فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های باستان شناسی ایران - سال ششم شماره 10 (بهار و تابستان 1395)
  • سال ششم شماره 10 (بهار و تابستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • حجت دارابی* صفحات 7-26
    ادوات سنگی به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین یافته های باستان شناسی مرتبط با دوره ی نوسنگی به شمار می روند. هرچند چنین یافته هایی، اساس تعریف و نام گذاری این دوره در ادبیات باستان شناسی دنیا بوده، اما معمولا به ندرت و اغلب به صورت سطحی، به ویژه در ایران، مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند. این در حالی است که ادوات سنگی اغلب همگام با شروع کشاورزی و جهت آماده سازی غذا توسط انسان تولید و استفاده شده اند و همواره جزو جدایی ناپذیر شواهد باستان شناسی به ویژه در دوران پیش از تاریخ به شمار می آیند. علاوه بر مقوله معیشت و تولید غذا، با بررسی چنین یافته هایی اطلاعات مناسبی در ارتباط با کاربری فضایی، ساختار اجتماعی و نقش زنان در جوامع گذشته می تواند به دست آید؛ اما مطالعه و ارزیابی این موضوعات نیازمند وجود نسبت بالای ادوات سنگی در کاوش های گسترده در ارتباط با فضاهای معماری است. نظر به چنین مسائلی، این مقاله در پی معرفی و بررسی ادوات سنگی محوطه ی چیاسبز شرقی در جهت بررسی مقوله تولید و آماده سازی غذا توسط ساکنان آن است. طی فصل اول کاوش نجات بخشی در این محوطه، گونه های مختلف سنگ ساب و هاون، دسته هاون، دستاس و کوبنده به دست آمد. به نظر می رسد روند تولید و استفاده از گونه های مختلف ادوات سنگی در طول زمان توسط ساکنان چیاسبز شرقی همگام با روند کشت و اهلی سازی تمام عیار برخی از گونه های گیاهی بوده است. در این راستا، نسبت کوبنده ها در لایه های تحتانی بیشتر بوده و با گذشت زمان بر میزان استفاده از سنگ ساب افزوده شده است. سنگ ساب در دیگر محوطه های نوسنگی منطقه نیز به نحوی معنادار و در ارتباط با رشد و توسعه کشاورزی افزایش یافته است. از این رو، بررسی ادوات سنگی چیاسبز شرقی هر چند بیانگر تولید و آماده سازی غذا از ابتدای سکونت در آن بوده، اما نشان می دهد این مهم در طی زمان گسترش یافته و ساکنان محوطه اتکایی روزافزون به تولید و مصرف غذاهای گیاهی داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: ادوات سنگی، دوره نوسنگی، چیاسبز شرقی، تولید غذا، آماده سازی غذا
  • محمد بهرامی*، حسن فاضلی نشلی صفحات 27-46
    روشن شدن وضعیت باستان شناسی و توالی استقراری مناطق مختلف فرهنگی- جغرافیایی و معرفی آن به جامعه ی باستان شناسی ضرورتی انکارناپذیر است. دره ی خرم آباد به سبب شرایط مناسب و موقعیت ویژه آن دارای توالی استقرار از دوره های مختلف پیش از تاریخ تا اسلامی است. تا پیش از این شواهد مربوط به دوره ی نوسنگی محدود به معرفی اشکفت سرخه لیزه بوده است. چرایی یافت نشدن استقرارهای فضای باز دوره ی نوسنگی در دره ی خرم آباد تا پیش از این و بررسی جایگاه نوسنگی این منطقه در غرب ایران به دنبال نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، و همچنین بررسی کلی و چگونگی وضعیت و توالی استقراری منطقه در دوره ی مس وسنگ و ارتباط این استقرارها با همدیگر از پرسش ها و اهداف اصلی این پژوهش است. مبحث حاضر که به بررسی این دو دوره ی مهم از دوره های پیش از تاریخ دره ی خرم آباد پرداخته، تلاش نموده است تا با تکیه بر نظرات و پژوهش های باستان شناسان غربی در پیش از انقلاب و دو نمونه تاریخ رادیو کربن از دوره ی مس وسنگ قدیم، نتایج حاصل از بررسی های صورت گرفته در سالیان اخیر توسط باستان شناسان بومی و بازدید گزینشی از محوطه های این دو دوره در دره ی خرم آباد و جمع آوری مصنوعات سنگی و داده های سفالی از سطح آن ها، به بررسی دوره ی نوسنگی و مس وسنگ در دره ی خرم آباد بپردازد. براساس گونه شناسی مصنوعات سنگی و ابزارهای شاخص دوره ی نوسنگی همچون انواع ریزتیغه ها، سنگ مادرهای فشنگی با برداشت فشاری و وجود ابزارهای ساخته شده از سنگ ابسیدین که از سطح تپه رواهل یافت شده، دوره ی نوسنگی در این منطقه با عنوان فاز «رواهل» معرفی می گردد. دوره ی مس وسنگ نیز بر پایه دوره بندی «الیزابت هنریکسون» از زاگرس مرکزی و با نگاه به فازبندی «فرانک هول» و «احمد پرویز» از دره ی خرم آباد و با نگاهی نو براساس تجزیه و تحلیل داده های سفالی و مقایسه گونه شناسی آن ها با گونه های سفالی معرفی شده از محوطه های کلیدی منطقه ی زاگرس مرکزی و مناطق فرهنگی هم جوار به سه دوره ی قدیم (فاز باغ نو)، میانه (فاز دارایی) و جدید (فازهای قمری، کنجی و ماسور) تقسیم بندی شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: دره خرم آباد، لرستان، مس وسنگ، نوسنگی
  • مصطفی شریفی*، روح الله شیرازی، سید مهدی موسوی کوهپر، علی ماهفروزی صفحات 47-66
    شرق مازندران که شامل چهار شهرستان: ساری، نکا، بهشهر و گلوگاه است؛ در جنوب و جنوب شرق دریاچه مازندران واقع گردیده که به سبب شرایط جغرافیایی و ظرفیت های زیست محیطی مناسب و مطلوب زمینه ساز ایجاد استقرارهای انسانی در ادوار مختلف بوده است. نیک می دانیم شکل گیری نخستین استقرار های بشر در طول تاریخ تا به امروز به شدت تحت تاثیر محیط زیست پیرامون بوده است. به نوعی، این شرایط زیست محیطی است که سبب شناسایی و گزینش منطقه مشخصی برای استقرار در میان مردمان بوده و می باشد. شرق مازندران نیز از این موضوع مستثنی نیست؛ با وجود آن که در طی چند سال اخیر مطالعات پیش از تاریخ این ناحیه پیشرفت چشم گیری داشته، اما فقدان تحقیقات علمی و روشمند دوره مس و سنگ بسیار محسوس است. تحقیق حاضر از نخستین تلاش های جدی باستان شناسی برای بازشناسی این موضوع به شمار می رود. 27 استقرار مس و سنگ شرق مازندران که تاریخ نسبی آن ها به آغاز هزاره پنجم تا پایان هزاره چهارم ق.م. بر می گردد، در این پژوهش مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته اند. در این خصوص پس از تاریخ گذاری نسبی استقرارهای مس و سنگ که به روش گونه شناختی نمونه های سفالی صورت گرفت، موقعیت جغرافیایی قرارگیری استقرارهای مذکور وارد نرم افزار Arc GIS شده و با فاکتورهای مختلف جغرافیای طبیعی و انسانی تجزیه و تحلیل شده است. نتایج نشان از آن دارد که شکل گیری استقرارهای مس و سنگ این ناحیه به شدت تحت تاثیر شرایط محیط زیستی ناحیه بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: عصر مس و سنگ، شرق مازندران، الگوهای استقراری، محیط زیست، کوچ نشینی
  • فاطمه یاوری، رحمت عباس نژاد*، محمد مرتضوی، نادر علیدادی سلیمانی صفحات 67-82
    فعالیت های جدید باستان شناسی در جیرفت، در جنوب استان کرمان، علاوه بر کشف شواهد آغاز شهرنشینی، منجر به شناسایی مدارک فلزکاری، اشیای فلزی، شواهد معدن کاری کهن و سرباره های استحاله ی کان سنگ ها گردیده است. در مجموعه ی اشیای بازیافتی از حفاران غیرمجاز از منطقه ی معروف به «میل فرهاد»، در جنوب خاوری دشت جیرفت، یک سنجاق و دو میله مفرغی انتخاب و در این پژوهش مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته اند. بر پایه ی مقایسه آن ها، با نمونه های مکشوف از کاوش های علمی باستان شناسی، قدمت آن ها به عصر مفرغ (اواخر هزاره ی چهارم و سوم ق.م.) برمی گردد. هدف نگارندگان شناخت آلیاژگری فلزات و مسائل فنی فلزکاری عصر مفرغ است که با پرسش هایی در زمینه ترکیبات عنصری و روش های ساخت، زنجیره تولیدی و عملکردی اشیا و سازوکارهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی جوامع عصر مفرغ منطقه مورد مطالعه دنبال شده است. تولید اشیا با روش های ذوب و قالب گیری و چکش کاری، دارا بودن زنجیره تولیدی و عملکردی در سطح منطقه ای و فرامنطقه ای و همچنین، وجود ساختار اقتصادی-اجتماعی و اداری پیشرفته در جوامع عصر مفرغ منطقه، پیش فرض های مقاله حاضر هستند. نگارندگان، با استفاده از روش متالوگرافی، روش های ساخت این اشیا را چکش کاری سرد و چکش کاری گرم، تشخیص داده اند. عناصر موجود در آخال ها، گوی چه ها و ناخالصی های این اشیا، با استفاده از روش های SEM-EDS و ICP-OES بررسی کمی و کیفی شدند. ترکیب اصلی این سه آلیاژ از نظر فنی، مشابه فلزکاری عصر مفرغ منطقه جنوب خاوری ایران است؛ سنجاق و یکی از میله ها، از نوع آلیاژ مس آرسنیکی و میله دیگر، از مس تقریبا خالص می باشد. دیگر عناصر شناسایی شده در آن ها، نظیر: آنتیموان، روی، قلع، سرب، استرانسیم، آهن و نقره، با نتایج آزمایش های شیمیایی کان سنگ های منطقه، هم پوشانی به نسبت دقیقی دارند. گونه شناسی این اشیا و تشابه فنی و ساختاری آن ها، روابط بین محوطه های باستانی منطقه ی جنوب خاوری ایران را با یکدیگر و همچنین، با سایر مراکز باستانی در فلات ایران و مناطق هم جوار، قابل تحلیل می سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: عصر مفرغ، جیرفت، سنجاق فلزی، میله فلزی، متالوگرافی
  • کاظم ملازاده*، علیرضا گودرزی صفحات 83-100
    متون دوره ی آشور نو طی نیمه نخست هزاره اول و فاصله ی سال های 866 تا 639 ق.م.، در منطقه غرب ایران به پادشاهی الیپی اشاره داشته اند؛ اما ابعاد وجودی این پادشاهی تاکنون ناشناخته باقی مانده است. به ویژه در رابطه با مباحث جغرافیای تاریخی الیپی به غیر از موقعیت نسبی آن در ارتباط با دیگر ایالت های غرب ایران، دیگر جنبه های جغرافیای تاریخی این پادشاهی (قلمرو، ایالت ها، مراکز حاکمیتی و...) مبهم مانده است. در پژوهش حاضر با رهیافت تاریخی و با استفاده ی جامع از اطلاعات منابع تاریخی و داده های باستان شناسی و در پرتو سیمای جغرافیایی منطقه و نیز مطابقت داده های مختلف، تلاش شده بازسازی قابل اعتمادی از جغرافیای تاریخی پادشاهی الیپی ارائه گردد؛ هرچند محدودیت منابع اجازه ی پرداختن به جزییات را فراهم نمی سازد. براساس این مطالعه، اقوام ساکن لرستان شرقی در سال های آغازین هزاره اول ق.م. توانسته اند پادشاهی الیپی را تاسیس کنند و نقش مهمی در رخدادهای سیاسی هزاره اول منطقه، به ویژه در میدان رقابت دو قدرت آشور و ایلام، بر عهده بگیرند. با توجه به تحلیل های صورت گرفته، قلمرو پادشاهی الیپی در بیشتر طول حیات خود شامل محدوده ی اصلی پیشکوه لرستان بوده که به چند ایالت با مراکز حاکمیتی تحت عناوین «شهرهای شاهی» و «شهرهای استحکامات دار» تقسیم می شده است. بر این اساس پادشاهی الیپی از شمال شرقی و شرق با ماد، از شمال با بیت همبان و از جنوب با ایلام مرز مشترک داشته است. با توجه به اقلیم خاص منطقه، شیوه ی معیشت اصلی ساکنان منطقه مبتنی بر دامداری و کوچ نشینی و در رتبه بعدی کشاورزی بوده و حاکمان محلی در مرکزی چون باباجان تپه استقرار داشتند. در کنار دامداری و کشاورزی، فلزکاری در این منطقه رونق فراوان داشته و به نظر می رسد بیشتر مفرغ های مشهور لرستان به این پادشاهی تعلق داشته باشد. با توجه به مدارک زبان شناسی اکثر ساکنان این قلمرو کاسی زبان بوده و سابقه حضور طولانی در منطقه را داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: الیپی، پیشکوه لرستان، سفال نوع لرستان، بیت بارو، النزاش
  • مجید ساریخانی، محمود حیدریان، شهرام پارسه* صفحات 101-120
    عوامل محیطی همچون دوری و نزدیکی به منابع آب، پوشش گیاهی، اقلیم، شیب و مواردی از این قبیل در تمامی جهات زندگی مردمان دوران باستان، نقشی تعیین کننده داشته است. اختلاف در درجه اهمیت هر یک از این عوامل، می تواند از طرفی به دلیل شدت تاثیرات عامل و از طرف دیگر به دلیل نوع خاص معیشت و یا فرهنگ ناحیه باشد؛ اما آگاهی از این موضوع تنها با مطالعه یک محوطه امکان پذیر نیست، بلکه این گونه پژوهش ها مستلزم بررسی تمامی محوطه های یک منطقه جغرافیایی مشخص است. امروزه در مطالعات باستان شناختی، از اطلاعات بررسی های باستان شناختی استفاده می شود که این روش در مقایسه با حفاری، علاوه بر عدم تخریب سایت های باستانی، موجب صرفه جویی در هزینه و زمان نیز می شود. علاوه بر این، امکان مطالعه مجموعه ای از آثار به صورت واحد نیز از دلایل گسترش این گونه مطالعات است. در این پژوهش، اطلاعات حاصل از بررسی های باستان شناختی دشت میانکوهی سنقر وکلیایی و روابط بین استقرارگاه های ساسانی و محیط طبیعی هر یک از آن ها، با استفاده از برنامه های مورد استفاده در علوم جغرافیا و آمار، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. روش تحقیق به این صورت است که ابتدا اطلاعات وضعیت جغرافیایی دشت جمع آوری گردید، سپس با داده های مکانی محوطه های ساسانی تلفیق گردید. برای تلفیق داده های پژوهش از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) و دیگر برنامه های آماری همچون Excel استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که درصد بالایی از محوطه ها تحت تاثیر عوامل جغرافیایی شکل گرفته اند؛ به صورتی که اکثر محوطه ها از نظر ویژگی های محیطی از الگوی یکسانی تبعیت می کنند و از نظر مواردی چون: ارتفاع، میزان شیب، جهت شیب، نزدیکی به منابع، کاربری اراضی و وضعیت زمین شناختی، شرایط یکسانی دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی استقرار، دوره ساسانی، شهرستان سنقر و کلیایی، GIS
  • مسعود آذرنوش، علی شریفی *، علی هژبری صفحات 121-140
    گاهنگاری تپه ی موسوم به هگمتانه، همواره مورد مناقشه باستان شناسان بوده است. محمدرحیم صراف، اولین کاوشگر ایرانی تپه ی مذکور، 12 فصل به طور متناوب از سال 1362 تا 1379 ه.ش. در این تپه به کاوش پرداخت، و همواره دو سوال اساسی را مدنظر داشت: 1. گاهنگاری تپه؛ 2. ماهیت کاربری. صراف، در طی سال های کاوش خود و پس از آن، نتوانست جواب روشنی برای این دو سوال بیابد. پس از وی آذرنوش، از سال 1383 تا 1387 ه.ش. چهار فصل در این تپه به کاوش لایه نگاری پرداخت و توانست جواب یکی از این سوالات را روشن کند. این تحقیق، در راستای یافتن پاسخی روشن برای نخستین سوال (گاهنگاری تپه)، با استناد به نتایج آزمایش رادیوکربن و گرمالیان صورت گرفته است. در همین راستا، ابتدا مدارکی که برای تاریخ گذاری نسبی محوطه مورد استناد قرار گرفته، بازبینی شده؛ سپس نتایج حاصل از آزمایش گرمالیان مرور شده؛ و در نهایت، آخرین نتایج آزمایش رادیوکربن ارائه شده است. دور دوم کاوش های باستان شناختی با هدف «آشکار ساختن توالی لایه شناختی و گاه شناختی محوطه، یعنی تلاش برای ابهام زدایی» انجام شد. در این دور از کاوش ها، با رویکردی لایه نگارانه به مطالعه ی دقیق لایه ها و شناخت توالی و تعیین قدمت آن ها پرداخته شد، و در همین راستا 15 نمونه ی سفال و آجر در بخش سال یابی گرمالین پژوهشکده حفاظت و مرمت تاریخ گذاری شد، و 9 نمونه زغال و استخوان در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی باستان شناسی و تاریخ هنر دانشگاه آکسفورد، مورد آزمایش رادیوکربن قرار گرفت؛ نتایج آزمایش گرمالیان در دومین دور کاوش مبین شکل گیری الگوی شاخص معماری تپه هگمتانه در بازه ی زمانی 58 تا 358 م. است، در نتیجه ی صحت آزمایش های گرمالیان دور نخست را نیز تایید می نماید. نتایج آزمایش رادیو کربن در سومین فصل از دور دوم کاوش ها نیز، بیانگر شکل گیری الگوی شاخص معماری تپه هگمتانه در بازه ی زمانی 227 تا 68 ق.م. است؛ علاوه بر این، مقایسه سفال های به دست آمده از لایه های نمونه برداری شده نیز، نتایج آزمایش های گرمالیان و رادیوکربن را تایید می نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: هگمتانه، دوره ی اشکانی، دوره ی ساسانی، رادیوکربن، گرمالیان
  • اکرم حسینی*، مهسا فلاح مهرجردی صفحات 141-160
    هترا، شهری با حدود سه قرن حیات شهری پویا است که به دلیل موقعیت خوب طبیعی، ارتباطی، استراتژیک و به خصوص به دلیل اعتقادات مذهبی ساکنانش به سرعت رشد و توسعه یافت. هسته ی اولیه ی شهر که احتمالا آشوری بوده، به دلیل شرایط مساعد جغرافیایی مکان شهر، شکل گرفت و سپس با ساخت معابد برای خدایان، مرکز تجمع مردمان پیرامون خود گردید. این شهر در دوره ی سلوکی، به علت گسترش راه های تجاری رونق یافت و در دوره ی پارتیان با آشکار شدن اهمیت نظامی آن، در مقابل امپراتوری روم به شهری بزرگ در غرب قلمرو پارتی تبدیل شد. در این دوره بود که ساخت خندق و دیوارهای شهر آغاز شده و طی آن، شهر برای مدتی طولانی از حوادث دوران مصون ماند و به اوج شکوه خود رسید. هترا در این دوره، شهری نسبتا مستقل از حکومت پارتی بود که در مواقع حملات نظامی رومی ها، با پارتیان متحد می شد. با ظهور ساسانیان در نیمه ی قرن سوم م.، دوره ی طلایی هترا نیز پایان یافت و آثار تمدن آن فروکش کرد. در این مقاله با روش تفسیری-تاریخی و با بهره گیری از شیوه ی استدلال منطقی، به سوالات تحقیق شامل: ساختار کالبدی فضایی شهر هترا، چگونه تابع عوامل مختلف ایجاد گردیده و یا تغییر نموده است؟ و همچنین: عناصر شهری هترا، چه تغییراتی در گذر زمان داشته اند؟ پاسخ داده خواهد شد. جهت شناخت سیر تحول شهر هترا، در مرحله ی اول، به صورت جزء نگر، هر کدام از عوامل فوق، به گونه ای مجزا از سایر عوامل و در دوره های زمانی مختلف، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و شکل پذیری ساختار شهر نسبت به آن ها مطالعه خواهد شد؛ در گام بعد، با نگاهی کل نگر، به جمع بندی یافته های به دست آمده، پرداخته خواهد شد؛ همچنین، عوامل مختلفی که از پیدایش تا فروپاشی هترا در شکل دادن به ساختار کالبدی-فضایی شهر موثر بوده اند؛ مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار خواهند گرفت. از مهم ترین آن ها، می توان از عوامل طبیعی-زیست محیطی، آیینی-مذهبی، ارتباطی، اقتصادی-تجاری، نظامی-دفاعی، فرهنگی و حکومتی را نام برد.
    کلیدواژگان: هترا، ساختار شهر، توسعه شهر، پارتی، روم
  • نگین میری* صفحات 161-172
    نام ریو-اردشیر، به صورت کامل و اختصاری بر روی مهرها و سکه های ساسانی و با ضبط های مختلف در دیگر منابع نوشتاری هم زمان یا نزدیک به دوره ی ساسانی آمده است. منابع تاریخی و جغرافیایی سده های نخستین و میانه ی اسلامی اما به دو اسم مکان به نام ریشهر (که آن را صورت دگرگون شده ی ریو-اردشیر دانسته اند) اشاره دارند و از یکی با عنوان ریشهر توج، در ایالت اردشیرخوره و از دیگری با نام ریشهر در ایالت ارجان نام برده اند. بنا به بعد مسافت میان توج و ارجان و دیگر مشخصات ارائه شده، این گزارش ها منطقا نمی توانند دلالت بر یک مکان واحد داشته باشند. این دوگانگی در اطلاعات ارائه شده درباره ی ریو-اردشیر/ ریشهر، ابهاماتی را در مکان یابی ریو-اردشیر ساسانی و سپس ریشهر سبب شده است. پژوهش حاضر، با بررسی مدارک باستان شناسی، مدارک مادی مربوط ساسانی، مدارک نوشتاری ایرانی و غیرایرانی هم زمان یا نزدیک به دوران ساسانی و البته متون تاریخی و جغرافیایی اسلامی و کنار هم قرار دادن قراین موجود، بر این امر صحه می نهد که در دوران ساسانی و نیز اسلامی، دو مکان به نام ریو-اردشیر یا سپس ریشهر وجود داشته است؛ یکی، در خوزستان یا منطقه ی مرزی میان پارس و خوزستان بوده است و دیگری، در شبه جزیره بوشهر. ریشهر توج، همان ریو-اردشیر پارس، اسقف نشین پارس و هند در سده های سوم تا ششم م. و ضرابخانه ی سکه هایی با نشان این شهر از اواخر سده چهارم تا میانه ی سده هفت م. بوده است و مکان آن را با محوطه ای در شبه جزیره بوشهر، می توان منطبق دانست و ریشهر ارجان، با ریو-اردشیر مذکور به روی مهر آمارگر ریو-اردشیر، بهمن-اردشیر و ایران-خوره- شاپور مطابقت دارد که در نزدیکی ارجان و در ناحیه ی زیتون در منطقه ی مرزی میان پارس و خوزستان تاریخی قرار داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: جغرافیای تاریخی، ریو، اردشیر، ریشهر، پارس، خوزستان
  • علی زارعی *، هایده لاله صفحات 173-192
    در روند شکل یابی و رشد فضاهای شهری، باید نقش و کارکرد فضاهای آرامگاهی و مشاهد مختلف، چون مزارهای اولیا و رهبران سرشناش دینی را مورد توجه قرار داد. تاریخ شکل گیری «تربت جام» امروزی که روستای «معدآباد» هسته ی اولیه آن بود، به حدود قرن پنجم ه.ق. باز می گردد. با این تغییرات، شهر «بوزجان» در «ولایت جام» که تا قبل از این، از شهرهای مهم قرون اولیه ی اسلامی بود، از رونق افتاد و تربت جام به عنوان دارالحکومه، مرکزیت خود را به دست آورد. فرآیند توسعه ی کالبدی-فضایی مجموعه ی شیخ جام و به تبع آن تربت جام، از دوره ی «ملوک کرت» فراهم گردید و به تدریج شهری مهم از درون روستایی کوچک، متولد شد و به ویژه از دوره ی ایلخانی تا اواخر تیموری، در پرتو نقش مذهبی و سیاسی خود، در تمام زمینه های اقتصادی، سیاسی، ارتباطی و فرهنگی، با شتاب روبه توسعه نهاد. در مطالعه ی حاضر، موضوع علل بروز تغییرات در الگوی کالبدی و شکلی شهر تربت جام از آغاز شکل گیری آن، با عنایت به دو دسته ی «عوامل بیرونی» (حکومت، اراده ی نخبگان سیاسی-اداری شهری) و «عوامل درونی» (رشد مناسبات اقتصادی و اجتماعی و مذهبی) تا اواخر حکومت پهلوی، مورد ارزیابی قرار می گیرد. روش پژوهش، منطبق بر روش های توصیفی-تحلیلی و روش تحلیل تاریخی، به صورت مطالعه ی اسنادی و کتابخانه ای، مبتنی بر بررسی منابع مکتوب، به ویژه متون تاریخی و جغرافیایی و تطبیق عکس های هوایی و نقشه های موجود و فعالیت های میدانی در بافت کهن شهری می باشد. بر این اساس، با تکیه بر مهم ترین عوامل موثر در فرآیند گسترش شهر جام، یعنی حضور «شیخ احمد جام» در روستای معدآباد، موقعیت طبیعی و اقلیمی منطقه و محور ارتباطی-مواصلاتی آن، با شهرها و مناطق همجوار، هسته ی اولیه شهر و محدوده ی آن، با توجه به مستندات موجود در طی ادوار مختلف تاریخی تعیین گردید و شهر جام، به اوج توسعه و رونق خود در دوره ی تیموری و پهلوی، دست یافت.
    کلیدواژگان: تربت جام، معد آباد، احمد جام، تیموری، پهلوی
  • حمید خانعلی*، رضا رضالو، اسماعیل همتی ازندریانی صفحات 193-210
    از جمله نقاط کلیدی در مطالعات باستان شناسی دوره اسلامی استان اردبیل، مناطق جنوبی آن شامل شهرستان های خلخال و کوثر است که به جهت موقعیت سوق الجیشی مناسب عامل ارتباط مناطق مرکزی ایران با دشت اردبیل، دشت مغان و منطقه ی قفقاز بوده است. در این راستا سوالات متعددی مطرح است که مهم ترین آن ها شامل، 1) چه مدارک باستان شناختی در زمینه ی اهمیت منطقه ی شهرستان کوثر و موقعیت مناسب ارتباطی این منطقه وجود دارد؟ 2) تاثیر موقعیت سوق الجیشی در تشکیل راه های تجاری و امکانات بین راهی شهرستان کوثر چیست؟ روش تحقیق در این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی بوده و با استفاده از پژوهش های میدانی (بررسی، شناسایی و مستندنگاری یافته های باستان شناسی) و مطالعات کتابخانه ای (به ویژه متون مورخان و جغرافیانویسان دوره ی اسلامی) بوده است. مهم ترین راه های شناسایی شده در این شهرستان، جاده ی فرامرزی قفقاز و دو مسیر مواصلاتی گیلان و آذربایجان می باشد. مطالعه ی متون و یافته های باستان شناسی نشان می دهد «قاباق قلعه فیروزآباد» مهم ترین قلعه ی نظامی منطقه است؛ این قلعه از یک سو با برقراری امنیت زمینه های لازم برای ایجاد امکانات بین راهی متعدد در این شهرستان را فراهم و از این طریق باعث تسهیل و افزایش ارتباطات تجاری فرامنطقه ای این حوزه ی فرهنگی شده است. مکان گزینی قلعه های استحکاماتی در مناطق با موقعیت استراتژیک، از یک طرف با اهداف حفظ مالکیت خرد (درون منطقه ای) و از طرف دیگر با ایجاد امنیت راه های تجاری باعث حفظ منافع ملی و مالکیت کلان (برون منطقه ای) شده است. مهم ترین دستاوردهای پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی یک مسیر تجاری (جاده ی قفقاز) و دو مسیر مواصلاتی (بین آذربایجان و گیلان) و امکانات بین راهی مرتبط با آن ها، پل قیزکورپوسی، استراحتگاه قوش قایاسی، کاروانسرای آرپاچایی، کاروانسرای شاه عباسی و چندین راه نشان در منطقه است. نتایج پژوهش حاضر، نشان می دهند که الگوی پراکنش آثار دوره ی اسلامی منطقه ی مورد بحث، تحت تاثیر جغرافیای محیطی همچون معابر و رودخانه ها، راه ها و حفظ حاکمیت سرزمینی خرد و کلان قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: استان اردبیل، شهرستان کوثر، راه های تجاری، قلاع نظامی
  • مرتضی فرح بخش *، هادی صفا منصوری صفحات 211-231
    در تاریخ سرزمین ایران توجه به استحکامات دفاعی، به عنوان یک عامل موثر در بقای مراکز سکونتی، مورد اهتمام بوده است. مطالعه ی این ساختارهای دفاعی، اطلاعات مفیدی از این گونه معماری ارائه خواهد داد. پس از رخداد زلزله ی شهر بم در سال 1382 ه.ش.، توجه به مجموعه ارگ بم که دچار ویرانی گسترده شده بود، جلب گردید و مطالعه و پژوهش های روشمندی در بخش های مختلف این مجموعه ثبت شده در فهرست میراث جهانی آغاز گردید. مطالعه ی حاضر، در حدفاصل سال های 87-1384 ه.ش. باهدف معرفی و بازشناسی ساختار دفاعی حصار جنوبی ارگ بم صورت گرفت. در این تحقیق که با نگاه علمی و تحلیل منطقی براساس تمرکز بر یافته ها و مشاهدات عناصر و کالبدهای مجموعه ارگ صورت گرفته است؛ با مطالعه و کاوش در حدفاصل برج های شماره 8 و 9 از مجموعه ی برج های حصار جنوبی ارگ بم، از پایه ی حصار تا خندق پیرامون آن و با دقت بر نویافته ها در کالبد معماری این محدوده، مشخص گردید، توصیفی که تاکنون از ساختار دفاعی بم در اسناد، گزارش ها و تصاویر آمده، در واقع بیانگر، حجمی از انباشت آوار تاریخی ناشی از تخریب ها و آثار برجای مانده از تحکیم حصار و باروها در طی قرون گذشته بوده است که به شکل یک سطح شیب دار از مجاور حصار تا خندق و در پیرامون کلیه ی اضلاع ارگ دیده می شود. در واقع ساختار دفاعی، علاوه بر حصار و خندق، شامل دیواری حدفاصل خندق تا حصار و همچنین شیبی ملایم از خاک بکر بوده که از روی دیوار نویافته تا پایه ی باروی ارگ ارتفاع می یافته است. این مجموعه، در قالب یک نظام یکپارچه دفاعی عملکرد داشته است. با آشکار گشتن لایه های متعدد، همراه با ابعاد خشت های متنوع در کالبد حصار و باروها؛ تعدد دوره های بازسازی و تحکیم این حصار سترگ در طول تاریخ مشخص گردید و با توجه به وضعیت استقرار ارگ در پایین تر از سطح زمین های مجاور، استفاده از خاک محیط جهت ساخت مجموعه ارگ قطعی است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارگ بم، استحکامات دفاعی، حصار، دیوار نویافته، مهندسی نظامی
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  • Hojat Darabi Pages 7-26
    Ground stone is known as one of the most important artifacts in the Neolithic period. The production of a ground stone artifact can involve a whole host of manufacturing techniques, such as pounding, flaking, abrasion, polishing and even sometimes drilling. Although the “Neolithic” term is archaeologically relied upon the emergence of ground stone worldwide, this kind of artifact has ever rarely been given attention, especially in prehistoric Iran, in comparison with other archaeological materials. However, ground stone tools are mostly considered in relation with the emergence of agriculture as they were seemingly produced and applied for food preparation. Thus, they are usually known as the popular prehistoric implements, especially since the Neolithic beginning onward. In addition to subsistence and food processing, special analysis, social structure and the women’s roles in the past could also be paid attention by the consideration of ground stone tools. These issues, however, are based on a notable amount of the artifact associated with architectural spaces excavated in large scale. Taking the above mentioned issues, this article surveys the ground stone tools found at the Neolithic site of East Chia Sabz as the result of the first rescue archaeological excavation in 2009. This brings us informative data on the nature of food preparation in the site through time. Different types of ground stone including grinding slabs, mortars, pestle, hand stone and pounder were discovered. Both temporal and spatial distributions of the ground stone tools are seemingly consistent with the emergence of cultivation and then morphologically domestication of some plant species, including two-row barley, emmer and lentil. In this regard, the amount of pounder was larger in the lower layers while grinding slabs were increased through time. This issue is meaningfully seen at other Neolithic sites in western Iran indicating the development of agricultural activities and food preparation since the early Neolithic onward. Therefore, although the ground stone tools of East Chia Sabz not only show food preparation since the earliest time of occupation but also determine an increasing reliance upon production and consumption of plant foods. It should be noted that though ground stone tools are mostly assumed in relation with food preparation, they may have been used to process other materials such as pigments. In addition, they could have found a second function during their usage; for example, a grinding slab that had already been used to process the grains during an earlier phase, it might have been applied in building a wall in the later phase of occupation at a site. This kind of functional process should be given attention, notably during the excavations.
    Keywords: Ground Stone, Neolithic Period, East Chia Sabz, Food Production, Food Preparation
  • Mohamad Bahrami Pages 27-46
    In present discussion, it has been tried to provide a new chronology of Chalcolithic Period in Khorramabad Valley based on previous researches, theories, the results of recent explorations and also by collecting potsherds from our visited sites. For the first time the Neolithic era was introduced according to the cultural materials from the visited sites as the Roahol phase. Additionally, based on Elizabeth Henrickson’s classification and Frank Hole and some editions on it, the Chalcolithic period has been divided into three sub-eras such as Early Chalcolithic (Bagh-e No phase), Middle Chalcolithic (Daraei phase) and Late Chalcolithic (Ghamari, Konji and Masour phases). However, a new chronology has been carried out for each of the mentioned phases from the C14 dating, pottery analysis, regional and trans-regional chronologies. In present discussion, it has been tried to provide a new chronology of Chalcolithic Period in Khorramabad Valley based on previous researches, theories, the results of recent explorations and also by collecting potsherds from our visited sites. For the first time the Neolithic era was introduced according to the cultural materials from the visited sites as the Roahol phase. Additionally, based on Elizabeth Henrickson’s classification and Frank Hole and some editions on it, the Chalcolithic period has been divided into three sub-eras such as Early Chalcolithic (Bagh-e No phase), Middle Chalcolithic (Daraei phase) and Late Chalcolithic (Ghamari, Konji and Masour phases). However, a new chronology has been carried out for each of the mentioned phases from the C14 dating, pottery analysis, regional and trans-regional chronologies. In present discussion, it has been tried to provide a new chronology of Chalcolithic Period in Khorramabad Valley based on previous researches, theories, the results of recent explorations and also by collecting potsherds from our visited sites. For the first time the Neolithic era was introduced according to the cultural materials from the visited sites as the Roahol phase. Additionally, based on Elizabeth Henrickson’s classification and Frank Hole and some editions on it, the Chalcolithic period has been divided into three sub-eras such as Early Chalcolithic (Bagh-e No phase), Middle Chalcolithic (Daraei phase) and Late Chalcolithic (Ghamari, Konji and Masour phases). However, a new chronology has been carried out for each of the mentioned phases from the C14 dating, pottery analysis, regional and trans-regional chronologies. In present discussion, it has been tried to provide a new chronology of Chalcolithic Period in Khorramabad Valley based on previous researches, theories, the results of recent explorations and also by collecting potsherds from our visited sites. For the first time the Neolithic era was introduced according to the cultural materials from the visited sites as the Roahol phase. Additionally, based on Elizabeth Henrickson’s classification and Frank Hole and some editions on it, the Chalcolithic period has been divided into three sub-eras such as Early Chalcolithic (Bagh-e No phase), Middle Chalcolithic (Daraei phase) and Late Chalcolithic (Ghamari, Konji and Masour phases). However, a new chronology has been carried out for each of the mentioned phases from the C14 dating, pottery analysis, regional and trans-regional chronologies. In present discussion, it has been tried to provide a new chronology of Chalcolithic Period in Khorramabad Valley based on previous researches, theories, the results of recent explorations and also by collecting potsherds from our visited sites. For the first time the Neolithic era was introduced according to the cultural materials from the visited sites as the Roahol phase. Additionally, based on Elizabeth Henrickson’s classification and Frank Hole and some editions on it, the Chalcolithic period has been divided into three sub-eras such as Early Chalcolithic (Bagh-e No phase), Middle Chalcolithic (Daraei phase) and Late Chalcolithic (Ghamari, Konji and Masour phases). However, a new chronology has been carried out for each of the mentioned phases from the C14 dating, pottery analysis, regional and trans-regional chronologies.
    Keywords: Khorramabad Valley, Lorestan, Chalcolithic, Neolithic
  • Mostafa Sharifi, Rouhollah Shirazi, Seyed Mehdi Mousavi Kouhpar, Ali Mahfroozi Pages 47-66
    East Mazandaran including Sari, Neka, Behshahr and Galoogah and the Caspian Sea located in its South and South-east has always been a good choice for human settlement because of its geographical conditions and environmental capacities. We are also aware of the fact that the first human settlements during the history have always been affected by the environment. Archaeology as a scientific system is indeed indebted to geography processing the models and comparative studies on the reconstruction of paleo-environments and paleo-landscapes, as well as human settlement patterns. It is obvious that the different types of existing settlements on the earth are the results of consequential interaction between human behaviors and environmental situation. This communication is obviously clear, in particular, in the case of soil and sedimentary lands, which are very important elements for husbandry and food production. Human impressibility of environment has always been main reason for spatial differences of settlement and population aggregate and has formed specific settlement pattern in the ancient time; as East Mazandaran is not an exception for this issue. Although there have been great development on prehistoric studies during the recent years, the lack of scientific and systematic studies about chalcolithic period is still felt. The current study is one of the important pioneer archaeological efforts in order to recognize the chalcolithic period of East Mazandaran. The aim of this paper is to focus and analyze the role of natural and geographical as well as the environmental factors in the appearance of the human settlements of the Chalcolithic period of east Mazandaran province, Northern Iran. There are 27 chalcolithic settlements in East of Mazandaran have found which their relative date back to the early 5th millennium up to the late 4th millennium B.C. After relative dating the chalcolithic settlements which were done by the typology of potteries, the geographical positions of the settlements were entered to the GIS and had been analyzed regarding to the different geographical factors. Cultures and pottery traditions of eastern part of Mazandaran are were very similar to the contemporaneous cultures from Central Plateau and Gorgan Plain. These cultural similarities may be a result of interactions between nomadic societies, commercial exchanges or economic activities of travelling artisans. Results suggest that 93% of the settlements are in areas with Mediterranean climate and 85% in non-forest areas. 85% of them are in areas which have an average precipitation of 600-800 millimeters and 48% of them are in areas at an altitude of 0-500 meters and 37% at -26 – 0 altitude. 89% percent of the settlements have less than 2 kilometers distance from the river, 85% of them have 0 – 4 kilometers distance from the transportation paths and 96% of them are in non-pasture areas. Therefore, almost most of the Chalcolithic settlements are in non-pasture areas. Nevertheless, we can’t claim to contribute these settlements to the nomadic communities; the reason is that the nomadic economics makes the settlements to develop in pasture areas. Whereas, the placement of most settlements near rivers and non-forest plains suggests that the dependence of Chalcolithic societies of the region to agriculture economics and sedentary. Based on the foregoing, it is clear that the settlement patterns of Chalcolithic sites, despite the prior assumptions, are quite impressed by the physiography while the human geography had less effect.
    Keywords: Chalcolithic Period, East Mazandaran, Settlement Patterns, Environment, Nomadic
  • Pages 67-82
    Southeastern Iran is one of the earliest centers of archaeometallurgy in Southwestern Asia. Due to archaeological investigations many important documents were discovered in ancient sites such as Tal-i- Iblis, Tepe Yahya, Shahdad and Shahr-e-Sokhteh. There are many ancient mining evidences and slag heaps of ore smelting all the southeastern region over. Besides gathering many data of early urbanization by recent archaeological researches in Jiroft Plain south of Kerman province, the ancient metallurgical evidences and metal objects were discovered. Many ores especially copper and slags of smelting were identified in the region and reported on the basis of archeological and geological surveys. A set of objects were gathered by illegal diggings in a region named Mil-e- Farhad in the southeast of Jiroft. There are some metal objects among them. One metal pin and two needles were chosen and examined by laboratories analyses were argued in this paper. On the basis of archaeological excavations of some sites in this region and corresponding with types gathered from scientific diggings, these objects are belonging to Bronze Age –Late 4th/Early 3rd millennium B.C.-. Examination of metallugraphic analysis, was determined the method of these three objects production. These were produce by cold hammering and annealing manner. The quantity and quality of the elements of Inclusions, Globules and Impurities of these objects were analyzed by SEM- EDS and ICP- OES. Chemically, the main compositions of the objects are resemble to Bronze Age metallurgy of southeastern Iran; the pin and one of the needles were made of copper- arsenical alloy and another needle was made of pure copper. The other identified elements are included antimony, zinc, tin, lead, iron, strontium, silver, aluminum and some other trace elements. Ore deposites surveys indicate that the quantity and quality of ores elements of Halil-Rud region bear relatively exact resembalanse of these objects compositions. We could assay the locality of raw material of the mentioned objects by this elemental adaptation. One of the substantial point of Bronze Age cultures of southeastern Iran including Halil- Rud and Jiroft is the prevalence of inter-regional and inter-cultural styles. In the other word, material parameters of these cultures have beared resembalanse in forms, structures, techniques and chemical compounds regionally and trans-regionally. These similarities are noticeable and eye-worth in the case of bronze needle and pin. We shall able to analysis the cultural interactions between the Bronze Age centers of southeastern Iran with each other and with the contemporary sites of southern and southwestern of Iran, even, Mesopotamia in one hand and Baluchistan and Turkmenistan on the other hand. The high range distribution of the metal pins and needles all the Bronze Age centers of the southwestern Asia indicate that there were complex societies which produced and distributed these objects between each other while they had interactions. So, the analysis of economic, social and political complexities of these societies would be possible. Archaeometallurgy was an industrial chain in which have been groups such as miners, smelters, producers, merchants and consumers. Discovering the old mining evidences and smelting slag heaps, presence of enough water and fuel, gathering of various metal objects, tablets etc. appeal the productive, technical, economical and official mechanisms in the under-studying region.
    Keywords: Bronze Age, Jiroft, Metal Pin, Metal Needle, Metallography, Elemental Analysis
  • Kazem Molazadeh, Alireza Gudarzi Pages 83-100
    During the first half of the 1st millennium B.C, the inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period from Ashur-nasirpal II (866) to Ashurbanipal (639 B.C.), had referred to Ellipian kingdom for ca.250 years. The first recorded of interaction between Assyria and Ellipi dates back to 866 BC, and certainly before which Ellipi was exist, because the royal Assyrian inscriptions mentioned only to such areas which they have political skirmish. Researchers of hundred years ago introduced the Ellipi kingdom as located in the east of neo- Assyrian empire reading of Assyrian inscriptions; they also briefly addressed in related research of the history and historical geography of western Iran and the Toponymy mentioned by the Assyrian texts. But, so far resorted to the inscriptions, except the general position of Ellipi in relation to other western Iran kingdoms, other aspects of Ellipian historical geography is still ambiguous; such as the exact scope of political institutions, economy and livelihood, religion and etc. of the given kingdom. As long as the lands of Ellipi accurately be rebuilt, the archeology of Ellipi including any stylistics of cultural material would be incomprehensible and impossible to prove. While about the contemporaneous neighbors such as Neo- Elamite, Mana and Media kingdoms there are good evidences. The resources available for historical geography of Ellipian kingdom is limited to historical texts and archaeological data; the historical data on one hand limited to Assyrian inscriptions, which often political sententious zoom describes their version of victories. On the other hand, no written documents from Babylonians and especially Elamite inscriptions have mentioned Ellipi while on the basis of some evidence there have been good relationship with Ellipi. But despite all problems listed above, studying historical geography of Ellipian kingdom, the balls and other neighbors, such as reviews material resources and political basins, others neighbors like Media and Elam, putting together all the evidence and information, can be obtain to have reliable reconstruction. Here, with the comprehensive utilization of historical sources and archaeological data in the light of the geographical features of the region, it is tried to have reliable reconstruction of historical geography of Ellipian kingdom based on new archaeological evidences and Assyrian texts. According to this study, Caspian people who lived in the Eastern Luristan by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, have been able to establish the Ellipi kingdom. A great achievement for this people which even earlier of the Medes and Persians and contemporary with Manna were achieved. Kingdom of Ellipi include original range of Pish-kuh which from the north limited to the Grien mountains in Harhar, in the northeast to along the Grien and in the East to Oshtoran-kuh to Media, from the south in the basin Seymareh to Elam, in the West to Kabir-kuh and in the North-West to South Harsin to Bit-Hamban. Also kingdom of Ellipi consisted of several state government centers entitled “Royal Cities” and “Fortified Cities“. In addition, the special climate of the area provided an special nature of Ellipian kingdom. So, that most of the population of the territory have livelihoods on the basis of nomadic and livestock as well as the political elite of this state was habitant in very different places and smaller than other known centers neighbors, like Susa of Elamite and Hegmataneh of Media. One of these centers can be Baba Jan of level III which King of Ellipi where manage the kingdom.
    Keywords: Ellipian, Pishkoh Luristan, Luristan Pottery, Bīt-Barrūa, Elenzáš
  • Majid Sarikhani, Mahmoud Heidarian, Shahram Parseh Pages 101-120
    Environmental factors play a decisive role in all aspects of human life. Obviously, this effect in ancient times has been caused because of the lack of advanced technologies, using environmental resources and control environmental impacts, since, most of the communities to find suitable living conditions, were constantly being migrating. Factors such as keep off and proximity to water resources, vegetation, climate, slope, and etc. had been integral role in the choice of lives’ location of the ancient people. The difference in the degree of importance of each factor can be due to intensity of element and on the other hand, the particular type of food or the culture of the area. But, the awareness of this issue which: What factors have involved in the selection the location of sites in a region, isn’t possible only with study of area, but these studies are required to investigate all sites of a specific geographic area. Furthermore, studying possibility of set of works (effects) as a whole unit is the reason for the spread of these studies. Songhor city with 2308 square kilometers and geographical coordinates 47˚ 31ˊ to 47˚ 55ˊ east of the meridian of 33˚ 37ˊ Greenwich 5/0˚ 34ˊ north of the equator in the eastern Kermanshah province, located at an altitude of 1700 meters above sea level. This plain is neighbor to Kurdistan province from the north and north-west, with Hamadan province from east and with Kangavar and Sahneh city from South. In 2004 and 2009 two seasons archaeological survey was conducted in the Songhor and Koliaie plain and the result identified and recorded 286 ancient site. Further studies and typology of pottery compared with data obtained from sites with absolute chronology, showed that of these, 54 site was in Sassanian pottery effects. In this study, the data obtained from archeological analysis of Sonqor province is analyzed and the relationship between Sassanid settlements and their natural environments were evaluated by Programs used in the science of Geography and Statistics. The method is firstly collect the city’s geographical position information then combined with spatial data of Sassanian sites. Merge data of this study, geographic information systems (GIS) and other statistical programs such as Excel were applied. The result shows that a high percentage of the area affected by geographical factors have been created. Most of sites follow the same pattern and characteristics of the environment, such as elevation, slope degree, slope, proximity to water resources, land using and geomorphology, have the same conditions. It should be noted that the same environmental conditions, sites which have a tendency towards the West part of the plain, in these circumstances, it is likely that the trend toward urban areas closest Dinawar (located in the northwest of the Sahneh plain), which are is improbable; But the proof of this issue need to more research in a larger area. The importance of this study is not purely Identifying of natural factors affecting the formation Sassanid settlements of Sonqor plain. But this study can be used as a model for the future in Archaeological surveys, in the same spatial- temporal condition to reduce the time and cost. Also considering that the Sonqor and Koliaie plain on the border of between the provinces of Kurdistan, Hamedan and Kermanshah have increased the importance of the study.
    Keywords: Settlement Pattern, Sassanid Period, Sonqor Plain, GIS
  • Masoud Azarnoush, Ali Sharifi, Ali Hozhabri Pages 121-140
    Historical site known as Tepe Hegmataneh is located in eastern edge of Central Zagros, Hamadan Province, Iran (34°48’15.61”N, 48°31’3.25”E). There are always some questions about the Site: 1- when and by the order of whom, the Standard Architectural Pattern (SAP) were built? 2- what was the function of SAP?Charles fosses directed the frist excavation in Tepe Hegmateneh, he worked for six mounth in 1913. Eric schmidt took some aerial photo from Hamadan between 1935 to 1937. Because of the first world war, the archaeological excavations were stopped. The first Iranian expedition worked in Tepe Hegmataneh for 11 successive seasons under supervision of M.R.Sarraf from 1983 to 2000, these excavations led to discovering some parts of an enclosure and SAP in central, southern and western workshops. However Sarraf could not find reliable answers for the already mentioned questions. Second round of excavation (12th to 15th seasons) was undertaken by M. Azarnoush for four seasons from 2004 to 2008, the aim was “to clarify the dating and stratigraphical sequence of the site” .In the 14th season, the excavated tranches were distributed all over the site in order to exam the yeilded results of Trench AR-AS40. Three workshops AV68, AY47 and AS39 were the most important excavated tranches in this season. Tranch AS39 is located in the north of Trench AR-AS40, and SAP remains was discovered in the last phase of this trench as same as remains in Trench AR-AS40. Excavation in Trench AV68 led to determinate a small part of SAP; second determined cultural period in this tranch includes some deposit in which potsherds with Parthian charactristics such as clinky were found. Tranch AY47 comprises cultural deposit and adobe stracture (SAP) which cannot be dated earlier than Parthian period. In addition, a great layer of soil was excavated Below the Standard Architectural Pattern (BSAP), also were detected in the 12th season of excavation in Tranch AR-AS40. The existence of this layer, raise the hypothesis that before building SAP, the ups and downs of the bedrock were filled by soil. The first absolute dating is related to 9th seasons of excavation. However Sarraf did not accept the result of TL dating as valid done. After that fifteen samples of 14th season were taken for TL dating, two of which dated to Sassanid, two dated to Early Islamic and the others dated to Parthian period. In the 14th season, nine samples of charcoals and bones from Trench AY47, AV68 and AS39 sent to Laboratory of Oxford University for 14C dating. From seven samples of Tranch AY47, three verified as invalid, and four dated to Middle of Parthian period. Regarding the TL dating and sequence of layers, two other samples from Trench AV68 and AS39 for 14C dating (no.8 and 9), surly cannot be valid; because the no.9 in 14C dating, was taken from the lower layer of no.12 and 14 tested with TL, suggested dating is TL yr BP (e.g. ‘1805±45 BP’), but for no.9 is 14C yr BP (e.g. ‘1494±28 BP’). The no.8 in 14C dating was derived from the lower layer of no.15 and 16; result of TL dating for these two samples is TL yr BP (e.g. ‘1690±45 BP’). But the result of 14C dating for no.8 is 14C yr BP (e.g. ‘1451±25 BP’). Therefore only no.1, no.3, no.4, no.5 are valid samples.The result of 14C and TL dating (19 samples from 24) indicates that Standard Architectural Pattern (SAP) was built in the Middle of Parthian to Early of Sassanid period (180 BC to 350 AD). Regarding the 50 hectare expanse of the site, which will be extened to 100 hectare, it is likely to discover Median and Achaemenian capital in Hamadan; but this cannot be contray that the SAP dates to Parthian period.
    Keywords: Tepe Hegmataneh, Parthian Period, Sassanian Period, TL Dating, Radiocarbon Dating
  • Akram Hosseini, Mahsa Fallah Mehrjerdi Pages 141-160
    Ancient Iran has been a vast region which its political boundaries have altered over time with the emergence of various governmental periods and as a result of the withdrawal of these borders, part of its legacy has been left in distant lands. The desert city of Hatra, which the peak of its significance returns to the Parthian period, is one of these Iranian heritages which nowadays is located outside of modern Iranian borders, in Iraq, and is the richest archaeological area known in the Persian Empire with great potential better understanding this unknown empire. Hatra is a city with almost three centuries of dynamic urban life which grew and expanded rapidly because of its appropriate natural-environmental, communicational-commercial and strategic position and especially the religious beliefs of its inhabitants. In ancient era, this city as the capital of Arabic territories was located 50 km northwest of the ancient Assyrian capital. Its natural borders were from the East Tigris River, Euphrates at the West, Sinjar Mountains in north-with the area of influence of Khabur and Nusabin-and Mada’in in the south.The primary core of the city which was probably Assyrian, formed due to appropriate geographical conditions of the site, and later, with the construction of the temples became a center for social gatherings. The city flourished in the Seleucid period by the expansion of trade routes and unfolding its military importance against the Roman Empire during the Parthian, was converted into a major city of the West of Parthian territory. Construction of ditch and city walls were began in this period, thereby; the city was preserved from incidents of the era for a long time and reached its peak of glory. During this period, Hatra was relatively independent from Parthians though allied with Parthians at the time of the Roman military attacks, but soon with emergence of Sassanian in the mid third century AD, the golden era of Hatra ended and its civilization subsided. After the recognition of ancient area of Hatra, lots of studies were done. These studies mainly were the result of excavation by European-Iraqi joint researchers led to the introduction of a variety of assumptions about the nature of this historical city; Assumptions which know Hatra as a Seleucid city and influenced by the Hellenistic-Roman culture, such as “ Dura-europos “ or affected by Parthian cities. In this research, with a comparative study on Hatra’s urbanism and other historical patterns, its evolution will be analyzed as part of the history of Iranian urbanism; while some researchers using archaeological excavation data believe that the settlement and civilization in this area have been started from Assyrian era, there is no documented research on the history of Hatra’s urbanism. Present research with the implementation and analysis of existing data, will analyze the physical spatial structure of Hatra as a limited example of the Parthian urbanism.There were several effective factors on t forming the physical-spatial structure of the City from genesis to collapse which Natural-environmental, religious-ritual, communicational-commercial, military and governmental were the most important ones. In addition to these factors, the culture had an important role in shaping the City. In this paper, with an interpretive- historic method and utilizing a logical argument, the following questions will be answered: How has the spatial- physical structure of Hatra, followed the various elements such as: religious, commercial, cultural factors, etc.? And what changes have the urban elements of Hatra had over the time? In order to understand the evolution of Hatra, as the first step, each of the above factors, will be investigated separately in different periods and the influence of these factors on the structure of the city will be studied; as the next step with a more holistic approach, obtained findings will be discussed.
    Keywords: Hatra, City Structure, City Development, Parthian, Rome
  • Negin Miri Pages 161-172
    Historical and administrative geography of Sassanian period is more well-known to us compared to its preceding periods due to the existence of valuable contemporary literary and material evidence as well as many later written sources about the structure and history of Sassanian Empire. Nevertheless, there are still many uncertainties and unsolved problems. Moreover, finding new evidence in some instances necessitates review and/or improvement of previous studies. This paper studies two toponyms - Rew-Ardashir and Reishahr- whose identifications has not been an easy and established issue. The name Rew-Ardashir is recorded on seal of amargar of Rēw-Ardašīr, Ērān-Xwarrah-Šābuhr, Ērān-Xwarrah-Šābuhr and Tarm. Fourth and fifth century coins also bear the mint signature for this location in both its abbreviated and full forms as LYW and LYWARTHŠT/LYWARTHŠRT. The name is also recorded on ŠKZ as a place where Christian captives from Shapur I’s Syrian campaigns were settled in by mid-3rd century AD. The name Rew-Ardashir is also frequently mentioned in Church Synods from the early 4th century A.D. onward and in other Syrian sources such as the Acts of the Martyrs. It was the official seat of the Nestorian metropolitan of Fars since mid-5th century. The name Rew-Ardashir is also recorded in some Manichean texts. Apart from this ample contemporary evidence, Early and Middle Islamic geographical and historical sources have recorded two place names bearing the name Reishahr that is an altered version of Rew-Ardashir according to them: Reishahr of Tawwaj and Reishahr of Arrajan. These two places however cannot logically refer to one place due to considerable distance between Tawwaj that was located to the north of modern Borazjan and Arrajan that was located near the border of Fars and Khuzestan along Jarahi River, as well as other given descriptions. These ambiguous and dual reports have hence led to obscurity in identification of Sassanian Rew-Ardashir and then Reishahr. The present paper brings together all available contemporary material and literary evidence, archaeological information from the region as well as information available in the Islamic historical and geographical sources in order to provide an explanation for this dual location and propose a novel identification. It is suggested here that there existed in fact two place names as Rew-Ardashir/Reishahr both during the Sasanian and Early to Middle Islamic periods, one in the border area between Fars and Khuzestan and the other one in the Bushehr peninsula that was part of Fars province. Reishahr of Tawwaj was Rew-Ardashir of Pars that was seat of Nestorian Metropolitan of Fars from 3rd to 6th centuries A.D. and a mint town from late 4th to mid-7th century A.D., the location of which has been identified with a site in Bushehr peninsula. Reishahr of Arrajan is identical with the Rew-Ardashir recorded on the sealing of the āmārgar of Rew-Ardashir, Eran-Khuarrah-Shapur, Vahman-Ardashir that were both located in eastern Khuzestan. It has been thus located in Zeitun area near Arrajan in the border area between Fars and Khuzestan.
    Keywords: Historical Geography, Sasanian, Rew-Ardashir, Reishahr, Fars, Khuzestan
  • Ali Zarei, Haeedeh Laleh Pages 173-192
    In the process of formation and growth of urban areas, the role and function of various mausoleums and shrines, such as the tombs of saints and prominent religious leaders must be considered. The existence of a pilgrimage complex in the city attracted believers, pilgrims and travelers who visited and stayed in the city and as a result, the population of the city increased and business boomed. Some of the devotees and believers of these figures constructed public-utility urban-cultural facilities surrounding these complexes in order to enhance the prosperity, glory and reputation of these spiritual areas. During the Islamic period, as a result of the spiritual and mystical influence of Sheikh Ahmad-e Jami in the Seljuk era and in Ma’dabad village- as the initial center of formation of Torbat-e Jam- the kings of this period, such as Sultan Sanjar, and rulers and elders went to visit him in the village and after his death and burial in this village, the context was provided for devotion to the mystical character of Sheikh. The Sheikh’s family’s kinship with and religious influence on kings and leaders in the subsequent periods, especially the Kurt dynasty rulers during the Ilkhanid period and Timurid kings, led to further prosperity of Torbat-e Jam, and this factor contributed to the formation and development of the mausoleum complex surrounding the tomb of Sheikh Jami. On the other hand, because of its special geographical position and favorable environmental conditions, this city was located in the middle of transporting routes connecting major cities of greater Khorasan. Also, it was located between Herat and Nishapur and on the other hand, it had common borders with Sarakhs, Tus, and Badghis region. Therefore, militarily, economically and culturally, it was always considered as one of the very important areas. With these changes, the city of Buzjan in the Jam province, which until then was one of the major cities of the early Islamic centuries, fell from the boom times as a result of factors such as the Mongol invasion and Torbat-e Jam became the headquarters of the government. The process of physical-spatial development of Sheikh-e Jam complex and consequently, Torbat-e Jam began since the rule of the Kurt dynasty and gradually a major city emerged out of a small village, and especially since the Ilkhanid until the Late Timurid period, in the light of its political and religious role, this city progressed rapidly in all economic, political, communicative and cultural areas. In the present study, the causes of changes in the physical and formal changes of pattern of Torbat-e Jam city since its establishment, with regard to both external factors (government and the will of political-administrative elites of the city) and internal factors (growth of economic, social and religious relations) until the Late Pahlavi period is evaluated. The research method is descriptive-analytical and historical analysis method in the form of documentary and library research based on studying the written sources, especially historical and geographical texts and adaptation of aerial photographs to available maps and field research in the context of the ancient city. Accordingly, based on the most important factors affecting the process of development of Jam city, that is, the presence of Sheikh Ahmad-e Jam in Ma’dabad village, natural and climatic condition of the region and the transportation/communication routes connecting this city and neighboring regions and cities, initial center of the city and its limits over different historical periods were determined based on the existing documents, and it was found that the city of Jam reached the peak of its development and prosperity by the Timurid and Pahlavi periods.
    Keywords: Torbat-e Jam, Madabad, Ahmad-e Jam, Timurid, Pahlavi
  • Hamid Khanali, Reza Rezaloo, Esmaeil Hemmati Azandariani Pages 193-210
    Archaeological studies of the Islamic period of Ardabil so far have been limited to a few landmark, and the southern province of Ardabil least part of these studies is devoted to. This study is the first archaeological survey conducted in this area. The present study opens a new chapter in archaeological studies of ancient Persia. This is the first study of archaeological research conducted in this region relying on two sources, including archaeological findings and historical written sources have been studied with a comparative approach, alongside factors such as geography, environmental conditions, and strategic location the region’s political and cultural boundaries. Since this region at the junction of important areas such as the South West of the Caspian Sea (Guilan and effort), North West Central Plateau of Iran (Zanjan area) and middle stages with centers such as Ardabil and in the plains, the Magi and the Caucasus; the need to fix deficiencies archaeological research more than ever necessary. The city is the most important factor in determining the importance of transportation in the region of visibility not absent geographers and geographical books ancient name of this area was to be made publicly called anklet. Despite the strategic importance of the Kowsar County and numerous references to the role of transportation in the city during the Islamic historical texts so far no research has been done on the trade routes. In this regard, the most important of them are the numerous questions raised: 1. what archaeological evidence of the importance of this area of the Kowsar County and communication proper position there? 2. The strategic location in the commercial ways and possibilities of the way Kowsar County what? 3. Where the Castle Firozabad referred to in historical texts and site selection with regard to what it was? 4. Qabaq role in facilitating trade linkages regional and trans-regional Firozabad Castle What? The research method is descriptive-analytical and field data based on preceding studies (inspection, identification and documentation of archeology findings) collected and library studies, particularly the use of texts, historians, geographer’s Islamic period have been used to complete studies. Azerbaijan region due to altitude and numerous mountain ranges on one side, and having seasonal and permanent rivers and valleys on the other side, including the regions that needed to build bridges to facilitate the transport goods and passengers. The most important ways that are identified in the region, is the cross-border road of Caucasus and two track roads of Guilan and Azerbaijan. The study of texts and archaeological findings show “Qabaq qala Firouz Abad” is the main military fortress of the region. The fortress has provided with security necessary Basis establishing several between-road facilities in this city. And thereby, has facilitated cross-regional business communications and has increased its credit. Site Selection of fortified fortresses in regions that are in a strategic position, On the one hand, retains the retail property (intra-regional)And on the other hand, with creating secure trade routes has protected national interests and macro-property (Extra-regional). In this paper, the authors relying on a comparative study of texts and archaeological findings of the region examine the effect of strategic location on the forming of the trade routes and between-road Facilities in this city. The main achievements of the current research is the identification of a trade route (road Caucasus) And three-way roads (between Azerbaijan and Guilan) and between-road-facilities, associated with them as: the Bridge” Qizkurposi”, resorts of ”Ghosh Qayasi”,the Inns “Arpa chai” and “Shah Abbasi” and several show-the- way signs. The present results show that the pattern of distribution of the Islamic period in question, Influenced by geography, environmental and micro and macro territorial sovereignty.
    Keywords: Ardabil Province, Kowsar County, Trade Roads, Military Fortress
  • Morteza Farahbakhsh, Hadi Safamansouri Pages 211-231
    In the history of Iranian territory, attention towards defensive fortifications has always ambitiously been concerned as an important factor for survival of the residential and governmental centers. Detailed and precise focusing on each of these defensive structures will provide useful information on the characteristics of this type of military architecture. An MW 6.5 earthquake devastated the town of Bam in southeast Iran on 26 December 2003. After the Bam earthquake, attentions have been attracted towards Arg-e-Bam complex which had been extensively damaged, and methodical studies were initiated in various parts of this world heritage site. The citadel is located on the northeast of Bam, a dependency of Kerman province located 193 kilometers southeast of Kerman (the province center) and 1257 kilometers southeast of Tehran. The citadel consists of two main areas, the ruler’s seat and the commoners’ area, which are separated by walls and watchtowers. Another wall, lined by a moat, runs approximately 2,000 meters around this ensemble, separating it from the surrounding fields. Hence, the present study was being carried out from 2005 to 2008, and aimed at introducing and recognizing the main structure of Arg-e-Bam defense system. In this research which has based on a scientific viewpoint and a logical analysis focusing on findings, elements observations and architectural bodies obtained from a part of the fence between towers (8) and (9) on the southern (main) front up to reaching the ditch and also from new-found parts of the fence body, it has been shown that the image formed in pictures, reports and public opinion about the nature of Bam citadel defensive structure was actually a part of it, as a volume of accumulated historical debris caused by demolitions and reconstructions during the past centuries, which can be seen as a ramp adjacent to the fence up to reaching the ditch and around all sides of the citadel. Understanding the physical situation and constituting layers of this massive defensive structure at the corner of Lut Desert will be useful for researchers not only to know about the architectural aspects, but also to better understand the socio-political conditions of governmental structures during different historical periods in this area. According to the revision of Arg-e-Bam defensive fortifications based on the field studies and explorations, new-found parts include an extensive wall located between the ditch and the fence wall with a height of 2.7 m, which is larger than the human size, and the ramp which is elevated from the top of this wall to fence base, expressing its defensive role as an obstacle preventing the invaders from easy access to the fence side, and stressing on its role as an strengthening element for retrofitting the citadel defensive wall structure from the structural engineering viewpoint. Evaluating the natural ground bed of the area and the artificial effects created by human activities on the area, detailed studying and scientific perceptions about the manner of positioning and distribution of various defensive elements relative to each other, and detecting the level differences between Sharestan (public stand) bed, fence and fortifications, ditch and the natural ground bed around the complex indicate that there have been extensive changes in the complex area in order to construct the spaces and architectural body of Arg-e-Bam complex as a world heritage site. Findings have suggested the use of ground bed soil as brick and clay materials for the construction of Bam structures and its architectural components. This study has been accompanied with field exploration, mapping and analysis of findings, along with a reviewing of the books and documents available on Bam and defensive fortifications and structures, and with the guidance given by experts.
    Keywords: Arg-e Bam, Defensive Fortification, Fence, New-Found Wall, Military Engineering