فهرست مطالب

Addiction & Health - Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2016
  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hamed Choopan, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Yousef Aazami, Younes Doostian, Ali Farhudian, Omid Massah Page 68
    Background
    Emotion regulation appears to provide individuals with a doubled ability to avoid drug relapse and assists with the control of temptation to reuse, which is a type of tendency-avoidance conflict. The present study aims to investigate the effect of Gross model-based emotion regulation training on the reduction of craving beliefs in drug-addicted people.
    Methods
    The present study was a quasi-experimental design. This was a pre- and post-test design that consisted of control and experimental groups. The study population comprised all addicted individuals who visited addiction treatment clinics in Marivan, Iran. About 30 drug-addicted individuals by the random selection method were chosen. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control groups. Results were analyzed by univariate covariance analysis.
    Findings: Gross model-based emotion regulation training reduced signs and beliefs associated with temptation in drug-addicted people (P
    Conclusion
    Considering the present study’s findings, we recommend that addiction treatment centers teach strategies of emotion regulation to drug-addicted people by establishing workshops with the intent to reduce temptation signs.
    Keywords: Emotion regulation, Craving beliefs, Drugs
  • Omid Mehrpour, Ardeshir Sheikhazadi, Afsoon Barzegar, Afzal Husein, Claudia Malic, Elham Sheikhazadi, Seyed Hossein Saberi, Anary Page 76
    Background
    Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families and friends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a person more prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the first and second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage.
    Methods
    The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users (121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand, Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann–Whitney tests.
    Findings: The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were higher compared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significant difference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch pattern and had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In our opium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different in comparison with the control group (P
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drug usage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process.
    Keywords: Dermatoglyphics, Opium, Opioids, Addiction, Genetics, A, B ridge count, Finger ridge count
  • Habibolah Khazaie, Farid Najafi, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami, Atena Azami, Marzieh Nasouri, Masoud Tahmasian, Behnam Khaledi, Paveh Page 84
    Backgroundý: The relationship between substance use and sleep is bidirectional. Substance use directly causes sleep disturbances, and sleep problems are a critical factor in substance-use relapse.
    Methods
    This study evaluated sleep disorders in 65 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients, and 61 opium-dependent patients who did not receive any treatment between September 2011 and July 2012 in Kermanshah, Iran. Both groups filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire (GSAQ).
    Findings: Sleep disorders were remarkably similar in both groups: 78.5% of MMT patients and 87.7% of opium-dependent patients suffered from sleep problems. Sleep disorders in the opium-dependent group were remarkably higher and more prominent.
    Conclusion
    Compared to opium, MMT does not have as many negative effects on sleep and is more effective in mitigating sleep problems.
    Keywords: Sleep disorders, Opium dependency, Methadone maintenance treatment
  • Zahra Alammehrjerdi, Afsaneh Moradi, Fenglian Xu, Mehran Zarghami, Javad Salehi, Fadardi, Kate Dolan Page 90
    Background
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common among people who inject drugs (PWID) on methadone program in Iran (Persia). However, a few PWID on methadone program report willingness to receive HCV treatment. This study aimed to assess the factors which were associated with willingness to receive HCV treatment in a group of PWID on methadone program in Iran.
    Methods
    We surveyed 187 PWID at seven drops in centers in Tehran, Iran. Details of demographic characteristics, drug use, injection, HCV, and drug treatment history were collected a using 25-item questionnaire. Participants were serologically tested for the current status of HCV.
    Findings: The study found that 28.3% of the participants were HCV seropositive. In total, 49.1% of the participants reported unwillingness to receive HCV treatment. Awareness of current HCV status [odds ratio (OR) = 3.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-7.26; P
    Conclusion
    The study results indicate that awareness of HCV status and the provision of adequate HCV education via different information centers can be associated with an increased willingness for HCV treatment among PWID on methadone program. Conducting more research is suggested to assess the efficacy of educational programs and self-help groups in facilitating HCV treatment among PWID on methadone program.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C virus_Drug injection_Iran_Persian Gulf_Harm reduction
  • Leili Panaghi, Zohreh Ahmadabadi, Najmeh Khosravi, Mansoureh Sadat Sadeghi, Ali Madanipour Page 98
    Maternal separation (MS) is defined as the termination of the continuity of mother-child relationship after the relationship is established. Although MS and maternal deprivation are different in terms of their definitions, these two terms are usually used interchangeably. This review aims to investigate the effect of MS on drug intake in adulthood. It has been proved that animal models are helpful in evaluating the effects of MS on drug intake risk in adulthood. There are relatively acceptable studies in this field on some drugs such as morphine, ethanol, and cocaine. However, very few animal studies, or even no animal study, have been conducted on some other drugs. The majority of these studies have considered MS as a risk factor for drug intake in adulthood. Different mechanisms are proposed for this phenomenon. Brain reward pathways are one of the main exploratory pathways of this process. Despite the importance of the issue, no human study with a specific concentration on investigating the relationship between MS and drug abuse in later life was found. Causal studies are warranted on humans to investigate the effect of MS on drug intake in later life.
    Keywords: Early life stress, Maternal deprivation, Addiction
  • Fatemeh Delavari, Vahid Sheibani, Saeed Esmaeili, Mahani, Nouzar Nakhaee Page 107
  • Hoda Soltani, Abbas Pardakhty Page 115
    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of “new drug delivery systems” is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.
    Keywords: Opium, Controlled release, New drug delivery systems
  • Victoria Momenabadi, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Seyed Yaser Hashemi, Vahid Reza Borhaninejad Page 123
    Background
    An increase in hookah smoking is considered to be a serious health problem in societies with different cigarette smoking patterns. Thus, determinants of increase in this behavior are needed to be identified. This study aimed to review the articles related to the causes of hookah smoking in the society.
    Methods
    This study reviewed the scientific references of authentic databases and journals, including Web of Science, PubMed, Iranian Databases, Elsevier, Embase, Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CDC, and World Health Organization (WHO). Overall, 84 scientific studies conducted during 1990-2015 were collected.
    Results
    Several studies on the prevalence of smoking hookah and its associated factors in the society suggested that numerous factors played a role in interest in smoking hookah. The most common reasons for individuals’ inclination to smoke hookah were positive viewpoints toward smoking hookah, wrong beliefs about its low risks, presumed lack of addiction, social acceptance, ease of access, wrong cultural habits, and regulative weakness.
    Conclusion
    Evidence indicated that a large spectrum of individual and social factors was effective in various levels of hookah consumption. Besides, it seems that single-component interventions and those solely based on individual factors could not result in effective prevention. On the other hand, interventions based on ecological approaches are suggested in this regard. Overall, it is essential to focus on the exclusion of positive viewpoints toward hookah, develop the ability to say “no,” relaxation, and resistance against temptations to smoke hookah, culturalization, and regulation of strong laws.
    Keywords: Hookah, Consumption of tobacco products, Risk factors