فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Seyed Kazem Malakouti, Seyed Reza Mahdavi, Borzooyeh Naji *, Mina Asadi, Shamsoddin Kahani Pages 185-186
  • Ehsan Rezayat *, Iman Ghodrati Toostani Pages 187-194
    Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain. It can also be coupled with brain imaging assessments in future research.
    Keywords: Low, intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), Non invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), Neuromodulation, Neuroimaging
  • Naser Osanloo, Akram Najafi, Abedi, Fatemeh Jafari, Farshid Javid, Mohsen Pirpiran, Mohammad, Reza Memar, Jafari, Seyed Ali Mousavi, Khosravi, Mohammad Rahimzadeh, Behzadi, Mina Ranjbaran, Hedayat Sahraei * Pages 195-202
    Introduction
    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined.
    Methods
    We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug. In another group of animals, 30 minutes after extract administration, blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus for corticosterone assay. Yet in third group, the drugs were injected to the animals and 30 minutes later, their activities were tested in an open field apparatus.
    Results
    Our experiments showed that the extract efficiently reduced FST time both in male and female mice dose-dependently. This effect was comparable with fluoxetine. In addition, corticosterone assay indicated that plasma corticosterone in animals which received extract was higher than those amounts in fluoxetine and saline controls. Moreover, the animals did not show any motor activity deficit in all doses of the extract and fluoxetine compared to saline control.
    Conclusion
    The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals’ activity.
    Keywords: Papaver rhoeas, Fluoxetine, Corticosterone, Locomotion, Stress
  • Hossien Zeinali, Homa Manaheji *, Jalal Zaringhalam, Zahra Bahari, Samad Nazemi, Mehdi Sadeghi Pages 203-212
    Introduction
    Several studies have reported the involvement of age-related changes in the development of neuropathic pain behaviors. However, limited data are available on the role of age in establishing and maintaining chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.
    Methods
    In the present study, we examined age-related neuropathic behavior among rats in 4 age groups: pups (4 weeks old; weight, 60–80 g), juvenile rats (6 weeks old; weight, 120–140 g), and mature rats (10–12 weeks old; weight, 200–250 g). Because the exact contribution of spinal microglia and its association with the development of neuropathic pain remains unknown, we also evaluated the expression of spinal Iba1, a microglial marker, by using western blotting before and 5 days after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as well as after the daily IP administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg).
    Results
    Our results showed that SNL-induced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia in mature rats but not in pups (P
    Conclusion
    These data suggest that the development of neuropathic behaviors and microglial activation after SNL could be age dependent.
    Keywords: Age, related, Hyperalgesia, Allodynia, Iba1
  • Narjes Soltani, Elham Mohammadi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Ali Shamsizadeh *, Ali Roohbakhsh, Abbas Haghparast Pages 213-220
    Introduction
    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a chemical often used as a solvent for waterinsoluble drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DMSO on neural response characteristics (in 1200–1500 μm depth) of the rat barrel cortex.
    Methods
    DMSO solution was prepared in 10% v/v concentration and injected into the lateral ventricle of rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and neuronal responses to deflection of the principal whisker (PW) and adjacent whisker (AW) were recorded in barrel cortex. A condition test ratio (CTR) was used to measure inhibitory receptive fields in barrel cortex.
    Results
    The results showed that both PW and AW evoked ON and OFF responses, neuronal spontaneous activity and inhibitory receptive fields did not change following ICV administration of DMSO.
    Conclusion
    Results of this study suggest that acute ICV administration of 10% DMSO did not modulate the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons in the l deep ayers of rat barrel cortex.
    Keywords: DMSO, Electrophysiology, Somatosensory cortex, Rats
  • Fanak Shahmohammadi, Mehrshad Golesorkhi, Mohammad Mansour Riahi Kashani, Mehrdad Sangi, Ahmad Yoonessi, Ali Yoonessi * Pages 221-230
    Introduction
    Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse.
    Methods
    Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content. A total of 10 methamphetamine abusers and 10 age-gender matched controls participated in the experiments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared using a time window analysis method. The ERPs were divided into 19 time windows of 100 ms with 50 ms overlaps. The area of positive sections below each window was calculated to measure the differences between the two groups.
    Results
    Significant differences between two groups were observed from 250 to 500 ms (P300) in response to methamphetamine-related visual stimuli and 600 to 800 ms in response to neutral stimuli.
    Conclusion
    This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse.
    Keywords: Event, related potential, Brain, Methamphetamine, Craving
  • Sasan Gazerani, Jalal Zaringhalam *, Homa Manaheji, Sahar Golabi Pages 231-240
    Introduction
    Stimulation of peptidergic fibers activates microglia in the dorsal horn. Microglia activation causes fractalkine (FKN) release, a neuron-glia signal, which enhances pain. The transient vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) mediates the release of neuropeptides, which can subsequently activate glia. TRPV1 and TRPV2 are generally expressed on C and Aδ fibers, respectively. Expression of both proteins is upregulated during inflammation, but expression of TRPV3 after induction of inflammation is unclear.
    Methods
    Adult male Wistar rats were used in all experiments. Arthritis was induced in them by single subcutaneous injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in their right hindpaws. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) was used to eliminate peptidergic fibers. We examined the relation between FKN and TRPV3 expression by administration of anti-FKN antibody.
    Results
    Our study findings indicated that 1) spinal TRPV3 was mostly expressed on nonpeptidergic fibers, 2) expression of spinal TRPV3 increased following inflammation, 3) elimination of peptidergic fibers decreased spinal TRPV3 expression, 4) alteration of hyperalgesia was compatible with TRPV3 changes in RTX-treated rat, and 5) anti-FKN antibody reduced spinal TRPV3 expression.
    Conclusion
    It seems that the hyperalgesia variation during different phases of CFA-induced arthritis correlates with spinal TRPV3 expression variation on peptidergic fibers. Moreover, spinal microglial activation during CFA inflammation is involved in TRPV3 expression changes via FKN signaling.
    Keywords: Hyperalgesia, TRPV3, Microglia, Fractalkine
  • Shamseddin Ahmadi *, Fatemeh Rafieenia, Jalal Rostamzadeh Pages 241-248
    Introduction
    Morphine is a potent analgesic but its continual use results in analgesic tolerance. Mechanisms of this tolerance remain to be clarified. However, changes in the functions of μ-opioid and N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been proposed in morphine tolerance. We examined changes in gene expression of the NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) at mRNA levels in rat striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) after induction of morphine tolerance.
    Methods
    Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method.
    Results
    The results showed that long-term morphine a administration induces tolerance to analgesic effect of the opioid, as revealed by a significant decrease in morphine-induced analgesia on day 8 compared to day 1 of the injections (P
    Conclusion
    Therefore, changes in the NR1 gene expression in rat striatum and PFC have a region-specific association with morphine-induced analgesic tolerance.
    Keywords: Morphine, Gene expression, Prefrontal cortex, Corpus striatum
  • Rabie Mohammadi, Mehrdad Jahanshahi *, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie Pages 249-258
    Introduction
    A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation.
    Methods
    Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method.
    Results
    Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P
    Conclusion
    We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus.
    Keywords: Conditioned place preference, Morphine, 5, HT2A receptors, Hippocampus, Rats
  • Maryam Raoof, Hamed Ebrahimnejad *, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Ladan Amirkhosravi, Ramin Raoof, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Mohsen Ramazani, Noushin Shokouhinejad, Mehrfam Khoshkhounejad Pages 259-268
    Introduction
    This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats.
    Methods
    The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxietyrelated behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test.
    Results
    Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P
    Conclusion
    Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects.
    Keywords: Odontalgia, Capsaicin, Formalin, Diazepam, Anxiety, Elevated plus maze
  • Mohammad Torabi, Nami *, Samrad Mehrabi, Sabri Derman Pages 269-275
    Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS), hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS) is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography. Results from our PSG study in a case suspected for PAMS prompted us to herewith discuss this problem.
    Keywords: Polysomnography, Periodic arm movements during sleep, Sleep disorders