فهرست مطالب

Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism - Volume:4 Issue: 4, 2016
  • Volume:4 Issue: 4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/07/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • April A. Kedrowicz, Kenneth Royal, Keven Flammer Pages 155-162
    Introduction
    While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the acceptability of various social media postings.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015.All students and faculty members at the College of Veterinary Medicine were invited to participate. The sample size included 140 students and 69 faculty members who completed the Social Media Scale (SMS), a 7-point semantic differential scale. The SMS consisted of 12 items that measured the extent to which a variety of behaviors, using social media, constituted acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Items appearing on the SMS were an amalgamation of modified items previously presented by Coe, Weijs, Muise et al. (2012) and new items generated specifically for this study. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2015 using Qualtrics online survey software and analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA.
    Results
    The results showed that statistically significant differences existed between the students’ and faculty members’ ratings of acceptable behavior, as well as gender differences and differences across class years.
    Conclusion
    These findings have implications for the development of policy and educational initiatives around professional identity management in the social sphere.
    Keywords: Social media, Professionalism, Medical education, Medical students, Medical faculty
  • Shaleen Vyas, Sandesh Nagarajappa, Pralhad L. Dasar, Prashant Mishra Pages 163-169
    Introduction
    Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013), consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers.
    Methods
    The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation backtranslation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015) and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and testretest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and p
    Results
    The mean OHL-AQ-H score was 13.58±2.82. ICC and Cronbach’s alpha for Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version were 0.94 and 0.70, respectively. Comparisons of varying levels of oral health literacy with self-reported oral health established significant concurrent validity (p=0.01). Significant predictive validity was observed between OHL-AQ-H scores and clinical parameters like oral hygiene status (p=0.005) and dentition status (p=0.001).
    Conclusion
    The translated and culturally adapted Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version indicated good reliability and validity among primary school teachers to assess oral health literacy among Hindi speaking population. Hence, improving OHL levels and implementing education oriented policies can improve the quality of life.
    Keywords: Oral health, Health literacy, Validation studies, Reproducibility of results, Translating
  • Nahid Shirani Bidabadi, Ahmmadreza Nasr Isfahani, Amir Rouhollahi, Roya Khalili Pages 170-178
    Introduction
    Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology.
    Methods
    This qualitative content analysis study was conductedthrough purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors). Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes.
    Results
    According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors’ behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors’ outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors’ operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers’ preparation in education are discussed.
    Conclusion
    In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities should be awarded of these barriers and requirements as a way to improve teaching quality. The nationally and locally recognized professors are good leaders inproviding ideas, insight, and the best strategies to educators who are passionate for effective teaching in the higher education. Finally, it is supposed that there is an important role for nationally and locally recognized professors in higher education to become more involved in the regulation of teaching rules.
    Keywords: Teaching, Higher education, Requirements, Barriers, Qualitative research
  • Mahyar Mafakheri Laleh, Mojgan Mohammadimehr, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame Pages 179-187
    Introduction
    In the new concept of medical education, creativity development is an important goal. The aim of this research was toidentify a model for developing critical thinking among students with the special focus on learning environment and learning style.
    Methods
    This applied and cross-sectional study was conducted among all students studying in undergraduate and professional doctorate programs in Fall Semester 2013-2014 in AJA University of Medical Sciences (N=777). The sample consisted of 257 students selected based on the proportional stratified random sampling method. To collect data, three questionnaires including Critical Thinking, Perception of Learning Environment and Learning Style were employed. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation statistical test, and one-sample t-test. The Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to test the research model. SPSS software, version 14 and the LISREL software were used for data analysis.
    Results
    The results showed that students had significantly assessed the teaching-learning environment and two components of “perception of teachers” and “perception of emotionalpsychological climate” at the desirable level (p
    Conclusion
    One of the factors which can significantly impact the quality improvement of the teaching and learning process in AJA University of Medical Sciences is to develop critical thinking among learners. This issue requires providing the proper situation for teaching and learning critical thinking in the educational environment.
    Keywords: Critical thinking, Learning, Teaching, Teaching environment, Learning environment
  • Masumeh Sanaii, Leili Mosalanejad, Saideh Rahmanian, Alireza Sahraieyan, Ali Dehghani Pages 188-194
    Introduction
    Clearly, there are some challenges and difficulties in fulfilling social accountability which should be identified and dealt with in order to reach the ultimate goal. The main objective of this study was to identify the challenges associated with social accountability.
    Methods
    In this qualitative study, focus groups and in-depth semi-structured interview were used to obtain the opinions and experiences of 35 people with 4 focus groups of students, faculty members, patients and their companions in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Purpose-based sampling was performed. The participants asked “What is social accountability?” And then it continued with the more specific question, i.e. “What factors increase or decrease social accountability?” After identifying the categories and sub-categories, conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data.
    Results
    Overall, 97 codes were extracted from the text and five main categories were revealed: notification, sense of responsibility, practical education, and professional status and ethics.
    Conclusion
    Since there are numerous challenges in the field of social accountability, it is essential that we understand the challenges and barriers and take effective steps to implement reforms.
    Keywords: Social accountability, Qualitative research, Professionalism, Ethics
  • Sedigheh Mokhtarpour, Mitra Amini, Houri Mousavinezhad, Alireza Choobineh, Parisa Nabeiei Pages 195-201
    Introduction
    Responsive medicine is an appropriate training method which trains the graduates who can act effectively in initial and secondary aspects of health issues in the society.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study which was done using quantitative method. The target population of this study was all the students of the Nutrition and Health School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample was randomly selected in this study and 75 students were selected based on the methodologist’s comments and similar studies and randomnumber table from a list obtained from the school’s department of education. This questionnaire was a researcher-made one which consisted of 23 questions in 2 sections with 21 closedended questions and 2 open-ended questions; 70 questionnaires were completed correctly. The closed-ended questions had 4 aspects (completely agree to completely disagree) answered in 5-point Likert scale type. Its face validity was confirmed by 4 faculty members. The construct validity of the questionnaire wasanalyzed by factor analysis test and its reliability was assessed by a pilot on 20 students with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests (mean, standard deviation, …) and the Pearson coefficient (p
    Results
    The results of this study showed that the maximum mean score was 3.58±0.65 which was related to the context of these courses and the minimum mean was 2.66±1.14 which was related to the logbook implementation. The 2 open-ended questions indicated that the most important strengths were the use of logbooks as a guide and determining the minimum training; of the weaknesses was the mismatch between the theoretical education and the practical activities. Also, developing the minimum training that an expert should know and using the common topicsrelated to theoretical education were the most important points mentioned by the respondents.
    Conclusion
    The educational planning of the authorities for keeping the balance of the theoretical training with the practical activities and giving opportunities to the trainee or intern to face diseases and the common problems of the community seems to be necessary.
    Keywords: Clinical, Education, Nutrition, Health
  • Rita Rezaee, Nasrin Shokrpour, Maryam Boroumand Pages 202-205
    Introduction
    In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product) and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model.
    Methods
    This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data.
    Results
    Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76), but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23).
    Conclusion
    Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.
    Keywords: Elearning, Evaluation, Education
  • Nooashin Beheshtipoor, Shirin Ghanavati, Mitra Edraki, Mehran Karimi, Sezaneh Haghpanah Page 206
    As hemophilia is a chronic bleeding disease and can interfere with daily performance of children, these children require continuous training to prevent bleeding and take timely action (1). Since children nurses play an important role in the education of involved children and their Selfefficacy and also due to today’s approach which is using educational computer games, the use of educational games in respect to teach hemophilia children how to have self-efficacy can be effective (2). Hemoaction game is a computerized educational game designed by the World Federation of Hemophilia to educate hemophilia disease and related procedures to the care of children with hemophilia. By the use of this game children with hemophilia (aged 8-12) and also nursing experts were educated how to increase self efficacy. Nursing School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences has used this game for the first time after its publishing, in the world (3). The results of the mentioned study demonstrates that after the Hemophilia disease and its related procedures were instructed to children with hemophilia and nursing experts in order to know how to increase patients’ self efficacy by modern approaches, self efficacy of hemophilia children and nurses were both improved. This educational method is a novel way to enhance both Hemophilia children and nursing staff, as major participants in routine and lifelong education process, self-efficacy. Due to nurses’ important role in improving children with hemophilia self-efficacy by different instructions and world leading educational approaches towards use of modern technology in education, using Hemoaction educational game, published by World Federation of Hemophilia and used by Nursing and Midwifery College of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for the first time, can fulfill hemophilia children needs of care.