فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال بیست و هفتم شماره 2 (پیاپی 62، تابستان 1395)
  • سال بیست و هفتم شماره 2 (پیاپی 62، تابستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/07/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • عبدالحسین کلانتری، مسعود کیانپور، وحید مزیدی شرف آبادی *، مجتبی لشگری صفحات 1-16
    احساس را می توان بخشی از فضای مفهومی نگرش های زیست محیطی دانست. احساسات زیست محیطی که دلالت های تعلق گرایانه دارند، بی شک تاثیری مهم بر رفتارهای همسو در قبال محیط زیست خواهند داشت. این پژوهش به بررسی جامعه شناختی عوامل موثر بر احساس تعلق شهروندان تهرانی نسبت به محیط زیست با استفاده از روش پیمایش و با ابزار پرسشنامه پرداخته است. روابط دو متغیره مابین ارزش های زیست محیطی، تجربه ارتباط با طبیعت، جامعه پذیری زیست محیطی و دینداری با متغیر وابسته، قابل تایید و تعمیم هستند. رگرسیون چند متغیره حاکی از آن است که مدل نظری توانسته است 48 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته را در میان نمونه تحقیق توضیح دهد. تحلیل مسیر متغیرهای مستقل با متغیر وابسته نیز نشان می دهد که متغیرهای تجربه ارتباط با طبیعت با 0.617 و ارزش های زیست محیطی با 0.346 درصد، به ترتیب بیشترین تاثیر را بر متغیر وابسته داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس زیست محیطی، احساس تعلق نسبت به محیط زیست، ارزش های زیست محیطی، تجربه ارتباط با طبیعت، جامعه پذیری زیست محیطی
  • نادر افقی *، حمید عباداللهی، سمیره علی پور صفحات 17-42
    نخبگان رکن اساسی توسعه هر جامعه ای هستند که بدون آن ها مسیر توسعه هرگز هموار نخواهد شد. مساله ای که جامعه ما را مورد تهدید می کند، مهاجرت نخبگان است. بر این اساس ضروری است که به منظور نگهداشت نخبگان و استفاده مناسب از ظرفیت های علمی آنان در جهت توسعه، زیرساخت ها و شرایط لازم برای پرورش و بالندگی شناسایی شود. پژوهش حاضر در راستای نیل به این هدف سعی بر مطالعه زمینه های اجتماعی پرورش و گریز نخبگان در شهر بندرعباس داشته است. روش تحقیق پیمایشی- مقطعی بوده و از تکنیک پرسشنامةمحققساخته استفادهشده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر دربرگیرنده دانش آموزان نخبه پیش دانشگاهی مدارس تیزهوشان، استادان نخبه، دانشجویان استعداد درخشان دوره تحصیلات تکمیلی دانشگاه دولتی، پزشکان نخبه و محققان و پژوهشگران نخبه غیر دانشگاهی، به تعداد 267 نفر می باشد، که از این تعداد 140 نفر براساس فرمول کوکران و به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه بندی و انتخاب شده اند. برای بررسی رابطه متغیرهای پیش بین بر پرورش نخبگان و تمایل آن ها به مهاجرت، ازآزمون های ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، آزمون t، تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه، رگرسیون چندگانه و تحلیل مسیر استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است که بین سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه نمادین، خانواده و پرورش نخبگان رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج تحلیل مسیر نشان می دهد که بین سرمایه اجتماعی، گروه مرجع، امنیت اجتماعی و گرایش به مهاجرت رابطه معناداری وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: پرورش نخبگان، گرایش به مهاجرت، سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه نمادین، گروه مرجع
  • راضیه مهرابی کوشکی *، جواد امام جمعه زاده، حسین مسعودنیا، علی ربانی خوراسگانی صفحات 43-60
    میزان هویت ملی در میان اقشار جوان و نخبه دانشگاهی یکی از دغدغه های پیش روی دولت ها و جوامع چند فرهنگی همچون ایران است. این مساله یعنی میزان احساس تعلق خاطر و آگاهی نسبت به مولفه های سازنده هویت ملی نیازمند بررسی معرف ها و عوامل روان شناختی، فرهنگی، جامعه شناختی و سیاسی تاثیرگذار برآن به ویژه در میان نسل های سوم و چهارم انقلاب است. به همین منظور پژوهش حاضر تلاش دارد با رویکردی تازه مبین های روان شناختی و جامعه شناختی هویت ملی را از دریچه سبک های هویتی بازبینی کند. چارچوبی که به زعم نظریه پردازان آن، افراد تجارب زندگی خود را متناسب با آن، معنا و تفسیر می کنند و اهداف زندگی خود را تعیین می کنند. به نظر می رسد نوع کاوش، جستجو، تعهد و تصمیم گیری درباره آن چه باید ارزش ها، باورها و اهداف ملی باشند و به دنبال آن، درگیر شدن کنش ها، تکالیف و انتخاب های مهم سیاسی و اجتماعی افراد؛ بتواند میزان هویت ملی در میان دانشجویان را تبیین کند. لذا سوال اصل این است که آیا سبک های هویتی می تواند هویت ملی دانشجویان را پیش بینی کند و احتمالا کدام سبک یا سبک های هویتی با افزایش و یا کاهش احساس و آگاهی نسبت به تاریخ، سیاست، فرهنگ و اجتماع افراد در ارتباط است؟ پاسخی که می تواند از طریق مطالعه بین رشته ای، راه حل هایی را برای افزایش هویت ملی دانشجویان بازنمایی کند. روش به کار رفته در این پژوهش از نوع پیمایشی است که در میان244 نفراز دانشجویان دانشگاه اصفهان در سال تحصیلی93-94 انجام گردید. یافته ها نشان می دهد سبک های هویتی می تواند تا 31درصد از هویت ملی دانشجویان را تبیین کند. در این میان سبک هنجاری بیشترین تاثیر مثبت و هم افزا را داشت و سبک اجتنابی در جهت کاهش هویت ملی دانشجویان عمل کرد. این در حالی است که خودبسندگی، اکتشاف و جستجوگری فعالانه یعنی سبک هویتی اطلاعاتی نتوانست نقش معناداری در جهت افزایش یا کاهش هویت ملی ایفا کند.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت ملی، سبک اطلاعاتی، سبک هنجاری، سبک اجتنابی، آشفته، کاوشگری، تعهد
  • محمد عباس زاده، حسین بنی فاطمه، محمد باقر علیزاده اقدم *، لیلا علوی صفحات 61-80
    بررسی رفتار زیست محیطی شهروندان جوامع و عوامل موثر بر آن، هم چنان یکی از اساسی ترین موضوعات مورد توجه جامعه شناسان در حوزه محیط زیست است. این مقاله با هدف مطالعه رابطه متغیرهای دلبستگی مکانی و نگرش مسوولانه زیست محیطی با رفتار مسوولانه زیست محیطی انجام شده است. تاثیر نگرش مسوولانه زیست محیطی به عنوان متغیر واسطه به کار گرفته شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر، شهروندان 15 الی 75 ساله شهر تبریز و حجم نمونه آماری 456 نفر است که به شیوه پیمایش و روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای، با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه بررسی شده اند. اعتبار ابزار با تکنیک تحلیل عاملی و محاسبه KMO و پایایی آن با محاسبه آلفای کرونباخ بررسی شده است. یافته ها حاکی از آن است که دلبستگی شهروندان تبریز به محیط اجتماعی و کالبد طبیعی شهر برابر با 44/4 (74 درصد مقیاس تعریف شده) است؛ میانگین نمرات رفتار مسوولانه زیست محیطی برابر با 47/4 بوده که کمتر از میانگین نمرات نگرش مسوولانه زیست محیطی با مقدار 55/4 است. نتایج به دست آمده از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری نشان می دهد که متغیر نگرش زیست محیطی به صورت مستقیم با ضریب مسیر 224/0 بر رفتار مسوولانه زیست محیطی تاثیر داشته و متغیر دلبستگی مکانی نیز با ضریب مسیر 53/0 بر رفتار زیست محیطی موثر است؛ متغیر دلبستگی مکانی نیز با ضریب مسیر 23/0 بر رفتار مسوولانه زیست محیطی تاثیر می گذارد. از طرفی دلبستگی مکانی با تاثیر بر نگرش مسوولانه زیست محیطی با ضریب مسیر 68/0، به طور غیرمستقیم بر رفتار مسوولانه زیست محیطی موثر است.
    کلیدواژگان: رفتار زیست محیطی، دلبستگی مکانی، نگرش زیست محیطی، شهر تبریز، مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری
  • بی بی عشرت زمانی *، زهرا بابادی عکاشه، یاسمین عابدینی صفحات 81-92
    هدف اصلی این تحقیق، پیش بینی رفتارهای وابستگی به تلفن همراه در دانشجویان دانشگاه های شهرکرد با توجه به خصوصیات جمعیت شناختی و روان شناختی آنان بود. این پژوهش با توجه به اهداف آن پژوهشی کاربردی از نوع پیمایشی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه دانشجویان دانشگاه های پیام نور، آزاد و علوم پزشکی شهر شهرکرد تشکیل می دهد. تعداد 297 نفر دانشجو از جامعه مورد نظر به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه 32 ماده ای در سه بخش، محقق ساخته (اطلاعات جمعیت شناختی)، رفتارهای مربوط به وابستگی به تلفن همراه هاپر و زئو(2007) و پرسشنامه SCL-90 استفاده شد. با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ ضریب پایایی این سه پرسشنامه به ترتیب 70/0 و 92/0 و 87/0برآورد گردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات نیز از آمار توصیفی (جدول فراوانی، درصد، میانگین و انحراف معیار) و آمار استنباطی (آزمون های ضریب همبستگی، t، خی دو، تحلیل واریانس و رگرسیون) استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که عوامل جمعیت شناختی نظیر جنس، نوع دانشگاه، محل اقامت و رشته تحصیلی دانشجویان در میزان وابستگی آنان به تلفن همراه تاثیری ندارد. تنها وضعیت تاهل و نوع دانشگاه در وابستگی به تلفن همراه موثر بوده است. وضعیت سلامت روان دانشجویان تنها 11% پیش بینی کننده رفتارهای وابستگی به تلفن همراه است. وسواس و پارانوئید بیشترین تاثیر را بر رفتارهای اعتیادی تلفن همراه دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: اعتیاد به تلفن همراه، سلامت روان، روان شناختی
  • اصغر میرفردی *، فروغ فرجی صفحات 93-110
    عوامل متعددی ممکن است در قانونمند بودن افراد و یا گریز آن ها از موازین قانونی در جامعه تاثیرگذار باشند. هدف این مقاله بررسی میزان گرایش به قانون گریزی و رابطه آن با میزان مشارکت اجتماعی و میزان کنترل اجتماعی است. پژوهش با روش پیمایش و در مورد ساکنان 45-18 ساله شهر یاسوج انجام شده است. با استفاده از جدول لین و روش نمونه گیری تصادفی از نوع طبقه ای- چند مرحله ای، 381 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که برای تعیین اعتبار آن از اعتبار سازه به روش تحلیل عاملی و برای تعیین پایایی از همسانی درونی به روش آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که بین میزان مشارکت اجتماعی و گرایش به قانون گریزی رابطه معکوس و معناداری وجود دارد؛ در حالی که بین میزان کنترل اجتماعی و متغیر وابسته رابطه معنادار وجود ندارد. بین استفاده از رسانه های جمعی و گرایش به قانون گریزی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین، مردان و افراد مجرد،نسبت به زنان و افراد متاهل گرایش بیشتری به قانون گریزی، داشته اند. در مجموع، متغیرهای تحقیق، 4/23 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته را تبیین نموده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: قانون گریزی، کنترل اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، یاسوج
  • علی نصر اصفهانی، مجتبی فرخی *، زینب امیری صفحات 111-126
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر سرمایه اجتماعی بر توانمندسازی کارکنان انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پرستاران بیمارستان شریعتی تهران است. اعضای نمونه به روش تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از دو پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بر اساس پرسشنامه استاندارد سرمایه اجتماعی استون (2001) و پرسشنامه استاندارد توانمندسازی کارکنان، اسپرتیزر (1996) استفاده شد. روایی پرسشنامه به صورت روایی صوری مشخص گردید. برای تعیین پایایی پرسشنامه از آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد، آلفای محاسبه شده برای پرسشنامه سرمایه اجتماعی و توانمندسازی کارکنان به ترتیب 85/0 و 78/0 محاسبه شد. جهت آزمون فرضیات پژوهش از روش معادلات ساختاری به وسیله نرم افزار Amos18 استفاده گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد سرمایه اجتماعی با مقدار ضریب مسیر 76/0 و مقدار (CR) 69/3 بر توانمندسازی کارکنان تاثیرگذار است. نتایج فرضیات فرعی پژوهش نشان داد سرمایه اجتماعی با مقدار ضریب مسیر 69/0 بر احساس شایستگی، با ضریب مسیر 84/0 بر احساس معناداری، با ضریب مسیر 72/0 بر احساس موثر بودن و با ضریب مسیر 75/0 بر داشتن حق انتخاب تاثیرگذار است.
    کلیدواژگان: توانمندی سازی کارکنان، احساس موثر بودن، احساس شایستگی، احساس معناداری، احساس داشتن حق انتخاب و سرمایه اجتماعی
  • حسین افراسیابی * صفحات 127-140
    رضایت شغلی یکی از اساسی ترین سازه های مورد توجه در مطالعات سازمانی معاصر به شمار می رود. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی رضایت شغلی و مهم ترین عوامل مرتبط با آن در میان کارکنان یک شرکت خدماتی در شهر شیراز انجام شده است. در این مطالعه با رویکرد کمی و روش پیمایشی و با تاکید بر نظریات مبادله و گروه مرجع یازده فرضیه ارائه شد. برای گردآوری داده های مورد نیاز، پرسشنامه طراحی شد و توسط 400 نفر از کارکنان که به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی سیستماتیک انتخاب شدند، تکمیل شد. نتایج تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که جنسیت رابطه معناداری با رضایت شغلی ندارد. تحصیلات، سن، سابقه خدمت در سازمان، میزان دستمزد، آموزش شغلی، امنیت شغلی، ابهام نقش، رضایت از زندگی، ارزیابی همکاران و خانواده از شغل با رضایت شغلی رابطه معناداری دارند. براساس نتایج آزمون رگرسیون، متغیرهای آموزش شغلی، ارزیابی همکاران از شغل، امنیت شغلی، رضایت از زندگی، ابهام نقش و میزان دستمزد به ترتیب مهم ترین متغیرهای مرتبط با رضایت شغلی بودند که در مجموع 50 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته را تبیین می کنند. در مجموع می توان گفت متغیرهای تعاملی درون سازمانی نقش عمده ای در رضایت شغلی ایفا می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: رضایت شغلی، سازمان، کارکنان، رضایت از زندگی، خانواده، همکاران
  • حسن قلاوندی * صفحات 141-156
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف مطالعه تغییر سازمانی بر اساس عوامل مدیریتی و رابطه آن با عملکرد سازمانی انجام شده است. با استفاده از روش تحقیق توصیفی از نوع همبستگی، 120 نفر از اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه ارومیه، صنعتی ارومیه و پیام نور ارومیه به صورت طبقه ای تصادفی به طور تصادفی انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده های پژوهش از دو پرسشنامه تغییر سازمانی بر اساس مدل عوامل مدیریتی و عملکرد سازمانی بر اساس مدل کارت امتیازی متوزان استفاده شده است. داده های تحقیق پس از جمع آوری بر اساس فرضیه های پژوهش و با استفاده از تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره و تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه تحلیل شدند نتایج گویای آن است که: بین تغییر سازمانی بر اساس عوامل مدیریتی با عملکرد سازمانی رابطه مثبت و معنی داری وجود دارد. همچنین مشخص شد که عوامل مدیریتی می توانند به طور مثبت و معنی داری عملکرد سازمانی را پیش بینی کنند. بر این اساس یکی از عواملی که در راستای عملکرد سازمانی می بایست مورد توجه قرار گیرد تغییر سازمانی بر اساس عوامل مدیریتی است.
    کلیدواژگان: تغییر سازمانی، عوامل مدیریتی، عملکرد سازمانی، کارت امتیازی متوزان اعضای هیات علمی
  • محمدرضا اردلان *، سیروس قنبری، ایمان کریمی صفحات 157-174
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی ویژگی های سازمانی موثر بر هویت منسجم سازمانی کارکنان برای بسترسازی توسعه ظرفیت های سازمانی است. این پژوهش بر حسب هدف، کاربردی و بر اساس شیوه گردآوری داده ها، توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه کارکنان دانشگاه های شهرستان همدان تشکیل می دهد، که با استفاده از نمونه گیری از فرمول کوکران برای جامعه نامحدود، 392 کارمند به صورت تصادفی از چهار دانشگاه شهرستان همدان (بوعلی سینا، علوم پزشکی، صنعتی و آزاد اسلامی) انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه های ویژگی های سازمانی، هویت سازمانی و ارزیابی ظرفیت های سازمانی استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با روش تحلیلی عاملی تاییدی و مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزارهای LISREL و SPSS انجام شد. نتایج تحلیل روابط ساختاری نشان داد از پنج ویژگی سازمانی انتخاب شده، به ترتیب دانش استراتژی کارکنان، ارتباطات داخلی، ابزارها و حمایت، کیفیت مدیران و گشودگی و پویایی بیشترین تاثیر را بر هویت یابی سازمانی کارکنان داشتند. همچنین رابطه علی بسیار قوی میان هویت منسجم سازمانی و ابعاد ظرفیت های سازمانی وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه، ظرفیت های سازمانی، کارکنان، هویت سازمانی، ویژگی های سازمانی
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  • Abdolhossein Kalantari, Masood Kianpour, Vahid Mazidi Sharaf Abadi *, Mojtaba Lashgari Pages 1-16
    Introduction
    With attention to scarcity of natural renewable supplies and necessity of more convergence between human and nature, exploring related factors in order to decrease environmental footprints of human is essential. Human society has been shaped in natural environment, and then interactions between human and environment are as crucially important as his interactions with other humans and sociology should give precise attentions to this level of social interactions. From sociological standpoint, human’s emotion and behavior come into emergence as a recent and unique domain.
    Since in urban communities, the relationship between these two areas seems to be detached and as a result, sense of belonging towards nature has been decreasing, exploring relationships between natural and human realms has an undeniable impact on controlling human behavior toward nature. Because, for as much as environmental problems profoundly have social concepts, then taking into account the middle level variables such as sense of belonging as a part of environmental attitudes can determine types and qualities of human behaviors toward environmental issues.
    Emotions are under the influence of culture, values and human interactions and are basically produced by social situations. Examining sense of belonging (emotions related to attachment, calmness and feeling of being united with nature and environmental issues) among Tehran residents can provide a theoretical approach and social policy strategy.
    Material and
    Methods
    Emotions are considered as an essential linkage between micro and macro level of social reality. In this research, religiosity and environmental values emphasize cultural necessity of positivism approach, environmental socialization emphasizes on human interaction aspect of social construction approach, and experience of connection with nature highlights sense of belonging toward nature through place experience.
    This research uses sectional survey and questionnaire, in order to examine the question of research. Sample Population size of research calculated based on Cochran formula and selected with Random stratified sampling among all above 18 years old citizens of Tehran. Alpha’s coefficients of variables were confirmed in preliminary test.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    Mean of sense of belonging measure among Tehran residents is in upper medium level. Bivariate relationships of environmental values, experience of connection with nature, environmental socialization and religiosity with dependent variable are confirmed statistically significant, although relationships between socio-economic variables (age, sex, education and place of birth) with dependent variable were not significant. The explanatory model could explain 48 percent of dependent variable's variation among the research sample. Furthermore, Path analysis of Independent variables with dependent variable shows that the experience of connection with nature with 0.617 percent and environmental values with 0.346 percent respectively have highest effects on dependent variable.
    As most researches, this one also shows emotional aspect of attitudes toward nature in parallel with cognitive aspect is strongly under the influence of social factors. However some researchers believe place of birth can determine types of emotions, but in this research it did not reaffirmed because the experience of connection with nature has more reliable notion for us. Insignificant relationships about education and socio-economic index with dependent variable present dysfunctional role of educational systems and class relations in internalizing pro-environment emotions.
    Examining relationships between aspects of religiosity and dependent variable show the sense of belonging toward nature is mainly under the influence of ethical aspect, because function of ethical aspect of religion is partly in relation with objective issues such as environmental one. About dependent variable which has an ethical aspect, answering pattern could have inclined toward pretense to depict an ideal self-image.
    Keywords: Environmental Emotion, Sense of Belonging Towards Nature, Environmental Values, Experience of Connection with Nature, Environmental Socialization
  • Nader Ofoghi *, Hamid Ebadollahi, Samireh Alipour Pages 17-42
    Introduction
    In recent years there has been an intense competition among countries for absorbing elite and developing methods for applying their knowledge. Different researches have been performed on elite individuals and different aspects of their lives. The ever increasing interest of scientists to research on these individuals indicates the importance and the role which they had on the development of societies.
    Material &
    Methods
    In this research for the first part of the study, that is studying the background and designing a theoretical framework document survey has been used and considering the conditions and study subject for producing necessary data for examining theoretical framework in a specific time period survey-sectional method has been applied. Also researcher-built questionnaire technique has been used. The type of present study according to its goal is functional and because the present research seeks to describe and analyze the situation based on recommended variables of research therefore it is categorized as descriptive-analytic researches. The statistical community of this research includes elite pre-university students of female and male talented students’’ schools of district one and two, elite instructors, talented students of supplementary studies of state university, elite physicians, and non-academic talented researchers introduced by elite foundation of Bandar-e-Abbas city. The total number of these elite equals to 267 individuals. 140 persons of them are man and 127 of them are woman. Considering the fact that the subject study of this research is a sociological survey, the analysis unit of this research is individual (academic and non-academic scientific elite). In this research classification sampling with simple random has been used. For determining the sample size quantitative Cochran formula is used.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    In today’s world the comprehensive development of a country is proportionate to production, application and promotion level of science. So if we accept that development is depended on these factors, in this way the high position of science and knowledge producers as the most effective factors of development would be highlighted.
    Accordingly, the present study was done with the aim of studying effective social settings on elite training and flight. Conceptual frameworks and discussed theoretical viewpoints in theoretical section of the study provided a suitable departure point for proposing questions and achieving an acceptable explanation during the experimental survey. The main question of this study was to highlight the role of underlying social factors and grounds in elite training and effective factors for their training and their tendency to migration.
    The results of Pearson, one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression, and path analysis exams indicate that in two-variable analysis a significant relation between cultural capital and elite training has been observed. But this relation is negative and reverses which could indicate that cultural capital has a unjust and unequal distribution in society. And especially in the case study which are a group of selected elite.
    As it was observed in this study symbolic capital has a crucial role in elite training. In other words, with capital increment, elite training would also increase. This hypothesis was approved considering the theory of Bourdieu’s symbolic capital.
    Scientific world like different social fields is a kind of market in which the contrast and competition are done for achieving symbolic capital. The ultimate goal is accumulation of symbolic capital. Each elite is like a capitalist that tries to take her capital management in the best possible way. As capitalism is based on economic inequality, elite power has also unequal distribution. (Jahanbakhsh, 2007: pp.4-8)
    In addition to mentioned variables social capital variable has a direct relation to elite training. In other words, with the increment of social capital elite training also increases. The increase of social capital results in social interaction with high level of cooperation, trust, mutual deal, civil participation, and social welfare. Accordingly a society which enjoys powerful social relations and generally owns impressive social capital would provide the setting for elite training all by itself. In this way more elite and individuals’ participation and cooperation in society would result in growth and development and reinforces trust and social relations in society. If social capital is reinforced then in its setting elite could flourish their mental and spiritual abilities and be useful in advancing the supposed society’s goals.
    In addition to positive relation of social capital on elite training the relation of this variable on the rate of elite tendency to migration is direct and negative. Thus it could be said that by decrease of social capital elite migration increases. So, the more social capital is reinforced, the performance of elite mentally and spiritually improves.
    Family is also one of the variables related to elite training. According to research results this relation is positive and significant. Elite training is depended on numerous reasons but family factor is one of the most important related factors on elite training and development course and their success. Certainly the role of family in elite success is so important that under no excuse it could be denied. The family with that significant and outstanding position that has in educational system could train many elite and have a significant impact on their success. The result of present study is in line with research results of Nouraldinvand et al (2011).
    One of the other effective factors in elite training is reference group. There is no doubt that an elite individual’s success to some extent is depended on its individual features. But it should not be forget that the elite as a member of school, family, and society may has access to different sources and supports which have important impact on his success. Reference group includes individuals or groups that come as basis and criteria for individuals’ judgment and evaluation. This group has a crucial role in social life of the elite. And the elite refer to this group for consult and getting comments.
    The results of the study indicate that between two variables; “social security” and “tendency to migration” there is a significant and positive relation. But considering the available documents in the province it seems this relation is a fake one. In this regard it is necessary to mention that because Bandar-e-Abbass city is a trade and economic district many people from other cities migrate and settle in this city for finding job. Naturally these issues have provided a secure atmosphere for its residents. Maybe some individuals feel secure but with a closer look in the mentioned district it becomes clear that in hidden layers there are so many insecurities.
    Acquired results indicate that there is no significant difference between two sexes as far as tendency to migration is concerned. Thus, it seems that the traditional structure of society and the viewpoints about men –that because of more freedom in action they have a higher tendency to migrate- is disappearing. Or it could be said that this traditional view does not exist between the elite. Therefore the supremacy of boys’ tendency to migration rather than girls is not significant. This point is more likely to be analyzed in feministic approaches. Also the results indicate that there is significant statistical difference between the ages of respondents. The reason of this difference could be related to the great difference between the age ranges of respondents. Also the results indicate that the young elite in comparison to middle-age and adult elite have more tendencies to migration.
    In the final analysis considering the results of descriptive and inferential and also gathered data from interviews it could be mentioned that in modern world no society can continue to live without elite human sources. The result that could be got is that society with measures and adopting effective and efficient social, cultural, and political mechanisms should strengthen and enhance the factors which causes elite training and decreases their tendency to migrate. And also it should try to destroy the repulsive factors. And if the fundamental goal of society is social development then education and training and investing about elite human sources should receive specific attention. It should be acknowledged that deployment and maintenance of the elite needs social bedding. The important point that we have found in this research was that in Bandar-e-Abbass city socio-cultural factors like economic factors have influence on tendencies and motivations of individuals or even more. The analysis of these factors indicate that the reasons to elite migration inside the country or their migration abroad is related to the inappropriate situation and operation of education and training and higher education institutions, cultural and social institutions in the studied society. The structural deficiencies of scientific institutions and educational centers as the most important reason for elite migration indicate that the educational opportunities and scientific institutions and educational centers inside the province and country are not sufficient especially in supplementary level.
    Keywords: Elite Training, Tendency to Migration, Social Capital, Cultural Capital, Symbolic Capital, Reference Group
  • Raziye Mehrabi Koushki *, Seyed Javad Emamjomehzadeh, Hosein Massodnia, Ali Rabani Pages 43-60
    Introduction
    The degree of national identity among academic youth and elite classes is one of the concerns facing governments and multicultural societies such as Iran. This issue, i.e. the degree of sense of belongingness and awareness of components constructing national identity requires investigating psychological, cultural, sociological, and political factors affecting it particularly among the third and fourth generations of the Revolution. Accordingly, the present study is to revise psychological and sociological representations of national identity with a new approach from the perspective of identity styles; the framework in which according to its theorists, individuals interpret their own life experiences appropriate to it and determine their life objectives based on it. It seems that the type of investigation, search, commitment, and decision making about what should be as national values, beliefs, and objectives, and consequently, involvement in important political and social actions, duties, and selections of individuals, can explain the degree of national identity among students. Therefore, the main question of the present study is whether identity styles and predict students’ national identity and which identity style or styles are related with the increase or decrease of individuals’ feeling and awareness of history, politics, culture, and society? The answer can represents some solutions in line with increasing students’ national identity via interdisciplinary studies.
    Material &
    Methods
    The method employed in the present study is the survey research. Participants were 244 students of the University of Isfahan in 2014-2015 (mean age = 22.96 years; 119 female )who completed tow questionnaires: first was identity styles Inventory (ISI-6G) that Berzonsky(1992) Offered in his Discuss, and The second questionnaire is estimated national identity that Rabbani et al.( 2009) applied in their research. As well as Pearson correlation, analysis variance model (ANOVA), and multivariate regression used to analyze the data.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Findings of the research indicate that identity styles can explain up to 31% of students’ national identity. Accordingly, the normative style has the highest positive and synergistic effect, and avoidant style acts in line with the reduction in students’ national identity. This is while self-sufficiency, exploration and active probe, i.e. informational identity style cannot play the significant role for increasing or decreasing national identity. Thus, This study is consistent with those theories that believe that National identity is a concept planed, institutional and Constitutive and determined by oral and formal structures such as the family, schools, and government, So, in this research, national identity is produced and made in social structures For those who have normative style, they have National identity higher than the other styles. It can predict Up to 50 percent of national identity. In normative style, we expect that Individuals give mining about their Country, nation, nationality, culture, history and local values under the influence of authority and social structures.
    Also results indicated that differences in mean score of identity styles. Min score in avoidant style more than others and up to average. Also it can Decline national Identity in the Students of the University. It seams that person unresolved crisis in youth and adolescence unable to reflect and emergence her/his commitment and sense about national identity. This category of people haven’t Cognitive stability of national values, to solve social and personal problems and often their burdens and responsibilities half-abandoned.
    This study demonstrated that identity styles contributed to Increase and decrease In national identity with normative style and avoidant style Among students of the University, so The study recommended that Public, formal, and training institutions especially University administrators should adopt strategies that strengthen the national value with nice voice, Image and Context. In this time, the Governments cannot defend its territorial integrity and national values only with military force, but According to the mental boundaries of its citizens and strengthen the sense of belonging to local and national elements is necessary.
    Keywords: National Identity, Information Style, Normative Style, Avoidant Style, Probe, Commitment
  • Mohammad Abbaszadeh Pages 61-80
    Introduction
    Study about environmental behavior and its effective factors is the basic issue in environmental sociology. Most studies emphasis on attitudes, knowledge and awareness about environment ant its risks. Few of them have focused on other social and environmental factors such as place attachment. Theoretical approaches that were employed in this paper are Low and Altman theory of place attachment (1992) and New ecological paradigm (NEP) of Dunlap and Van Liere. According to these theoretical approaches physical and social characters of places that citizens are resident of them or sometimes are present at those places, effect on type of emotions and relatedness of individuals to places. Fundamental purposes of the paper are measuring of Tabriz citizen's place attachment (attachment to their city) and then explaining the relationships between 3 variables (EA, PA and EB). Examining the relationship between environmental attitude (EA), place attachment (PA) and environmental behavior (EB) can help us to explore other factors along with environmental attitude that play important role in forming environmental behavior. In addition, in this article the effect of EA as an intervening variable was studied. Entrance of this variable in the research model is the new idea in this paper. So, hypothesis of research are:1-Place attachment and environmental responsible behavior have a significant relationship.
    2-Environmental responsible attitude and environmental responsible behavior have a significant relationship.
    3- Place attachment effects on environmental responsible behavior by environmental responsible attitude.
    Material&
    Methods
    Methodologically, this paper is extensive study and in terms of time is sectional one. Also, Type of This research is an applied one and method of study is Survey. We have used questionnaire as a technique of gathering data. Statistical society is 15 to 75 years old citizens of Tabriz and the sample size is 442 that were selected by cluster sampling. In questionnaire used in this research several scales have been applied for measuring all of the dependent and independent variables. Stern scale (2000) and milfont and dukitt scale (2010) were applied in this questionnaire for measurement of EB and EA. PA is a new, complicated and multidimensional concept in social science especially is used mostly in urban sociology and urban planning. But few studies have attempted to define it operationally. So we created a new scale for PA with combining and summarizing 4 scales and then assessed validity and reliability of them. Validity of questionnaire was checked with confirmatory factor analysis and reliability of that was checked whit cronbach’s alpha. For analyzing data was used SPSS software. Also, we used structural equation modeling with LISREL software to explore multivariate relationships because of existence of errors and covariance between indices. Furthermore, goodness of fit statistics was calculated with this software.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    Results show that attachment of citizens to the social and physical environment of Tabriz is higher than 70 percent. So, descriptive statistics show that places despite of Late Modernity’s overcoming on the global space, Globalization and space – time density have an important role in forming of emotions and identities of human beings. In this research average score of EB and EA are 74.5 and 75.83. Also, research literature provides evidence confirming the effect of place attachment on attitudes and behaviors in different areas of human life such as environmental attitudes and behaviors. The result of SEM in this paper confirmed that EA and PA directly effect on EB and their path coefficients are .53 and .23. Place attachment and environmental attitude as independent variables have explained about 11 percent of environmental behavior as a dependent variable. Furthermore, multiple correlation of these variables is .32. Also, intervening effect of EA in relationship of PA and EB is confirmed. Goodness of fit indexes such as CFI, GFI and AGFI are more than .9 and it is adequate result. On the other hand, RMSEA as the other important goodness of fit index was calculated in Lisrel and .03 was obtained. Numbers less than .06 for RMSEA are acceptable and indicate fitness of assumed model. Relationships obtained are the approvals for importance of social and psychological factors such as place attachment in forming of environmental behaviors beside the environmental attitudes. Existence of important places in the usual life of people can perform vital role in forming of responsible emotions, values and norms toward their environment. These positive and responsible emotions and values institutionalize environmental responsible attitudes that increase people intention to behave responsibly in the field of environment.
    Keywords: Environmental Behavior, Place Attachment, Environmental Attitude, Structural Equation Modeling, Tabriz
  • Bibi Eshrat Zamani *, Zahra Babady Akashe, Pro. Yasamin Abedini Pages 81-92
    Introduction
    The cellar phone technologies are the most important invention in human life history, because of the easy of using them in different aspects, people of both groups in developed and developing countries are using them. In addition, of the positive effects of this technology on different aspects of people lives, they had negative effects such as head ache, disorders in user’s behavior’s such as psychological side effects that are mentioned in different articles by a variety of methods that are used by researchers. The little research has been done to this point that these new technologies do not have equal effects on all people the same, because of different characteristics of audiences such as different cultures and social backgrounds and also according to their mental health and psychological traits. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of demographic and psychological characteristics of students on their addictions to cellar phone among Shahrkord Universities’ students.
    Material and
    Methods
    The present research was an applied and descriptive one, because the results could be used for planners and policy makers of the media areas. The research method was survey and correlation type. Statistical population included all students of different universities from SharKord city (including Payam Noor, Azad and Medical Sciences faculties’ members). 297 students were selected randomly from the total students according to their proportion in the population. One questionnaire with 3 sections were used for gathering data: 1) self-made questionnaire for providing the demographic information such as gender, marriage status, age, , university type, economic and social status, living address, university disciplines, access to technologies, the rate and kind of using cellar. 2) Hooper, & Zhou’s questionnaire (2007) with 32 items for measuring the 6 addiction levels of cellar phone instruments such as: habitual behaviors, intentional, dependence, compulsive and addictive behaviors of mobile users. Section 3 of the questionnaire included questions related to students’ psychological traits such as physical complements, obsessive compulsive, paranoid behaviors, anxiety, phobia, depression. These traits were measured by SCL-90 questionnaire .Analyzing data was done by SPSS software. Two types of statistics analysis were used: in descriptive ones; frequencies, percentages, means were used and in inferential statistics we used One way of variance analysis and X2, LSD.
    Discussions of Results &
    Conclusions
    Results indicated that there were no relationship between students’ addictive cellar phone behaviors and demographic information such as: genders, university type, living address and their disciplines. But there was a relation between students’ habitual behaviors for cellar phone usage with their married status of students. The attained results are in the same line as researches were done by Marlo (2009), Pawlowska & Potembska, (2011) and Takao (2013). Single persons used mobile settings for different purposes more than married ones. One reason may be that singles have more free time for spending with their friends in two forms of virtual and real time. The other main results were that there were also relations between students’ addiction to cellar phone with their psychological status, especially with patients with Paranoid and obsessive compulsive behaviors. The people with obsessive compulsive behaviors use cellar phones more than other groups, because they avoid from presence in society and they prefer to touch with their friends by mobile phones. The other group are paranoid disorder people who use mobile phones less than other people because they have suspect thoughts. The results of the present study are in line with other research that indicate addiction to mobile settings are related to the psychological traits such as social anxiety and nervousness, and personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism. We conclude that we can control the addiction to cellar phone addiction by treating the psychological traits of users.
    Keywords: Cellar phone, Addiction, Behavior, University
  • Asghar Mirfardi *, Forugh Faraji Pages 93-110
    Introduction
    Being legal is one of human social life traits. Using rules and law systems, human beings live together, without any interruption in social system formation by individual law- breaking tendencies. As laws are originated from general will, and recognized as social convention in a territory, are sanctioned by all citizens. Meanwhile, all people do not coordinate with formal laws, equally and some of them attempt to deviate from law-regularities, directly and indirectly, latently and obviously. Thus, a repertoire of behaviors including legal and illegal behaviors are being done in society. Legalism in each society caused to consistency in social relations and establishment of security feeling. Law-breaking as order-escaping which caused to dissatisfaction to self right, offending toward others right, ignoring duties, escaping from responsibilities, which in turn, could threaten social and psychological health. Urbanization increase, caused to various social deviances. Ignoring citizenship rights, caused to social disorder and anarchy. During recent years, an increasing trend of some crimes such as robbing, traffic deviances, mass conflict and changes in statistics of all crimes are indicate the growth of law-breaking in Yasouj. Reviewing the trends of crimes show their increase level and high rate of law-breaking during the last years. However, this paper aimed to study the relationship between variables such as social control and social participation, from one side, and the tendency to law-breaking, from another side, in Yasouj city.
    Material &
    Method
    using survey method, Statistics society had been 18-45 years old persons in Yasouj city; that were determined 381 persons via Lin table (1976) as a sample and they be selected with use of classical-multi stage random sampling method. The collection instrument was researcher -made questionnaire. Face validity and factor analysis were used for validity evaluation and Cronbach's alpha was used for evaluation of reliability. During face validity, questionnaire was reviewed and evaluated by some expert researchers and sociologists. Factor analysis coefficients were acceptable. The Cronbach's alpha for law-breaking variable was 0.86 and for social participation variable was 0.73 and for social control variable was 0.75.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The findings showed that there is significant indirect relationship between social participation and tendency towards law-breaking. There is significant relationship between the use of the mass media and the tendency to law- breaking. Men and singles have more tendencies to law - breaking than women and married. Independent variables, can explained 23.4 percents of dependent variable’s variance. Results showed that more social participation; lead to less law-breaking and vice versa. This finding is compatible with results of theoretical framework which being used in this study. There was no significant relationship between the degree of social control and tendency towards law-breaking, while their weak relationship was indirect. This finding was not compatible with Hirsch’s theory. This finding is not implying that social control, as one of social supervision’ means has not enough efficiency for decreasing criminal and law-breaking behaviors. Evaluating the relationship between use of mass media such as TV and satellite and tendency to law-breaking showed that there was significant relationship between the degree of mass media use and tendency to law-breaking. In terms of relationship of research results with Yasouj’s social conditions, can be argued that this city is one of less developed regions of Iran, which according its new urban ecology, have considerable traits of traditional structures. This structure is ongoing to passing duration from traditional to modern condition, via extension of urbanization and migration of nomadic and rural people to urban areas. Yasouj, as the center of Kohgilouyeh & BoyerAhmad province, in the process of becoming province and change in human ecology of its region, have been the magnet for migrants from its different regions. These migrations, from one side, had not lead to decrease in traditional bonding and governing the nomadic and tribal culture has been lead to behave based on their tribal and nomadic traditions and customs, in spite of legal commitment, and in other side, fast growth of population which, mainly, originated from migrations have less attentions to social regularities and systems and lead to law-breaking.
    Keywords: Law, breaking, Family, Social control, Social participation, Yasuoj, Iran
  • Ali Nasre Esfahani, Mojtaba Farokhi *, Zeynab Amiri Pages 111-126
    Introduction
    Social capital is a concept based on the idea that social networks provide a basis for social cohesion and cooperation. It has been characterized as ‘the glue that holds societies togethe’. Social capital's most commonly adopted definition in health sciences recognizes five characteristics: community networks, civic engagement, civic identity (belonging, solidarity, equality), reciprocity and norms of cooperation, and trust in the community). Within the literature, studies distinguish between individual and collective conceptualizations of social capital, but the definition as a community asset is currently “privileged” over individual definitions. Social capital has been divided into two components, ‘structural social capital’ and ‘cognitive social capital’. Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions. Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together. Structural social capital refers to the existence of relationships, networks, and associations that link members together. Cognitive social capital is the ‘driving force’; it includes values, norms, civic responsibility, expected reciprocity, charity, altruism, and trust. Structural and cognitive social capital, respectively, can be characterized as what people ‘do’ and what people ‘feel’ in terms of social relations.
    Employee empowerment is an important organizational issue. Empowered employees with new ideas and innovative attributes may increase their ability to respond more effectively to face extensive changes in current public health care work environments. Management literature defines empowerment as a set of
    managerial techniques, with no attention to its nature or the processes nderlying the construct (Spreitzer, 1995). Employees may lack psychological xperiences with empowerment, and emphasizing the process of sharing authority may result in an inadequate understanding of the notion of empowerment and its theoretical rationale for related practice. Researchers have extended these definitions to include job redesign, self efficacy by reducing powerlessness , and intrinsic task motivation . Combining organizational and psychological domains, employee empowerment may be viewed as a cognitive state, a psychologically empowered experience with power-sharing, competence and value internalization in organizations. Employee empowerment can be conceptualized as the symbolic construction of the personal state of employees characterized by competence, or the skill and ability to perform effectively, and control, or the authority and autonomy to act . Feelings of competence and feelings of control jointly determine whether the employees feel adequately empowered. Extant public relations studies on empowerment focus mainly on the aspect of power sharing, specifically, how to get the public relations professionals seated at the corporate decision-making table and empowerment of minorities in public relations.
    Material and
    Methods
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of social capital on the employees’ empowerment. The statistical population of this study includes nurses of Shariati Hospital in the City of Tehran. The sample members were selected through random sampling method. In order to collect the research data, two questionnaires were developed based on the social capital questionnaire of Ston (2001) and questionnaire of employees’ empowerment of Spiretiris (1996). The face validity of the questionnaire has already been investigated and confirmed. On the other hand, the reliability of the questionnaire has been examined through Cronbachs’ Alpha Coefficient.
    Discussion of
    Results
    The Coefficients of social capital and employees’ empowerment questionnaires were 0.85 and 0.78 relatively. In order to test the hypotheses, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method was used in the Amos 18. The findings revealed that social capital influences employees’ empowerment significantly (path coefficient: 0.76, CR: 3.69). The results of secondary hypotheses of research indicated that social capital influences competency (path coefficient: 0.69), meaningfulness (path coefficient: 0.84), being effectiveness (path coefficient: 0.72), and authority of choice (path coefficient: 0.75) significantly. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there is not any significant difference between respondents with different demographic characteristics in terms of the effects of social capital on employee empowerment.
    Keywords: Empowerment, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Competence, Sense of Significance, Sense of Choice, Social Capital
  • Hosein Afrasiyabi* Pages 127-140
    Introduction
    Job satisfaction is a fundamental construction in current organization studies. The importance of this construct is because of that’s role in organization’s development and effects on quality and quantity of services and processes. The goal of this study is to study employee’s job satisfaction of a service corporation related to organizational and ultra organizational variables. Job satisfaction defined as positive sense and orientation to job and that’s experiences include satisfaction from job tasks, wage, work conditions and management.
    Material &
    Methods
    Research model has been designed according a quantitative approach and conducted with survey strategy. Social exchange theory and reference group theory used as theoretical framework and 8 hypotheses posed. After operational and theoretical definition of job satisfaction and independent variables, a questionnaire has been designed and conducted. Research sample contained 400 employees that selected with systematic random sampling method from employees list in a service oriented organization at Shiraz city-Iran. The questionnaire validity tested with formal validity that evaluated by some psychology, Sociology and Management researchers and organization employee’s. the reliability of scales tested by Chronbach’s alpha coefficient. Reliability test showed that chrobach alpha was up than 0.7 for all scales. Research questionnaire include individual and job information, job satisfaction scale with 48 items and other variables scales that designed with Likert scale.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    10 percent of respondents was woman and 90 percent man. Age average was 43 years and age minimum was 25 and maximum 54 years old. More than 44 percent of respondents have middle job satisfaction. In different job satisfaction dimensions, satisfaction from job tasks, then satisfaction of managers, work conditions and wage was at later levels. Referential Results showed that there is no significant relationship between gender and job satisfaction. Such as other recent researches about comparison of job satisfaction among man and woman, this research showed that job experiences in organizations become similar in organization. other variables such as education level, age, wage, job training, job security, role ambiguity, life satisfaction and family and colleagues evaluation of job was significantly related to job satisfaction. The employees job satisfaction reduced by increasing education. In other words, the relationship between job satisfaction and education level was reverse; when employee education is higher, his expectation from job and related factors become higher and if organization couldn’t respond to this expectations, the person experience negative in his job. Age and working years was significantly and positively related to job satisfaction. As other researchers mentioned, older people and who was more in organization, committed more to organization and also gained more skills for doing job and ultimately experienced more positive sense from job. Job training, positively correlated to job satisfaction; employees that trained more in organization, can do better job tasks and probably received encourages and this important source of satisfaction for employees. Inversely, role ambiguity had negative relationship with job satisfaction. Stress and anxiety is A critical consequences of role ambiguity and can reduce satisfaction and positive sense of work conditions. As reference group theory focused, colleague’s and family evaluation of job was significantly correlated with job satisfaction but colleague’s evaluation was more important than family. Also life satisfaction and job satisfaction was correlated and employees that was more satisfied in life, more satisfied in job; this showed that the life is a system that different parts affect each other. Multi level analysis showed that colleague’s evaluation of job, job security, life satisfaction, role ambiguity and wage entered in regression model and explained 50 percent of dependent variable. According to this, should be mention that job satisfaction is very complex construct that affect from different organizational and ultra organizational variables. But in comparison, the interactional variable in organization is more important than others.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, Organization, Employees, life satisfaction, Job training
  • Hassan Galavandi* Pages 141-156
    Introduction
    In the present age because of intensive competition, rising customer expectations, focusing on quality, organizations are demanding more and more creativity,, innovation, acceptance of responsibility, providing constructive ideas and ways to improve the work and the organization of their staff have. Undoubtedly, empowerment and survival of the organization to a large extent depends on the knowledge that is born of the idea of human resources. Organizations to survive and stay in the competition in need of individuals, who responded to the challenges of their environment and the decisions and ideas about organizational problems and challenges and sharing of information and knowledge, not fear. University Center of most excellent scientific progress in all fields that enhance science and knowledge in society. Undoubtedly, the knowledge capital for any organization is key to the survival in a competitive world. The origin of production of knowledge in university is halls of discourse that includes several discourse of the ethical discourse. On the other hand Today regarding intense competition and the speed of information and the challenges facing organizations modern, A performance evaluation model for determining success of the organization and develop a strategic plan based on the organization's strengths and weaknesses of, it seems necessary. Analysis of the factors influencing the growth and development of human societies including developed and developing efficient and effective education system shows that each country makes a significant contribution to multilateral development of the country. Educational institutions have gradually realized that in today's complex and difficult without a committed and professional staff able to respond the growing needs of their community education. Scorecard (BSC) a model of for performance management that could cause the mission to coordinate with customer needs and coordination of daily activities with the ideals and mission to be used. Management and organization assessment, evaluation of operating efficiency, increase potential and relation time staff in organizations of any size to be used. Scorecard (BSC) a model of for performance management that could cause the mission to coordinate with customer needs and coordination of daily activities with the ideals and mission to be used. Management and organization assessment, evaluation of operating efficiency, increase potential and relation time staff in organizations of any size to be used. Balanced Scorecard performance measurement model of causal relationships through which the change in the scope of change or the balance is in other activities. Daft (1998) believes that organizational change to accept an idea, comment or new behavior can be defined by an organization. Organizational change, specifically the process of planning and a conscious effort to improve ways in which groups, departments or total organizations to act on the basis of. Organizational change involves a change in the structure, way of doing things, technology, culture and management. Organizations find change so difficult to be resolved, to continue their survival and better quality to realize your goals. During this process with the senior organizations and develop The present study has been done with aims to investigate the organizational change is based on management factors and relationship with Organizational performance .
    Materials and Methods
    using descriptive correlation research, 120 members faculty of urmia university, urmia industrial, payamnour Selected randomly as a stratified random. Data have gathered through two questionnaires Organizational change on the based model of management factors and organizational performance on the based model of BSC.
    Discussion of Results&
    Conclusions
    The data after collecting analyzed the based on research hypotheses and by using the Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that: Between organizational change based on management factors with organizational performance is positive and significant . It was also found that management factors can predicted Positively and significantly of organizational performance . As a result of the factors that organizations need to consider organizational performance is to organizational change based on management factors.
    Keywords: Organizational Change, Management Factors, Organizational performance, BSC, Faculty Members
  • Mohammad Reza Ardalan *, Siroos Ghanbari, Iman Karimi Pages 157-174
    Introduction
    Today the university as an effective organization can be, Organizational capacity development as a model of planned change to use Learn to solve problems, adapt to environmental changes, improve their performance and effectiveness in the future. In order to build capacity in universities must intangible assets such as organizational identity focused. organizational identity plays a central role in regulating the behavioral norms of the organization's members. The of finding identity, employees of the important characteristics as the characteristics they attract. The purpose of the present study organizational characteristics that affect organizational coherent identity to the basis for Organizational capacity development.
    Material &
    Methods
    This research is based on the target application is based on a description of the method of data collection survey. The population of the city of Hamadan University research represents all employees, Sample using Cochran's formula for infinite population, 392 employees randomly from four universities in the city of Hamedan (Bu Ali Sina, Medical Sciences, industrial, Islamic Azad) were selected. Data collection questionnaires organizational characteristics With 29 Question, corporate identity With 8 Question and organizational capacities With 22 Question were evaluated. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, to assess the reliability of the questionnaire was at an acceptable level above 0/90. Data analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling using LISREL and SPSS software was used.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Confirmatory factor analysis results showed all factor loadings (λ) obtained the obvious variables, are statistically significant at the %5 error level. It is obvious that variables fitness model acceptable to measure structures were hidden. Analysis results show that the structural relationships; the effect of a coherent strategy is on the corporate identity of (0/90) considering the significant amount of T statistic at %5 the first hypothesis that the positive impact of the strategy on corporate coherent identity is confirmed. The effect of other variables affecting coherent corporate identity in order to is, Tools and support (0/86), quality management (0/83), internal communications (0/87), openness and dynamism (0/79), Considering the significant amount of relevant statistic T to each of them at the level of 5% error, Fourth and fifth hypothesis that the positive effects of other institutional factors affecting organizational identity verification are integrated. Coherent corporate identity in relation to the impact on cohesion, the positive effect is of (0/94), considering the significant statistics at %5 T, Sixth hypothesis is confirmed. The effect of coherent identity to other organizational structures pave the way for the development of institutional capacity is in order to, Informal communication (0/87), the centralization (0/79), feedback-control system (0/84) and organizational performance (0/80) Considering the significant amount of relevant statistic T to each of them at the level of 5% error, The seventh to the tenth of a coherent identity hypothesis positive impact on other organizational structures organizational capacity will be verified. Finally, the index values of the goodness of fit of the structural model research all were acceptable limits. This shows that good research model fitted to the data or the is structural model. Therefore say the results of the activities of the staff to achieve the goals described in terms of organization and social activities, can be effective in enhancing the identification of employees. In addition, increasing staff participation in organizational decision and enhance the sense of responsibility and staff Encourage responsibility for their orientation through a fair reward system will be facilitates access to the development of institutional capacity. Accordingly, the organization of the coherent identity is more important, access to opportunities and conditions for the development of organizational capacity will be easier.
    Keywords: Development, Organizational Capacity, Staff, Organizational Identity, Organizational Characteristics, Structural Equation