فهرست مطالب

Hepatitis - Volume:16 Issue: 8, 2016
  • Volume:16 Issue: 8, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Jon Woltmann*, Patrick Burke, Rebecca Brady, Jason T. Blackard Page 1
    Background
    Cases of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been rising across the United States, and southwest Ohio is no exception.
    Objectives
    To describe the rise in cases of HCV in our region, the Ohio Disease Reporting System was reviewed for all cases of positive HCV testing from 2010 through August 2015.
    Methods
    29,018 cases were reviewed, with 18,678 (64.4%) cases included in the final analysis. The incidence of newly reported cases of HCV was calculated, and demographic data were reviewed to describe the populations at greatest risk.
    Results
    All counties reviewed demonstrated a rise in the incidence of new cases of positive HCV testing. All age groups demonstrated an increased incidence of positive HCV tests, with the most substantial rise occurring among individuals aged 20 - 29 and 30 - 39. There was a slight male predominance (53%), and the majority of individuals were white (82%).
    Conclusions
    Southwest Ohio is experiencing a rise in positive HCV testing among young adults. Further research is required to determine the burden of disease, define the primary risk factors associated with disease acquisition, and develop appropriate public health interventions.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C, HCV, Epidemiology
  • Roman Liebe*, Marcin Krawczyk, Joanna Raszeja, Wyszomirska, Beata Kruk, Rebecca Preis, Jocelyn Trottier, Olivier Barbier, Piotr Milkiewicz, Frank Lammert Page 2
    Introduction
    The incidence of liver damage due to steroid consumption is increasing due to the omnipresence of the idealized body image and the widespread availability of drugs via the Internet. The genetic factors underlying individual susceptibility are not presently known..
    Case Presentation
    A male patient developed cholestatic liver injury two weeks after a two-month course of anabolic steroids. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 24 cholestasis-related genes revealed a heterozygous two-basepair deletion in exon 1 of the pregnane X receptor gene (PXR). Serum bile salt levels showed marked imbalances, strongly resembling the changes observed in patients with biliary obstruction..
    Conclusions
    This case of PXR haploinsufficiency reveals transcriptional regulatory functions activated in the liver under xenobiotic stress by steroids, which appear to require two functional copies of the nuclear receptor gene. Deranged bile salt levels outline the central role of PXR in bile acid synthesis, modification, and export..
    Keywords: Nuclear Receptor PXR, NR1I2, Bile Acid Metabolism, Drug, Induced Cholestasis, Anabolic Steroids, Liver Disease
  • Yang Zhang, Linlin Lu, David W. Victor, Yongning Xin*, Shiying Xuan* Page 3
    Context: An optimal therapeutic strategy has not yet been identified for the pharmacological treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) in the treatment of ICP, both individually and in combination..
    Evidence Acquisition: A meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing UDCA, SAMe, and combination therapy was performed. We carried out a literature search using pubmed, embase, the cochrane register of controlled trials, and the science citation index of web of science. The maternal clinical and biochemical responses, including pruritus scores, total bilirubin, total bile acids, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase, were evaluated. Safety assessments, including preterm delivery, cesarean section, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid, were also analyzed..
    Results
    Five RCTs including 311 patients were evaluated. In comparison to SAMe, UDCA significantly reduced the pruritus score (OR = -0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.66 to -0.25, P
    Conclusions
    UDCA decreased the pruritus score, TBA, and ALT levels more effectively than SAMe, reducing the rate of preterm delivery for ICP..
    Keywords: Ursodeoxycholic Acid, S, Adenosylmethionine, Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy
  • Barbara Stawinska, Witoszynska, Monika Zysnarska, MaŁgorzata Krzywinska, Wiewiorowska*, Paulina WojtyŁa, Buciorab, Alicja Krzyzaniak, Barbara Wieckowska Page 4
    Background
    The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland.
    Objectives
    We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients.
    Methods
    The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases.
    Results
    A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant.
    Conclusions
    The registered increase in the incidence rate of chronic hepatitis B in Poland is a consequence of the new registration of cases of chronic hepatitis B acquired in the past. The problem of chronic hepatitis B can be solved by improving epidemiological supervision, enhancing the detection of frequently asymptomatic infections, and by providing easier access to optimized therapies.
    Keywords: Hepatitis B, Chronic, Incidence, Trends, Poland
  • Nouredine Behloul, Min Zhang, Jihong Meng* Page 5
    Background
    Two hepatitis E virus (HEV) outbreaks occurred in Algeria (1979 - 1980 and 1987 - 1988). However, to date, no study on the prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies has been conducted in Algeria, and the genotype of the circulating strains remains unclear.
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to investigate the presence of anti- HEV antibodies among outpatients and blood donors in three different hospitals in Northern Algeria and to determine the genotype of the circulating strains through the characterization of the immunoreactivity of anti-HEV antibodies.
    Methods
    A total of 590 blood samples (379 from blood donors and 211 from outpatients) were collected in three health facilities in Northern Algeria and assessed for anti-HEV antibodies using an in-house double-antigen sandwich immunoassay. HEV open reading frame 2 recombinant proteins p166 (aa 452 - 617) generated from the four HEV genotypes were used as antigens. The genotype of the strains circulating in Algeria was predicted by an indirect ELISA by assessing the anti-HEV antibodies in serially diluted positive sera using the different p166 proteins.
    Results
    Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 20.17% of the samples. A significant correlation was found between the age of the subjects and the presence of anti-HEV antibodies (P
    Conclusions
    The present findings reveal a relatively high presence of anti-HEV IgGs and clearly indicate that HEV infection is still present in Northern Algeria. Further, the prediction of HEV genotype using different antigens generated from the different HEV genotypes shows that the causative strains are more likely to be of genotype 1.
    Keywords: Hepatitis E Virus_Algeria_HEV Genotype Prediction_Enzyme_Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Seyed Moayed Alavian*, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Heidar Sharafi, Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani, Shahin Merat, Minoo Mohraz, Masoud Mardani Page 6
    Context: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health issue worldwide, including Iran. The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) with high efficacy have changed the landscape of HCV treatment. This guideline provides updated recommendations for clinical management of HCV infection in Iran.
    Evidence Acquisition: The recommendations of this guideline are based on international and national scientific evidences and consensus-based expert opinion. Scientific evidences were collected through a systematic review of studies that evaluated efficacy and safety of DAA regimens, using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Expert opinion was based on the consensus of Iran Hepatitis Scientific Board (IHSB) in the 3rd national consensus on management of Hepatitis C in Iran, held on 22nd of July 2016.
    Results
    Pegylated Interferon alpha (PegIFN), Ribavirin (RBV), Sofosbuvir (SOF), Ledipasvir (LDV) and Daclatasvir (DCV) are currently available in Iran. Pre-treatment assessments include HCV RNA level, HCV genotype and resistance testing, assessment of liver fibrosis, and underlying diseases. In HCV genotype 1 and 4, DCV/SOF and LDV/SOF are recommended. In HCV genotype 2, SOF plus RBV and in HCV genotype 3, DCV/SOF is recommended. Additional care for underlying diseases should be considered.
    Conclusions
    Affordable new HCV treatment regimens are available in Iran, providing an opportunity for HCV elimination. Recommendations provided in this current national guideline can facilitate evidence-based management of HCV infection..
    Keywords: Hepatitis C, Therapy, Iran, Consensus, Disease Elimination
  • Emil Iskandarov, Pramod Kadaba Srinivasan*, Wang Xin, Christian Bleilevens, Mamdouh Afify, Astrit Hamza, Lai Wei, Koichiro Hata, Boyukkishi Agayev, Rene Tolba Page 7
    Objectives
    To investigate the role of CGS21680, a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist, on a bile-duct-ligated cirrhotic liver resection model in rats..
    Methods
    Male Wistar rats were allotted into 3 groups (n = 7 per time-point): the control group, the bile duct ligation CGS21680 group (BDL CGS), and the bile duct ligation group (BDL). Biliary cirrhosis had been previously induced by ligature of the common bile duct in the BDL CGS and BDL groups. After 2 weeks, the animals underwent partial hepatectomy (50%). The BDL CGS group received a single dose of CGS21680 15 minutes prior to hepatectomy. Blood samples were collected and analyzed..
    Results
    Aspartate transaminase levels were found to be lower in the control vs BDL groups (1, 3, and 24 h) (P
    Conclusions
    Administration of CGS21680, an adenosine receptor agonist, after the resection of bile-duct-ligated cirrhotic livers led to improved liver function, regeneration, and microcirculation..
    Keywords: CGS21680, A2A Adenosine Receptors, liver Cirrhosis, liver Resection, Interleukin, 6
  • Biao Yang, Xin You, Min Lan Yuan, Tian Qiang Qin, Lin Jia Duan, Jiao He, Ze Jun Fei, Xuan Zhou, Rui Yu Zan, Zheng Yin Liao* Page 8
    Background
    The prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is extremely poor..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of transarterial ethanol ablation (TEA) for the treatment of HCC with PVTT..
    Methods
    Patients were treated with TEA for PVTT under cone-beam computed tomography and traditional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with epirubicin for intrahepatic lesions..
    Results
    Seventeen men were successfully treated with TACE plus TEA. The mean overall survival was 18.3 ± 9.0 months (95% CI: 13.7 - 3.0 months). The quality of life (QoL) score increased from 56.9 ± 15.7 before the procedure to 88.5 ± 11.7 at 4 weeks after the procedure. Lipiodol accumulation grades of 3, 2, 1, and 0 were obtained in 3 (17.6%), 8 (47.1%), 6 (35.3%), and 0 (0%) patients, respectively..
    Conclusions
    TEA is a safe and effective method for treating patients with PVTT, offering advantages for QoL, response rate after TEA, and OS..
    Keywords: Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis, Ethanol, Transarterial Ethanol Ablation, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Cone, Beam Computed Tomography
  • Jie Fan, Xin Huang, Juan Chen, Yiling Cai, Lin Xiong, Lihong Mu, Li Zhou* Page 9
    Background
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem in China and worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is one of HBV’s main transmission routes in highly endemic regions. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at HLA loci as associated with HBV infection. However, the mechanisms of HBV perinatal transmission and breakthrough in children have not yet been clearly defined..
    Objectives
    We aimed to explore the association between SNPs at HLA loci and HBV infection and breakthrough in children..
    Methods
    A total of 274 HBV-infected children and 353 controls were selected among children aged between 6 months and 12 years in China. Seven SNPs at HLA-DP and HLA-DQ loci were genotyped to analyze their association with HBV infection in children..
    Results
    Alleles G in both HLA-DPA1 rs3077 and HLA-DPB1 rs9277535 were found to be significantly associated with HBV infection in children with odds ratios (OR) of 1.309 (95% CI 1.046 to 1.639) and 1.411 (95% CI 1.125 to 1.771), respectively. In addition, overdominant analysis found that the rs2281388 (HLA-DPB1) GA genotype and the rs9366816 (HLA-DPB2) TC genotype were related to HBV infection (rs2281388, OR = 1.422, 95% CI: 1.032-1.961; rs9366816, OR = 1.444, 95% CI: 1.045-1.994). Furthermore, this study highlighted that rs9277535 was also significantly associated with HBV breakthrough infection in children whose mothers were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)..
    Conclusions
    Our study confirmed that genetic variants in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 loci have significant associations with HBV infection, especially with HBV breakthrough in children. This study provides insight into HBV infection in children and is valuable for the targeted management of, and control strategies for, this disease..
    Keywords: Hepatitis B, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Breakthrough, HLA
  • Shahrzad Yazdanpanah, Bita Geramizadeh *, Saman Nikeghbalian, Seyed Ali Malek, Hosseini Page 10
    Background
    The most common cause of liver transplantation in Iran is hepatitis B positive cirrhosis, and it also one of the major and important causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most cases with HCC follow a multistep sequence. Morphologic lesions during hepatocarcinogenesis include dysplastic lesions and small cancerous lesions (2 cm in diameter; early HCC). However, insufficient information is available on the incidence of HCC and its precursors in hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.
    Objectives
    In this study, we determined the incidence of HCC and its precursors in hepatitis B-related cirrhosis in the largest liver transplant center in Iran.
    Methods
    In a two-year study, all explanted livers of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive cirrhosis were completely sectioned and examined. Each specimen was investigated grossly and microscopically to determine any abnormal nodule or cellular changes (at least 15 sections from each liver).
    Results
    Among all explanted cirrhotic livers (103 livers) during the study period (2014 - 2015), 92 (89.3%) had dysplastic foci with large cell changes (LCC), 57 (55.3%) of which showed small cell changes (SCC) as well. Thirty-nine cases (37.9%) had low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDN), 38 (36.9%) high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN), 19 (18.4%) were early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC), and 21 (20.4%) were hepatocellular carcinoma more than 2 cm. All the cases with eHCC and HCC of more than 2 cm also had SCC, LCC, HGDN, and LGDN. Thirteen cases of eHCC were accompanied with HCCs more than 2 cm, and 6 cases of eHCC did not show any HCC (larger than 2 cm).
    Conclusions
    SCC, LGDN, and HGDN are common associated findings and precursors of HCC in livers infected with hepatitis B. A strict follow-up and a precise and thorough sampling of livers with SCC and any abnormal dysplastic nodules (DNs), especially those larger than 1 cm, are highly recommended because these DNs are highly associated with malignancy.
    Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Precursors, Hepatitis B, Cirrhosis
  • Gholamreza Kalvandi, Naser Honar, Bita Geramizadeh, Maryam Ataollahi, Asghar Rahmani, Hazhir Javaherizadeh* Page 11
    Background
    The diagnosis of peritonitis as a complication of cirrhosis is an important clinical problem.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum C-reactive protein levels as a diagnostic factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in child patients with liver disease.
    Methods
    In this study, 150 children diagnosed with liver disease and ascites upon admission to Nemazee Teaching Hospital (Shiraz, Iran) were examined. Patients were divided into spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sterile ascetic fluid groups according to the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3 in the ascetic fluids. Routine laboratory tests were conducted and quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured for all of the patients. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CRP was evaluated for diagnosis of SBP.
    Results
    Of 150 cirrhotic patients, 109 patients presented without SBP (52.29% male, mean age: 5.02 ± 4.49 years) and 41 patients presented with SBP (51.21% male, mean age: 4.71 years). Cell counts, protein levels, albumin levels, and lactate dehydrogenize (LDH) levels of the ascetic fluid and serum samples in the SBP group were higher than the rates for those without SBP (P
    Conclusions
    Our study showed that CRP is a marker with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SBP in cirrhotic children.
    Keywords: Cirrhosis, C, Reactive Protein, Peritonitis