فهرست مطالب

Acta Medica Iranica - Volume:54 Issue:8, 2016
  • Volume:54 Issue:8, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • N. Rahbar Roshandel Page 478
    We investigated the effects of 25Mg-Porphyrin-Fullerene nanoparticles, (25MgPMC16) smart ferroporphyrin nanoparticles, on PC12 cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. In order to explore its effect on cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions, the cultures were pretreated with 25MgPMC16 24 hours prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. To initiate the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion, the cell culture medium was replaced with a glucose-free medium and the cells were transferred to a humidified incubation chamber in a mixture of 95% N2 and 5% CO2 at 37° C for 30, 60 and 120 min. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Exposure of PC12 cells to 30, 60 and 120 min oxygen-glucose deprivation significantly decreased the cell viability. Pretreatment of the cultures with 25MgPMC16 significantly increased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment, the cultures with MK-801 (10 µM), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, has attenuated the cell death after 30 min oxygen-glucose deprivation. We concluded that 25MgPMC16 could protect PC12 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced cell injury in a concentration-dependent manner. That could be due to the effect of 25MgPMC16 on ATP synthesis and the antioxidant effects of its components.
  • Fatemeh Nabavizadeh Page 485
    Capecitabine, an effective anticancer drug in colorectal cancer chemotheraphy, may create adverse side effects on healthy tissues. In the present study, we first induced colon adenocarcinoma with azoxymethane, a carcinogen agent, and then investigated the potentiality of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer to improve capecitabine therapeutic index and decrease its adverse side effects on healthy tissues like liver and bone marrow. Other variables such as nanoparticle concentrations have also been investigated. Drug loading concentration (DLC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) were calculated for capecitabine/dendrimer complex. Experimental results showed an increase in DLC percentage resulted from elevated capecitabine/dendrimer ratio.Capecitabine/dendrimer complex could reduce tumor size and adverse side effects in comparison with free capecitabine form.
    Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Azoxymethane (AOM), Capecitabine, Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer
  • Alireza Sarkaki, Yaghoob Farbood, Mojtaba Dolatshahi, Seyed Mohammad Taqhi Mansouri, Ali Khodadadi Page 494
    Antioxidants have protective effects against free radicals-induced neural damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). We examined the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on locomotion, pallidal local EEG and its frequency band's power and also cerebral antioxidant contents in a rat model of PD induced by 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA).
    6-OHDA (16 µg/2 µl) was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in MFB-lesioned rat's brain. Sham group received vehicle instead of 6-OHDA. PD-model was confirmed by rotational test using apomorphine injection. EA (50 mg/kg/2 ml, by gavages) was administered in PD group. One group of MFB-lesioned rats received pramipexole (PPX; 2 mg/kg/2 ml, by gavages) as positive control group (PD㳵 group). Motor activity was assessed by stride length, rotarod and cylinder tests. Pallidal local EEG was recorded in freely moving rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) besides Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in both striatum and hippocampus tissues.
    MFB lesion caused significant reduction of stride-length (P
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease, ellagic acid, locomotion, EEG, antioxidants
  • Ali Akbar Soleimani Page 503
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychological disorders of childhood. Methylphenidate is highly effective in the treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined Parent behavioral management training (PBMT) and medication treatment (Methylphenidate) in reducing ADHD symptoms in 6-12-year-old children, using randomized sampling. A total of 50 children with ADHD were assigned into two groups: an experimental group of PBMT and a control group of medication treatment (Methylphenidate) without other interventions. Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48) was employed before and after interventions to determine the effects. Descriptive Statistics method (consisting of Mean and Standard deviation) and Statistical inference method, (including t-test and Levene's Test) were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that the combined behavioral intervention of PBMT and methylphenidate treatment is more effective in reduction of ADHD in children. The difference of means between pre-test and post-test of CPRS in the experimental group was equal to 10.77, and it was equal to 1.88 in the control group. In addition, PBMT was more effective in the case of younger parents (P
    Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parent's behavioral management training
  • Mahdieh Azin, Nasser Zangiabadi, Yousef Moghadas Tabrizi, Farhad Iranmanesh, Mohammad Reza Baneshi Page 510
    Mental rotation is a cognitive motor process which was impaired in different neurologic disorders. We investigated whether there were deficits in response pattern, reaction time and response accuracy rate of mental rotation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients compared to healthy subjects and whether cognitive dysfunctions in MS patients were correlated with mental rotation deficits. Moreover, we showed whether there was a difference between upper and lower-limbs mental rotation in MS patients.
    Thirty-five MS patients and 25 healthy subjects performed hand mental rotation (HMR) and foot mental rotation (FMR) tasks. Visual information processing speed, spatial learning and memory ability, and visuo-spatial processing were assessed by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test – Revised (BVMT-R), and Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JLO) respectively in MS patients.
    Reaction time for both hand and foot stimuli increased and response accuracy rate for hand stimuli decreased in MS patients compared to healthy subjects but response pattern of mental rotation in MS patients persisted. Similar to healthy subjects, MS patients performed upper-limbs mental rotation more easily than lower-limbs mental rotation with more speed and response accuracy rate. Reaction time and response accuracy rate were correlated with the mentioned cognitive functions.
    MS patients made use of the correct response pattern for problem solving of increasing orientation from upright stimuli. Reaction time and response accuracy rate altered in these patients and this alteration might occur along with impairment in motor planning. Subjects’ better responding to hand stimuli was due to more familiarity with hand stimuli. The correlation of mental rotation ability with cognitive functions indicates the possible role of cognitive functions in mental rotation.
    Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, mental rotation, motor imagery, cognitive function
  • Behrouz Attarbashi Moghadam Page 518
    Background
    The clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) has been developed to measure health status of COPD patients. The aim of this study, was to translate CCQ into the Persian language and assess the validity and reliability of the translated version.
    Methods
    We used a forward-backward procedure to translate the questionnaire. In a cross sectional study 100 COPD patients and 50 healthy subjects over 40 years old were selected to assess the reliability and construct validity of the instrument. The face and content validity were used for the questionnaire validity. Validity was examined on a population of patients with COPD, using the Persian validated version of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (PSGRQ). In order to assess the questionnaire’s reliability, the Intraclass correlation coefiiicient(ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha were calculated. Test-retest reliability was tested by re-administring the Persian version of the CCQ (PCCQ) after 1 week.
    Results
    Test- retest carry out of data demonstrates that the PCCQ has excellent reliability ( ICC for all 3 domains were higher than 0.9). Internal consistency was found by Cronbach’s alpha to be 0.96, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.98 for symptom, mental state, functional state and total scores respectively. In addition, the correlation between the components of PCCQ and PSGRQ showed satisfactory construct validity. Analysing the data from healthy subjects and patients divulged that the PCCQ has acceptable discriminant validity.
    Conclusion
    In general, the PCCQ had satisfactory reliability and validity for assessing health related quality of life status of Iranian COPD patients.
    Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Health, related quality of life, clinical COPD questionnaire, Reliability, Validity
  • Talat Ghane Page 525
    Objectives
    Drug and Poison Information Centers (DPICs) have a critical role in fulfillment of rational drug use programs and provide services to the scientific community with the aim of improving the health and safety of drug use.
    Methods
    This was a retrospective study on recorded calls of DPICs in Iran from March 2012 to March 2013. Data were consisted of general information; drug and poisoning information, medical history and also distribution of number of calls collected by DPICs in Iran.
    Results
    The centers received a total of 171769 calls. Most calls were made by the patients (56.1%) and then the patients’ relatives (38%). Also 67% of the patients were determined as female. The calls mostly were focused on Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) (15.3%), indications (14.0%) and drug evaluations (11.8%). Anti-infective agents, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and vitamins with 9.6%, 7% and 6.8% frequencies were the highest frequently asked questions, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Based on the results, patients do not receive enough information about their medications, from physicians and pharmacists. The DPICs have an important role to guide the people and provide the accurate drug and poison information and fill the absence of information that is not provided by medical staff. So, based on important role of these centers, it is worthy the Iran DPICs being introduced more to people and we need more advertising around the country.
    Keywords: DPIC, ADR, Drug, Poison, Iran
  • Anahita Sadeghi, Hamidreza Aghaei Meybodi, Behrouz Navabakhsh, Ahmadreza Soroush, Masoud Malekzadeh, Zhamak Khorgami Page 530
    Introduction
    Administrators require reliable, valid, and practical methods for evaluating the quality of medical education in each department especially for clerkship which is likely to be neglected. This study presents a periodic systematic questionnaire survey of medical students as an administrative tool for evaluation of clerkship education quality.
    Methods
    A 16 questions questionnaire was designed based on World Federation of Medical Education (WFME) global standards, considering student’s educational satisfaction of a hospital department. After assessment of validity and reliability (total score = 80), the questionnaires were completed by all 2771 medical students taking courses in different departments of a tertiary hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2007-2012) . Periodic feedbacks were provided to clerkship program directors based on the survey results.
    Result
    Our study showed Medical Student's Systematic Feedback made departments improve their program and led to significant changes in mean scores of student satisfaction from 47.9 ±16.5 to 57.4±15.6 (P
    Conclusion
    Periodic systematic feedback system is a feasible method for continuous evaluation of clerkship programs and can lead to improvement of educational performance of teaching hospitals.
    Keywords: Feedback, Education environment, Undergraduate, Medicine, Clinical
  • Sedighe Sadat Hashemikamangar, Farnoosh Yazdanpanah, Mansoore Mirzaii, Reza Yazdani, Mohammad Javad Kharazifard, Esmaeil Yassini Page 536
    The efficacy of methods like e-learning as a supplement to traditional face-to-face instruction needs to be evaluated in dental courses. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of posting case presentations on one of the educational websites of Tehran University of Medical Sciences called “SARMAD” to enhance the ability of senior dental students to diagnose tooth discolorations and offer treatment plans. This experimental study had a pre-test/post-test control group design and was conducted on 63 senior dental students. After filling out the primary questionnaire and obtaining a written informed consent, students participated in a pre-test and were then randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Fifteen case presentations were posted on the university website (SARMAD) during 6 weeks and discussed. Then, students participated in a post-test. Students’ perspectives and their satisfaction with the website were assessed by a questionnaire. For ethical purposes, the same program was also offered to the controls. The post-test score was significantly higher than the pre-test score in the intervention group (P
    Keywords: E, learning, tooth discoloration, dentistry
  • Mohammad Reza Mohajeri Page 547
    An ectopically placed parathyroid in the mediastinum is a rare cause of persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism. They are rarely in a huge size. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with a history of total parathyroidectomy and thymectomy presented with a lack of appetite, nausea, and generalized bone pain, polydipsia and a calcium level of 14.4 mg/dl. 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) showed a focal zone of radiotracer accumulation in the midline of anterior chest wall (xiphoid level). The mass excised from our patient surgically was 75 grams. This weight and location of the tumor is a very rare finding in parathyroid adenomas.
    Keywords: Giant ectopic parathyroid adenoma, Recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism
  • M. Marcic Page 551
    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) is a rare complication of anticoagulant therapy associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality requiring immediate drug cessation. At particular risk are those with various thrombophilic abnormalities, especially when warfarinisation is undertaken rapidly with large loading doses of warfarin. Cutaneous findings include petechiae that progress to ecchymosis and hemorrhagic bullae. With the increasing number of patients anticoagulated as out-patients for thromboprophylaxis, we are concerned that the incidence of skin necrosis may increase. We present a case of WISN with low protein C level. He was a 50-year-old male who came to our department because of acute infarction in irrigation area of the superior cerebellar artery. He had intermittent atrial fibrillation and was started on anticoagulant therapy. After few day of therapy, he developed skin necrosis, and his level of protein C was low. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is a rare but serious complication that can be prevented by routine screening for protein C, protein S or antithrombin deficiencies or for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies before beginning warfarin therapy.
    Keywords: Anticoagulant, Coumarins, Warfarin, Thrombophilia, Protein C, Thrombosis