limitation, this question had been overturned that what are the main challenges of rural land segregation process in Mashhad rural area? Therefore, had been tried to analyzing of exist structure of rural land segregation by explanation of rural law and right through of expert and specialist of Bonyad Maskan office, and also some experts such as consultants of conducting projects in rural area and other institutions such as Engineering Organization and institution of document registration in Mashhad province. In addition of these sample study, had been tried to analyzing the possible challenges in land segregation process, from the perspective of land owners of case study area. Used methodology of this study is based on qualitative approaches and by using of Grounded Theory as a one of the explanative approaches of research. In first step, data gathering had been done by document and liberally resources for proving the theorical base of this process and in next step had been used of open and unstructured interviews. Gathered data had been analyzing by conceptual analysis techniques and after coding in three stages (open coding, axial coding and selected coding), finally conceptual model of land segregation challenges in rural area had been extracted from analyzed data that include land providing challenges, limitation of natural and physical factors, legal barriers of owners and executive limitation of land segregation that legal limitation is most important factor for shaping the land segregation process in rural area.
    Results
    Rural land segregation predicate to intercepting the land pieces for devotion to different and variant uses inter or around of rural physical texture that its main goal is providing the healthy, safety and public welfare for rural people and also appropriate exploitation of land for rural reclamation with considering the shortage of residential, official and services spaces in rural area and also with observing the appropriate accessing of land pieces. In this paper, meanwhile of introducing the needed tools in suite structure of rural land segregation, including rural law and rights, standards and limitation, this question had been overturned that what are the main challenges of rural land segregation process in Mashhad rural area? Therefore, had been tried to analyzing of exist structure of rural land segregation by explanation of rural law and right through of expert and specialist of Bonyad Maskan office, and also some experts such as consultants of conducting projects in rural area and other institutions such as Engineering Organization and institution of document registration in Mashhad province. In addition of these sample study, had been tried to analyzing the possible challenges in land segregation process, from the perspective of land owners of case study area.
    Conclusion
    Used methodology of this study is based on qualitative approaches and by using of Grounded Theory as a one of the explanative approaches of research. In first step, data gathering had been done by document and liberally resources for proving the theorical base of this process and in next step had been used of open and unstructured interviews. Gathered data had been analyzing by conceptual analysis techniques and after coding in three stages (open coding, axial coding and selected coding), finally conceptual model of land segregation challenges in rural area had been extracted from analyzed data that include land providing challenges, limitation of natural and physical factors, legal barriers of owners and executive limitation of land segregation that legal limitation is most important factor for shaping the land segregation process in rural area.
    Keywords: land segregation, rural area, rural right, law, Grounded theory, Mashhad Township
  • Naser Shafiee Sabet *, Behzad Doosti Sabzi Pages 113-138
    1-
    Introduction
    Improving the quality of services provided to rural areas in order to empower them in the process of rural development, need to receive feedback from rural residents. Ignoring the Allcomments, the demands and expectations of rural residents has created many challenges in the process of serving the villages. Therefore, identifying strengths and weaknesses in various aspects of quality of service, is helpful to rural planners to achieve the objectives, implementing programs and resolving its weaknesses. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the rural resident's satisfaction with the quality of the civil service was conducted by using the tool SERVQUAL. Thistool, evaluates service quality of an organization from the following five aspects: 1. Tangibles, which evaluates the physical and material aspects of the service provider. 2. Reliability that measures an organization's ability to deliver Services correctly and within the specified time. 3. Responsiveness: that evaluates the tendency of organizations to assist users and provides faster service to them. 4. Assurance that measures knowledge, politeness and ability of employees to create confidence in consumers.5. Empathy that measures the degree of user’s importance and staff dealing with clients.
    .In Iran, various organizations undertaken the planning and implementation of projects in rural areas and offer various services. Measuring satisfaction of rural residents about the quantity and quality of programs and services, effectively help to improve this kind of serves. Rural Water and Sewerage Company is one of those organizations and Offers multiple service activities in the villages.
    2-
    Methodology
    In this descriptive-analytical study, using Probability Proportional to Size sampling (1387 households), 302 households were randomly selected from two rural districts in the Central District of Delfan County.Fiveoptions Likert Scales was used in items adjusting. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to analyze the questionnaire reliability of research. This amount in expectations is equal to 0/78 and 0/88 in perceptions; which indicates good reliability of tool. Also, since the SERVQUAL tool is a standard tool, therefore, has high validity. In order to confirm the validity of questionnaire, thematic expert's opinions were used; on these basis necessary corrections was applied. Grading method (Scoring method) to each Likert item was used in analyzing the quality of services provided by Rural Water and Sewerage Company, in surveyed villages and recognition of the gap between the expectations and perceptions of respondents in any studied aspects. Also, to evaluate the relationship between service quality and general characteristics of the respondents, Spearman correlation coefficient was used.
    3-
    Results
    Evaluation of importance and satisfaction averages in any aspect of SERVQUAL scale indicates a large gap between the expectations and perceptions of rural people from Rural Water and Sewerage Companyservices. So that the resulting difference in the quality is equal to -0.29 in tangibles, -0.44 in terms of reliability, -0.13 in the Assurance , -0.52 in empathy and -0.30 in Responsiveness. In order to evaluate the effect of respondent’s characteristics and education in their quality assessment of services provided by the Rural Water and Sewerage Company, with establishment of Spearman the correlation between these attributes was examined with different aspects of service quality. Accordingly, among "tangibles qualities" and "education" negative and significant relationship was observed in 95%. In fact, with increasing of education and awareness of villagerstheir satisfaction about services decreases. Also, among "tangibles qualities" and "income" in the level of 95 percent was a significant negative correlation. In addition, among "responsibility" with "income" and "literacy ", "quality of empathy" with "income" and "literacy", and "quality of service" with "literacy" Significant negative correlation was observed at 95%.
    4-
    Conclusion
    Assessment of Housing Foundation Services in the villages indicates the gap between the overall quality of services provided to the villagers and their expectations.However, the largest gap was observedfor the empathy dimension, and, as mentioned above, the statements relating to this dimension show the greatestgapbetween theexpectations and perceptions ofpeople.
    This reflects that the Rural Water and Sewerage Company operates weaker relative to their duties in this part. The results of correlation analysis showed with increasing income and education level of rural residents, amount of expectations is higher. Also, with increased information and awareness through mass media the expectations gradually has increased in the studied areas. And the traditional distance between the urban and rural areas has disappeared in this respect. This is due to increasing demands and expectations of villagers from the civil service. Therefore, it is essential that Rural Water and Sewerage Company as one of the providing services and public organizationsshould pay attention to developments in the field of promote knowledge and information to rural residents about the quality of the environment and rural life; and take action of service to rural areas by changing intellectual and practical approach and attention to the way people think and rural residents moral feel.
    Therefore, since the aim of this study was to understand about quality of programs, implementation of civil projects to improve the satisfaction of rural residents, achieving balance and spatial equilibrium, optimal distribution of population and economic activities, optimal distribution of resources, and ultimately improve the lives of villagers in study area;
    Keywords: Satisfaction, Service, quality, Abfar, Delfan
  • Roozbeh Mirzaei *, Nafiseh Rezaee Pages 139-166
    Introduction
    Today, event tourism is known as one of the fastest growing parts of tourism economy. Events are important in tourism since they attract more visitors to the destinations, motivate locals to participate in tourism activities, promote authentic arts of the local communities and increase their income (Watt, 2012). At the other hands, reinforcing community ties, events could strengthen valuable social cohesion (Gursoy, Kim & Uysal, 2004) by playing the role of an attraction, a catalyst, an animator, a place marketer or an image maker (Getz, 2008). Since the 1990s, the academic researcher pay special attention to the motivations of events attendees.Today, there are unique rituals in all cities and rural areas of Iran could plan to hold festival on their theme. These festivals would be attractive to tourists. As the local community involvement and agreement to do the event-based activities constantly are the main issues in sustainable tourism, increased positive socioeconomic impacts of events could encourage them to protect their customs and traditions through attending to different national and international festivals. In this way’ Iranian-Islamic ancient culture would be preserved and introduced internationally. For achieving this purpose, it is necessary to focus on systematic management and marketing. Parrinello (1993, p. 233) stated "the importance of the motivation in tourism is quite obvious, it acts as a trigger that sets off all the events involved in travel". Among few cultural events held in Iran with travel and tourism approach, the Golghaltan Festival in Amirie is chosen as a case study.
    Methodology
    Data are collected based on desk and field research by taking advantage of questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire consist of three main parts including motives, travel behavior and demographic variables. At first, to assess the structure and content validity of the questionnaire nine experts who manage, market or have official responsibility in holding the Golghaltan festival were asked to review the proposed data gathering tool. After applying their comments in the research design, a pre-test was conducted on 76 visitors. All items have reliability coefficient above 0.6, so they were considered to be acceptable in this study.
    Tourists who visit 8th Golghaltan Festival in 2015 have been considered as the statistical population. According to the official reports, 7000 visitor attend this event last year. Based on Cochran equation the sample size is calculated 357. Using convenience sampling method, 287 usable questionnaire were gathered.Thirty-seven motivational items were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale in which 1stands for not important at all, 2= not important, 3= neither unimportant nor important, 4= important, 5= very important, then factors were analyzed using the principal component method and varimax rotation procedure. Bartlett̕s test of sphericity was significant (p
    Results And Discussion
    More than 60% of respondents are young (in 18-34 age group), about 64% have academic degree and above two-thirds are married with different annual income levels. The six motivational factors for attending to Golghaltan Festival are termed "Golghaltan & family", "cultural exploration", "socialization", "support", "novelty" and "escape". Results show that attendees of a Cultural Community-Based Event such as this festival are motivated more by pull factors like cultural exploration rather than push factors such as escape. The equal ratio of participant’s gender most of whom, at young age, highly educated and married indicate that the studied festival should be considered as a culture-family based event. So this implies that, Iranians with a higher education are more likely to be interested in cultural tourism
    Conclusion
    Iran is a country enjoying high ethnic diversity. Each one of these ethnic groups have their own specific characteristics and cultural heritage. Cultural events arise a golden opportunity in light of which it is possible to not only strengthen ties between the ethnicities but also enhance national identity and national pride. The local communities’ sense of unity, pride and belonging to their own culture and traditions is critical to success of the events.
    Understanding why visitors tend to attend to such events is necessary for developing those events more and more. Furthermore it is essential to be sensitive about enriching visitors’ experience. So a detailed marketing mix must be developed to plan the festival much better. As a result it is possible to offer a high quality experience to the visitors without eliminating or lowering the authenticity and cultural integrity of the ethnicities.
    Taking these into account, the results show that visitors are more motivated to attend to Golghaltan Festival as a rural-community-based festival, by motivational pull factors (i.e., Golghaltan and cultural exploring as attraction and cultural heritage of the destination) than motivational push factors (i.e., pressures of living environment to leave the home in order to change the routine life style).
    Keywords: Event Tourism, Motivation, Local community, Golghaltan Festival, Amiriabad
  • Saeed Reza Akbarian Ronizi* Pages 167-193
    1.
    Introduction
    It is not possible to develop tourism activities in rural areas without an attention to sustainability concepts and related discussions. Tourism development in these areas perse leads to nowhere and in this way, rural tourism will encounter many challenges and obstacles. Iran is among the countries which addresse sustainable development of rural areas in the wake of tourism development and in recent years, various policies and programs (the country comprehensive plan of tourism development, defining special tourism areas, etc.) have been planned in this regard. Defining target villages for tourism is of governmental activities to fade deprivation, exploit possible abilities of deprived areas, particularly villages, and stablish developmental initiatives in line with policies specified in the twenty-year vision plan. Of the above-mentioned villages are target villages for tourism in Sepidan county (in Fars province) which due to their special weather conditions, are among the most important and attractive tourism areas of Fars province and attract huge inter- and extra-provincial tourists in leisure times and vacations. Meanwhile, evaluating development of tourism sustainability is an important and essential subject matter, because achieving sustainable development of tourism destinations entails a comprehensive understanding of sustainability status of tourism destinations and so, tourism development of rural areas follows the same rule. In better words, evaluating tourism sustainability in target villages seems to be unavoidable since the knowledge of tourism sustainability and their aspects in these areas could shed light on matters decision makers and other stakeholders in this field come up with. So, our main goal in the present study is evaluating sustainability level of tourism development of target villages of Sepidan county and answering to three questions as follows: a) At which sustainability level, the tourism development of target villages could be assessed? b) What is the difference of sustainable tourism from the perspective of residents and local officials? c) What is the difference of sustainable development between target villages of Sepidan County?
    2.
    Methodology
    This study is practical in objective and descriptive-analytical in accomplishment. Our data have been collected via library and survey methods and the latter was based on questionnaires. Our study area involves six target villages for tourism in Sepidan County including Deh Kohne, Behreghan, Roudbal, Margun, Kahkaran and Kamher. Our statistical population were residents and local officials. In this study, we specified indices and indicators through Delphi method and the views of scholars. In order to analyze data we used statistical methods (descriptive and inferential statistics) and also non-statistical methods (sustainability barometer and sustainability radar).
    3.
    Discussion
    Sustainability status of tourism development of the studied villages shows that the overall sustainability score was 0.532 which was 0.513 in the residents’ views and was 0.552 in the local officials’ views. Among the triple aspects, social and cultural aspects having the same score of 0.582, had the most sustainability level and bio-environmental aspect was found to be the lowest level of sustainability with the score of 0.469 which shows the undesirable status of bio-environmental aspect of tourism development. In this regard, studying views of the two groups separately shows that the maximum and minimum of sustainability level respectively belong to the economic and the bio-environmental aspects in residents’ points of view and the maximum and minimum of sustainability level respectively belong to the social-cultural and the economic aspects in local officials’ points of view.
    4.
    Conclusion
    Our results based on barometer method shows that tourism development of the studied villages has an average level of sustainability which by the triple aspects, social-cultural aspect has a better status of sustainability than the other two aspects i.e. the economic and the bio-environmental aspects. Evaluating sustainability by the main studied indices also shows that maximum and minimum level of sustainability belong to the index of the satisfaction from tourism development and also of the bio-environmental awareness. Another result of our study concerns the level of sustainability of tourism development in each of the studied villages which shows that Margun village has the maximum score and Behraghan village has the minimum score of sustainability of tourism development and in total of six target villages for tourism, three villages(Kamhar, Kahkaran and Behraghan) were assessed as unsustainable in the spectrum of sustainability level and the other three villages which were assessed as sustainable by level as follows: weak sustainability(Deh Kohne), average sustainability(Roudball) and good sustainability(Margun village). In this regard, we concluded that for any of the triple aspects of sustainability of tourism development there is a significant difference between the target villages for tourism in Sepidan county, in these villages, tourism development has an average level of sustainability and there is also a huge difference between these villages in terms of tourism sustainability. So, we finally saw that it has not been taken due attention to the accomplishment of tourism sustainable development, its principles and objectives as it deserves to do so in rural areas of Iran, particularly in target villages for tourism. Our survey study also shows that this class of villages specified as target villages for tourism with the target of developing rural tourism, have involved in various but primary troubles which could face tourism development with many challenges. So, it demands a deeper scientific and executive vision and understanding in line with fulfilling sustainability paradigm generally in tourism development and in tourism development of target villages, in particular.
    Keywords: Sustainable development of, rural tourism, target villages, Sustainability Barometer, Sepidan County
  • Latif Haji, Mohammad Chizari *, Shahla Choobchian Pages 195-216
    Introduction
    Both agricultural and rural development has been an essential element for progress of many countries. In order to maintain a sustainable development strategy various destructive factors such as Poverty, food insecurity, rural migration and environmental degradation should be constantly tried to get diminished. Agricultural sector is one of the most important economic activities in Iran and therefore, requires integrated planning in order to achieve development and cope with the economic, social and political crisis. In the same path, quite possibly many developed countries owe their increased agricultural production, reduced costs, and increased revenue to the agricultural production cooperatives. Significant and different successes have been achieved for the established cooperatives. Cooperatives are still a powerful lever for both economic growth and social welfare.
    Unfortunately, it has been observed that currently in Iran many agricultural production cooperatives been quite inactive, unproductive and inefficient. As an institution, many of them have a very short life span. For example from 1,202 registered cooperatives in west Azerbaijan Province, only about 416 are well established. It is worthy to note, that specifically in Naghadeh Township cooperatives, only four are active. Obviously, agricultural production cooperatives of Iran should be taken more seriously and paid more attention by both the government and private organizations if food security is to be managed and poverty fought. Cooperatives and cooperation approach should be promoted in to everyday culture. This important ant step will enhance unity among community members as well as initiate creativity.
    Methodology
    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting sustainable development of agricultural production cooperatives in Naghadeh Township. A questionnaire was used to gather data. Population included members of agricultural production cooperatives in Naghadeh Township (N=778). Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) Table was used to determine sample numbers (n=260). Also a stratified random sampling was implemented to select samples. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, a panel of faculty members in the department of agricultural extension and education at Tarbiat Modares University who were familiar with development of agricultural Production Cooperatives reviewed the instrument for clarity and content validity. Minor changes in wording were recommended to the questionnaire to improve clarity of some statements. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Coefficient Alpha) was used to determine reliability of the instrument, internal consistency was between r= 0.78 and 0.81. Statistical methods used in this study, correlation analysis (using software SPSS22) and structural equation modeling (using software LISREL8.80), respectively.
    Results
    Results showed that all factors affecting sustainable development of agricultural production cooperatives and the dependent variable had high average rating. The correlation matrix of variables in the research model indicated a significant positive relationship between the four components of development with the sustainable development of agricultural production cooperatives. Among these factors institutional factor had the highest correlation with sustainable development of cooperatives (r=0.565), While environmental factor had the least correlation (r= 0.258) with sustainable development of cooperatives.
    The conceptual framework presented in the paper was evaluated by the use of structural equation modeling. According to the results, the t-value obtained in the equations indicated that it was different from zero in all variables used in the model. The indicators CR as well as AVE had appropriate and high values. In the same path, the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) scored less than 0.05. Therefore, overall fit was good. Also, the coefficient of determination (R2) displayed for each equation showed the amount of variance in the dependent variable accounted for by independent variables. Thus, R2 of 63.1 in sustainable development of agricultural production cooperatives equation indicated that 63% of the variance in sustainable development of agricultural production cooperatives explained by social, economic, environmental and institutional factors.
    Conclusion
    Results of correlation analysis indicated a positive and a significant relationship between the components of the social, economic, environmental and institutional with the sustainable development of agriculture production cooperative. Also all the hypotheses have been approved and each component of social, economic, environmental and institutional had a significant and a positive effect on sustainable development of agricultural production cooperatives.
    According to the results of the study the following suggestions were made: Cooperative administrators in cooperation with the Township's Agriculture Jihad Organization should provide essential training for the members regarding the principles and philosophy of cooperation in order to create a belief in partnership. Also, the relevant agencies should enhance their support to agricultural cooperatives by eliminating the cumbersome laws; provide adequate credit and facilities to production units, so that the members with considerations for environmental issues could increase their production.
    Keywords: agricultural production cooperatives, sustainable development, Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, Naghadeh Township
  • Hadi Almasi *, Jafar Tavakoli, Parastoo Ghoochi Pages 217-242
    Introduction
    Drought is the most important natural disasters, which inflict huge losses on the rural areas. Control and adapt to drought in rural areas is of great importance.The native method appropriate way to manage the crisis.The approach is a reaction to the drought as a grammatical structure control, focused and technology-driven way to a new approach called community-based management that culture, capacities and knowledge of the local communities concerned. This study aims to identify and prioritize local strategies to adapt to drought in Kermanshah Province. The research method is analytical and measurement techniques. Data collection methods and field practices library. The total number of villages, 4 villages in the province to strongly differentiate the drought, natural conditions and geographical distribution in the province. The study population using Cochran's sampling and 95/0 reliability and accuracy probability sample of 200 students was 0.90. To test the hypothesis using SPSS software and Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results of the research showed that the relationship between the frequency and severity of droughts significantly and positively perceived by farmers, civil land, irrigated lands, individual and family crisis management strategies, and the villages surveyed in the above-mentioned strategies There is a significant difference.
    Methodology
    Drought is a phenomenon that in every region and country, the climate is dry or wet, and with drought and water scarcity is different happen. However, drought will exacerbate drought and water shortage problem. To avoid any area where there is drought, but to deal with it and reduce potential damage, measures can be taken.This phenomenon is caused by (Parsley et al., 1392: 174). The ongoing efforts at the global, national and regional drought for the recognition more accurate, access to effective mechanisms to predict and deal with the consequences of consensus on the definition of direct and indirect, and it is ongoing. Today, countries where droughts are more susceptible to being caught in the trap of anti-drought programs and strategies developed and carried out. (Word bank, 2002: 15).
    Results
    Due to the climatic conditions of the country and the risk of drought in arid and semi arid belt in Iran is very high. But for various reasons (the short period stations and their inappropriate distribution, computer facilities and the shortage of skilled and less attention to drought) in the past is not to do a comprehensive study of drought., strength and impact on the lives of the villagers have RahbrdHa (Glory, 1382: 292).
    Farmers in drought coping strategies that employ risk management and crisis management is defined in two parts. Hence the need to plan to cope or adapt to reducing the damage caused by this phenomenon and to adopt appropriate strategies will be felt by farmers.Based on many years of experience gained in government organizations and other farmers, so that they apply these strategies in times of drought in the first degree and second-degree compatible with the phenomenon of losses caused by drought to minimize. When drought strategies different from the government and non-governmental organizations to provide the farmers with regard to social and environmental realities - inadequate and sometimes non-viable rural economy. And in many cases for reasons such as lack of capital, limited infrastructure, technology, and cultural appreciation and acceptance are not farmers. Thus, coping with drought should be tailored to geographic, social, economic and various areas are set. With regard to this issue, taking into account local conditions and their environment, rural and indigenous knowledge that is gained by using various coping strategies in the fall. This study seeks to analyze strategies for coping with drought farmers that they can help identify significant in the context of planning and action to deal with the drought count (POURTAHERI et al., 1392: 22-6).
    Conclusion
    Kermanshah as the scope of the climate is semi-arid and steppe. The province has 711 thousand hectares of rain-fed and irrigated land is 235 hectares (Regional Water Company in Kermanshah, 1393: 9). Given the significant amount of irrigated lands and drylands to drought that occurred in recent years necessity of coping strategies to deal with the drought from the farmers than ever before. Drought Severity Index is calculated according to the Meteorological Office in the province between 1387 to 1392 indicate more severe droughts in the city in the 1388-1387 crop year (honor and Zarafshan, 1389: 133). The province is divided into four groups based on the mentioned criteria and Rawansar cities, Kangavar, Islamabad West and Sarpolezahab with regard to the appropriate spatial distribution and ultimately Khorramabad villages of Normandy, Solomon-e-Mohammad Khani and Jalalvand Upper chosen as the unit of analysis. Empirical evidence and preliminary field data obtained indicate that the villages affected by drought in recent years with problems Nzyrkahsh product, lack of drinking water, ground water and reducing livestock faced decrease. Therefore, the central question of this study is to examine the compatibility of rural farmers cope with drought and what strategies to adopt.
    Keywords: drought, coping strategies, crisis management, Kermanshah Province
  • Mahboobeh Kheirollahi *, Amir Hossein Alibeygi, Kioomars Zarafshani Pages 243-264
    Introduction
    One of the environmental concerns during the past decade is dust pollutant. This phenomenon is extensively known around the globe. In Iran, this destructive phenomenon has created serious problems among environmental policy-makers. Dust particles has been a dominant phenomenon in western Iran during recent years, which has a wide range of negative impacts on western half of the nation’s territories. Farmers seem to face extensive loss during the onset of dust. Although they are vulnerable towards dust phenomenon, there has been limited study their vulnerability rate. The term ‘vulnerability’ is used in many different ways by various scholarly communities. The resulting disagreement about the appropriate definition of vulnerability is a frequent cause for misunderstanding in interdisciplinary research on climate change and a challenge for attempts to develop formal models of vulnerability. vulnerability is most often conceptualized as being constituted by a components that include exposure and sensitivity to perturbations or external stresses, and the capacity to adapt. Exposure is the nature and degree to which a system experiences environmental or socio-political stress. The characteristics of these stresses include their magnitude, frequency, duration and areal extent of the hazard. Sensitivity is the degree to which a system is modified or affected by perturbations. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to evolve in order to accommodate environmental hazards or policy change and to expand the range of variability with which it can cope.
    four dimensions are fundamental to describe a vulnerable situation. 1)System: The system of analysis, such as a coupled human–environment system, a population group, an economic sector, a geographical region, or a natural system. Note that some research traditions restrict the concept of vulnerability to social systems or coupled human–environment systems. whereas others apply it to any system that is potentially threatened by a hazard, 2) Attribute of concern: The valued attribute(s) of the vulnerable system that is/are threatened by its exposure to a hazard. Examples of attributes of concern include human lives and health, the existence, income and cultural identity of a community, and the biodiversity, carbon sequestration potential and timber productivity of a forest ecosystem, 3) Hazard: A potentially damaging influence on the system of analysis. United Nations (2004) defines a ‘hazard’ broadly as ‘‘a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation’’. Hence, a hazard is understood as some influence that may adversely affect a valued attribute of a system. A hazard is generally but not always external to the system under consideration. For instance, a community may also be threatened by hazardous business activities or by unsustainable land management practices within this community. Hazards are often distinguished into discrete hazards, denoted as perturbations, and continuous hazards, denoted as stress or stressor, 4)Temporal reference: The point in time or time period of interest. Specifying a temporal reference is particularly important when the risk to a system is expected to change significantly during the time horizon of a vulnerability assessment, such as for long-term assessments of anthropogenic climate change.
    Methodology
    This research paradigmatically is type of quantitative research and in terms of the facts and data processing is a descriptive study (non-experimental) - survey and in terms of the target is applied Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the vulnerability of farmers towards dust. The population in this study comprised of wheat farmers (N = 2105) in which 330 wheat farmers from Markazi and Moosian Rural districts were selected using stratified proportionate cluster sampling techniques. To assess farmer's vulnerability, adaptive capacity and sensitivity towards dust was used as indicators of vulnerability. Using AHP techniques, 15 experts weighted the indicators through 2*2 matrices and Expert Choice Software was utilized as tool for further analysis. Composite indicators were then developed for further assessments.
    Results
    At the end by using the fuzzy logic in software Matlab, the Adaptive capacity, Sensitivity and vulnerability of studied farmer Was calculated. Based on the findings of Fuzzy Logic, the Adaptive capacity of Dasht Abas Rural district Farmers with the rate of 0.605 had the highest Adaptive capacity,and Nahr anbar Rural district with rate of 0.588 and Anaran Rural district with rate of 0.563 were placed in second and third place. the sensitivity of Dasht Abas Rural district and Anaran Rural district Farmers with the rate of 0.790 had the highest sensitivity and Nahr anbar Rural district with rate of 0.742 were placed in second place. At the end the vulnerability of Anaran Rural district Farmers with the rate of 0.600 had the highest vulnerability,and Nahr anbar Rural district with rate of 0.580 and Dasht Abas Rural district with rate of 0.566 were placed in second and third place.
    Conclusions
    Results revealed that wheat farmers had high adaptive capacities and high sensitivity towards dust which in turn made them somewhat vulnerable towards dust. The implication of this study aids policy-makers in Dehloran Township to allocated resources based on farmers vulnerability level. Furthermore, the result of this study helps policy-makers to plan for enhancement of farmer's adaptive capacities, reducing sensitivity of farmers and thus lowering their vulnerability towards dust.
    Keywords: Dust, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, sensitivity, fuzzy logic