فهرست مطالب

مدیریت شهری - پیاپی 44 (پاییز 1395)
  • پیاپی 44 (پاییز 1395)
  • ویژه نامه لاتین
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/07/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 30
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  • Dr Pouya Doulabi *, Zohreh Shaeri, Aghdas Hajebzade Pages 7-24
    Participation of people in their cities and neighborhoods has always been emphasized by researchers and experts in order to improve the quality of citizens’ life and having efficient urban management. However, it seems that providing participation contexts at local level by citizens needs preparations and substrates that facilitate participation. In the meantime, establishing a neighborhood management plan in order to provide participation contexts at local level by citizens can be considered as a movement in this regard. Accordingly, the purpose of the present research is to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood involvement sense and social participation of citizens. In this regard, Kuti neighborhood of Bushehr, which has valuable activity, physical, and social features, is investigated as a sample. In the present research, the research method is operational based on the purpose and descriptive-analytical and experimental-surveying based on the method. Thus, library studies have been used to explain literature and history of the research subject, and field methods have been used to collect data according to the nature of the research. The data were collected by a questionnaire among 60 residents of the Kuti neighborhood who were over 18 years old. The sampling method, used in this study, was random and SPSS software was used for data analysis. The results of this research indicate that there is a relationship between neighborhood involvement sense and preparation for participation. The correlation between these two variables was in the positive direction. In addition, by increasing the neighborhood involvement sense, the preparation for participation increases.
    Keywords: neighborhood, neighborhood involvement sense, participation, Kuti neighborhood of Bushehr
  • Hamid Bahiraei *, Dr Rahim Sarvar, Dr Bahman Karegar, Dr Abdolreza Faraji Rad Pages 27-38
    It has been encountering with large modifications and developments during recent decades and it makes large developments at Rey & Islamshahr regions.
    As the habitation areas as shaped in different dimensions. Thought it can investigate the implicational structural at large scales even at littler scales too. Nevertheless the essential applications of living areas on over coming life need such habitation and it has been discussed occupations, having social relations with others, education and training. The kind of search in this study it is introductive and analysis and it was applied of library and curcuma methods. Also it was applied of Top sis model. The findings of study indicate that economical social and structural are in the rates from first to second and it has the most effective role at modification of environmental and implicational of Rey and Islamshahr habitation areas during Tehran mega city. At last it is evaluated as the final indicates at environmental and habitation areas.
    Keywords: Environment, habitation, implicational modifications, environmental modifications, evaluation index, Rey, Islamshahr regions
  • Mahdi Modiri, Ali Mohammad Pour, Ali Rezaei Moghaddam * Pages 39-52
    Passive Defense is a set of civilian efforts performed to enhance deterrence, reduce vulnerability, sustain essential activities, promote national stability, and facilitate crisis management against military threats of an enemy. Since in battles, sensitive and critical areas of cities are of paramount importance,it is clear that in military agressions, a large part of threats are focused on cities and their urban facilities and equipment, especially fuel centers. As a result, consideration of passive defense while planning cities has a significant role in reducing the vulnerability of cities and their urban elements as well as facilitating the urban crisis management. It also provides the citizens resistance threshold under possible enemy invasion and natural malicious agents. Hence, this article reviews and analyzes the current situation of gas distribution centers and evaluates their positioning across the city of Mashhad with regard to passive defense approach. However, as far as there is no clear- cut criteria for organizing fuel centers with passive defense approach, the Delphi method is used to select the desired criteria in which on the basis of the final comments of the experts, four critera- performance, access, hazards and security election and spatial organization of the fuel tanks and petrol stations- are analyzed using AHP model and GIS spatial analyzes. Accordingly, it can be said that the assessment of the current status of the urban fuel stations in Mashhad indicates that no area of the city enjoys all measures of passive defense (performance, availability, security, and risks). Likewise, the results indicate that the distribution of these centers in the city are mostly consistent with the factor of access. taking into account all the criteria, it is the ​​North West of Mashhad which has the highest utility than other areas. It is followed by the east of Mashhad and ​​the Northeast and the middle east of the city, respectively. Accordingly, it could be stated that ignoring an efficient design for determining the optimum location of the site construction with a passive defense approach results in an inappropriate and naive spatial distribution of the stations leading to an increased security and environmental risks of the city.
    Keywords: Spatial organization, urban Passive defense, gas stations, Delphi method, AHP model
  • Sepideh Ghalambaz *, Dr Abdolhossein Farajpahlou, Dr Farideh Osareh Pages 53-66
    This study aimed to identify and test expectancy motivational model as a theoretical framework to explain the reasons motivating expected information consumer’s behavior for the selection and use of document delivery services of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz. In this study, explanatory survey method was used. In order to test the hypotheses and analysis of model’s data, covariance structural equation model-driven approach was used by Amos software version 23. Findings of analytical study shows that information consumers motivational model focusing on the three paths of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, and on the basis of the VIE model, is able to explain information consumers’ behavior in the document delivery services of Shahid Chamran University; therefore, the VIE model in this study was confirmed. Also according to the proposed table (Newstrom & Davis, 1968), motivation level of information consumers in their behavioral motivation to use document delivery services of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz was predicted to be average.
    Keywords: Expectancy theory, Motivation, Information consumers, Behaviors of information consumers, Information need, Document delivery, Marketing Strategy, Vroom's motivational theory
  • Kamran Nazari *, Peyman Akbari, Saber Shokri, Mohammad Nazari, Reza Rostami Pages 67-80
    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of organizational learning and marketing metrics on the marketing performance in the Elon Plast Company of Kermanshah province. It is a functional purpose study with descriptive – survey method. The statistical population includes 100 employees of Elon Plast Company in Kermanshah province. A sample of 80 people was chosen using Cochran formula. Data were collected through organizational learning questionnaire of Nife (2001); marketing metrics of Nazari and Akbari (2015) and marketing performance questionnaire of Nazari and Akbari (2015). The validity (content, convergent, divergent) and reliability (factor loading, composite Reliability coefficient, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) of questionnaires indicated that the measurement tools are of good reliability and validity. The results of the research by SMART-PLS software and using t test statistics and path coefficients (β) showed that organizational learning has strong, direct and significant impact on marketing metrics and marketing metrics have strong, direct and significant impact on the marketing performance. Also, organizational learning has strong, direct, indirect and significant impact on the marketing performance. On the other hand, marketing metrics can play the mediating role in the relationship between organizational learning on marketing performance. On the other hand, organizational learning can improve the positive effect that marketing metrics have on the marketing performance as a moderating variable.
    Keywords: Organizational Learning, Marketing Metrics, Marketing Performance
  • Seyed Heidar Azarkasb *, Ezatollah Naderi, Maryam Seif Naraghi Pages 81-90
    The aim of designing the education spaces is to providing the required spatial relationships for education processes. It means that the spaces and equipment which are required in every field, how and by the which discipline thy have been arranged to offer the final aim of education in advance, is the achievements of providing the education spaces management. The purpose of study is to evaluate the status of science and technology education spaces in management of providing the space and educational equipment for schools in fundamental evolution document Iran Education. In this survey, the research method is content analysis and it is descriptive in regards to practical purposes and collecting the data. The statically population for this research is the Iran Education Fundamental Evolution Documents, the criteria and standards for designing the educational spaces and documents about the education history. According to the results, evolution in the providing the spaces for educating the science and equipment adaptation with day technological infrastructure are crucial. The recommendation for reviewing the status of educating the science and technology and symmetry of facilities with the need to the space and equipment for educating science and technology in the system of management of providing the space and equipment in compliance with local culture and todays and future technological needs and attention to the extension of garden school model was discussed.
    Keywords: educational equipment, educational spaces, garden school, science education, fundamental evolution document
  • Abdollah Ansari * Pages 91-101
    Current article is allocated to the report of a research in which the income elasticities of urban families” demand for public education in time period of 2008-2013 were estimated separately according to the income deciles and by applying Rotterdam Demand System, it was clarified that public education is normal commodity. Different size of estimative elasticities indicated that public education is necessary for the families belonged to the sixth and tenth income deciles and it is lux for first to fifth income deciles and it can be expected that if the income of families belonged to the first to fifth deciles faces with reduction, mentioned families for one percent reduction of income will reduce their demand for public education more than one percent and they will consume the related sources for necessary commodities and services. In contrast, the families belonged to the sixth to tenth deciles reduce the share of lux commodities and services in their cost basket so that not to be forced to reduce their public education costs proportional with income reduction. Therefore, the effective policies on families” income should be compiled and executed in a manner that not to cause to reduce the demand of families for education and especially groups with low and medium income.
    Keywords: Demand for public education, income elasticity of public education, Rotterdam Demand System
  • The study of effects of urban spaces on behavior citizens
    Jafar Perej, Seyed Jamaledin Daryabari * Pages 102-112
    With emergence of urbanism, complication of urban community system, and occurrence of urban problems, a new paradigm of urban management was introduced that adopted new methods to involve citizens in policy making, planning, and supervision and direction of urban life. Therefore, the main element in managerial methods is involving citizens in urban life. Among the ways to make urban residents into real citizens is training an informing them. What everyday life suggests is everydayness. Everyday life is the very everyday life that is spent on repeated and everydayness activities such as work, rest, commutation, shopping, which all are boring and follow a predictable procedure. Urban spaces inevitably are background of large part of citizen’s everyday life, and therefore, undoubtedly interact with it, which means they both influence and are influenced by the individuals’ everyday life. This paper aims to collect and analyze literature on such interaction. Relation between urban space and everyday life has different aspects. However, they are placed between two contrasting ends, and tend towards one of them: everydayness and daily life; the latter of which suggests creativity, vividness and efflorescence of everyday life. Such life leads to lived experienced and creative moments for an individual, contributing to his/her balanced development. Such life, in the first place, realizes in a space which has individuals actively involved in its production and protection; and formation of such space has not been formed to impose dominant system’s values and rules on individuals. It is only in such space that physical and social dimensions of space are aligned, and spontaneity and efflorescence of urban life realize. It is in such space that diversity and individual differences are maintained at the same as keeping social sustainability. In other words, it is in such space that one can attain the right of being: one can live irrespective of his/her economic status, sex, education level, etc. In such space, individuals’ human rights in terms of access to urban requirements are observed and are subject to justice; people have the right to choose between proactive involvement in collection actions, and interactions, and retirement and relaxing from burden of urban life; collective memoirs of city are formed, and in addition to “form”, the space will acquire a “structure”, which remains in the people’s mind as a common thing. Memoirs that are embodied again as they are recollected, and as Agness Heller’s said, are reviewed in quiet and peace. Such review sets human mind free of sinews of everydayness, and directs towards criticism of the surrounding world. This paper was conducted using description-analytic method. Data collection was carried out using library (documentary) and field methods. This paper tries to study challenges and consequences of training of citizenship and relationship between urban space and everyday life.
    Keywords: city, training of citizenship, civil rights, urban space
  • Amir Khosrojerdi, Mostafa Fallah * Pages 113-122
    A sensitivity analysis of the flood safety of Solaimantangeh dam using a regional climate change simulation is presented. Based on the output of the CCSM (Community Climate Change System Model) general circulation model, the NIRCM (North of Iran Regional Climate Model) computes regional scale output with 50 km spatial resolution and 21 vertical layers. Using the SRES (Special Report Emission Scenario) “B1” Climate Change Scenario when applied to the Tajan river basin, where Solaimantangeh dam is located, NIRCM reduces significantly the bias in Annual Maximum Event total Precipitation (AMEP) & Annual Maximum Daily Precipitation (AMDP) that CCSM shows. The stream flow change scenario is then simulated using SSARR (Stream flow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model. A rainfall-runoff model was implemented using precipitation and temperature projected by CCSM and NIRCM. The model demonstrated that average Stream flow would increases 38.7% and the variability would increases 14.3%. This remarkable increase in projected annual maximum flow for the next 20 years (2004-2023) should be a significant negative signal to water resources managers. The results indicate that the number of floods remains almost the same, but that the magnitude of a single flood event and the recovery from it become worse.
    Keywords: Flood, Risk, Dam, climate change
  • Mehdi Mahmoodzadeh* Pages 123-136
    Development of modern economy without private sector and high vigilance entrepreneurs is vital to identify opportunities and use of opportunities around the world. In this regard, identifying the influencing factors on emergence and development of entrepreneurship culture can be effective to promote entrepreneurship in our country. For this purpose, the main issue in this study is to identify the elements of entrepreneurships making culture to support small and medium sized enterprises. To answer the question, the purpose of this study is to design a model for influencing factors on national entrepreneurship to support small and medium sized enterprises using literature review and experts opinions. To achieve the goal, Delphi Model was used. Delphi survey results showed reduction of bureaucracy in launching a business, raise the social status of entrepreneurs, social and economic justice, reform of popular culture and religious beliefs to work, reforming education and management structure in the country, government support, creating and the development of venture capital funds, targeted tax cuts, respect other people's capital, raising national security investment as factors influencing entrepreneurship in support of small and medium enterprises.
    Keywords: Small, Medium Sized Enterprises, Making Culture, National Entrepreneurship
  • Dr Farhad Saboorifar, Mohammad Mehdi Ghassemloo * Pages 137-146
    The how and why of Tehran development and construction of its Citadel has always been of interest to researchers. At the same time, Issues such as its time of obtaining importance and prosperity on the one hand, and establishing and appellation of its Citadel as the most important official complex of the Qajar period on the other, are among the concerns mostly ignored by the scholars. Addressing the above- raised questions, the present study has been analyzing the development time of the city as well as construction and name of its Citadel by checking reliable historical references and also scrutinizing the related assumptions regarding them.
    Keywords: Tehran, Tehran Citadel, Golestan Palace, Qajar Period
  • Shabanali Nourozi, Habibolah Najafi Hezarjaribi *, Mehran Farajollahi, Mohammadreza Sarmadi Pages 147-156
    To empower the farmer villagers, execution of training programs including semi-presence training, open training and virtual training is essential. The main purpose of the present research is to determine the factors affecting the enabler trainings to farmer villagers with an emphasis on the component of culture and education technology using the interpretative structural modeling together with structural equation modeling. The combined method has been used as the research method. At the first stage, the main indices were extracted by data collection via Delphi method from the knowledge transfer and management and their validity were determined, and at the qualitative stage the questionnaire was given to the participants after determining the reliability. The statistical population consists of 1930 individuals including faculty members, promoters, educational instructors and those employed in agriculture research centers and institutes. With regard to Morgan table, the sample size has been estimated to 641 individuals by separation of groups per their population and the samples have been selected using the stratified random sampling method. The research question was examined and standardized using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. Research findings elaborate the component of remote education technology and organizational culture as the dimensions of management and electronic knowledge transfer. It is suggested to the managers at agriculture information and knowledge system to take action to expand the agriculture service centers and equip them with information and communication technology facilities for fast transfer of research findings to farmers and culturalization in sharing the research findings.
    Keywords: village, knowledge management, electronic training, knowledge transfer, agriculture research
  • Saeed Ghasemi Mobara *, Mohammad Soleimani Rasa, Shabnam Yasami Pages 157-166
    Earnings management has inverted the main objective of financial reporting through the distortion of the actual economic performance of companies and prevented the complete transfer of information to market. Given the importance of subject of research, incentives that cause earnings management have been reviewed from various aspects. The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between competition in industry and pricing power at product market and earnings management in the companies listed in Tehran stock exchange. For this, modified Lerner index was used to measure pricing power and three middle Lerner indices including industry, reverse number of firms in the industry, four-firm concentration ratio were used as the indices of competition in industry. To measure earnings management, Modified Jones Model was used. The statistical population consists of all the firms listed in Tehran stock exchange. With regard to the considered criteria, 100 companies among 9 industries were selected as sample based on two digit ISIC codes. Findings of research indicate that the companies which enjoy the pricing power at product market less likely manage their earnings. Another finding indicates that earnings management increases by increasing competition in industry. Hence, the investors who intend to invest in competition industry should pay more attention to earnings management.
    Keywords: competition in production market, pricing power, earnings management
  • Dr Elham Sadegpouri * Pages 167-178
    Islamic architecture has a fundamental dignity and tries to preserve the spiritual and immortal elements. The most sensible characteristic of this type of art is the compatibility with the nature of Islam; monotheism, which the mosque architecture provides the best bed for such purpose. The main model for constructing mosques, from both outward and internal spiritual truths point of view, is the Kaaba. It is considered as a religious and holly symbol in Muslims’ all issues. Since the Islamic artist in Islamic architecture seeks the means through forms, therefore, in addition to engineering appearance of Kaaba, which is the model of Islamic mosques’ architecture, its innate mysteries are also emanated in this type of art. Quiddity of these mysteries and their advent quality in the architecture of the mosques is the main issue we are confronting with. This research tries to uncover the coded forms of Kaaba and come out of the attaining unique secrets of these forms in the rational and material world and the way of their emanation in the Islamic architecture, which is the main purpose here. Achieving this purpose is due to benefiting from theological sciences, studying Islamic narratives and verses, and also philosophical, theosophical and knowledge studies which are in descriptive and library types. It is possible to reach the depth of existential philosophy of Kaaba under the shadow of these investigations and the basics of the Islamic architecture would be considering in the next phase and that information in literature review, which features the mysteries of Kaaba would be interpreted in this sacred art. These studies clarify that Kaaba is a secret of unique being of God and it is the emanation of his terrestrial form in divine heaven. Thus, mosques’ architecture is an appearance of the divine house trying to create sacred atmosphere, to indicate this eternal truth and capable the human being to connect to his idol and reach to the final destination of the creation, which is knowing the single God.
    Keywords: Islamic art, Islamic architecture, Kaaba, geometrical figures, mystery
  • Reza Rostami, Peyman Akbari *, Amir Lali Sarabi, Mohammad Nazari Pages 179-190
    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of social capital and organizational learning on organizational performance in Payame Noor University of Kermanshah province. It is a functional purpose study with descriptive – survey method. The statistical population includes 470 employees of Payame Noor University in Kermanshah province. A sample of 212 people was chosen using Cochran formula. Data were collected through social capital questionnaire of Ownegh (2005), Akbari et al. (2013) and organizational performance of Baharestan et al. (2012). The validity (content, convergent, divergent) and reliability (factor load, composite Reliability coefficient, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) of questionnaires indicated that the measurement tools are of good reliability and validity. The results of the research by SMART-PLS software and using t test statistics and path coefficients (β) showed that social capital has strong, direct and significant impact on organizational learning and organizational performance. Also, social capital has strong, direct, indirect and significant impact on the organizational performance. On the other hand, organizational learning can play the mediating role in the relationship between social capitals on organizational performance. On the other hand, social capital can improve the positive effect that organizational learning has on the organizational performance as a moderating variable.
    Keywords: Social Capital, Organizational Learning, Organizational Performance
  • Seyede Ronak Hosseini, Dr Seyed Gholam Reza Islami *, Dr Hamid Majedi Pages 191-206
    Identity crisis in today's architecture has become the concern of the scholars due to its compliance with modernity, inattention to human's differences and variety in conditions and contexts for creating architecture works as well as its emphasis on the constant preset patterns. In such circumstances, "Iranian-Islamic architecture pattern" has been introduced by several scholars as a solution for reviving the historical and religious identity to architecture and complying it with the related fields. In this regard, the identification of key factors influencing the components of this pattern can affect the definition of this issue. Therefore, this article tries to introduce the components of Islamic-Iranian architecture and determine the consistency of these components with educational content of architecture (particularly, at B.A level). This study has employed a qualitative approach, determined the components of Islamic-Iranian architecture and the consistency of the content of architecture with that components through the simulation research method. The findings show that in the current program of architectural education, the share of training the Islamic principles, personal and social values and contexts is very low compared to the share of training the architecture tools. On the other hand, architectural education has mostly emphasized teaching the architectural tools rather than the fundamentals, which prevents the architecture students to form a holistic insight into the issue.
    Keywords: Architectural education, Iranian, Islamic architecture, Knowledge fields, Values, beliefs, Context
  • The role of government decisions on regional development with the approach spatial planning and sustainable development
    Mohammad Salari, Seyed Jamaledin Daryabari * Pages 207-216
    Power as an institution, governance as structure and spatial organization is considered as an organizational tool in the service of the goals and aspirations of the institutions of power and governance structure. In this framework the spatial organization and geographic environment is a result of social organization (social, economic, political), and its natural and ecological system. Human authoritarianism can be the most fundamental strategies and mechanisms of social-biological will be considered in forming this relationship. This needs to be a strategy used by individuals and organizations, and apply to the exercise of power on the part of the space and its contents. The metropolitan centers are concentration of wealth, power, culture, and management and local, national and global forces. Therefore, special interest of organizations and the power forces to this phenomenon and the desire to intervene in the organization of functional, spatial can be expected in order to use most of the resources and opportunities. Urban society today is filled with many actors who each act according to their interests. Today the spatial function distribution can be considered the most important challenges of metropolitan governance. Thus, the efficiency and effectiveness of metropolitan governance structure depends on the acceptance of functional diversity in the metropolitan area and its reflection in the form of metropolitan governance. The new project of the government - the nation insisted on the unity and similarity more than difference and diversity. The emergence of multiculturalism as a political force is an indication of the failure of city project and future areas must to develop diversity and differences through democratic cultural pluralism. This paper presents an analytical method and aims to answer these questions: Whether it can be constructed such a regional city? What is the basic requirement for this a regional city? It seems principles of social justice (Principles that must fuse with the issues of planning and urban governance), such a difference and discrimination, citizenship, community and civic culture are minimum requirements to create a new system of urban civilization.
    Keywords: power, government, decision, making, governance structure, regional development
  • Dr Shahram Nassehzadehtabriz *, Dr Fagan Aliyev Pages 217-226
    Paper undertakes software based numerical simulations in two different traditional houses in cold-dry climate of Tabriz and hot-arid climate of Yazd, The Eco Test software chosen for BIM simulations. Case study on real houses instead of hypothetical models can give more tangible results and choosing traditional houses can provide a good opportunity to compare both physical and thermal conditions, in which zones have more dense walls than contemporary typical building wall. With high thermal mass and more surface to volume ratio, investigating the effect of U-value on interior conditions are more accurate. Comparative case studies in two different climatic zones of Iran can give researchers the opportunity to compare the importance of total U-value in two severe climates in Iran. In addition, it can give the designers the insight that what design priorities must be considered in each climate. Results show that the U-value in a hot arid climate of Yazd has a more direct effect in controlling interior comfort conditions, like fluctuations of temperature and variations of summer and winter temperatures, as well as variations of temperature in a single day and total energy need and consumption in both hot months and cold months of the year.
    Keywords: U, value, Thermal mass, Traditional Iranian houses, Cold, dry climate, Hot, arid climate, BIM Based Software Analysis
  • Soheila Khosroabadi, Kiomars Niazazari *, Mohammad Salehi Pages 227-242
    This study was performed to identify factors affecting the entrepreneurial university. In order to achieve this goal, a sample of 173 faculty members (academic rank of associate professor or higher) in academic year of 2015-2016 was selected using the using relative stratified sampling and Cochran’s formula. In this study, given the purpose and nature of research, for analysis of the data, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used. The results of in-depth interviews and semi-structured and targeted interview with 14 qualified university professors led to the initial questionnaire developed by the researchers at 5-point Likert scale with 50 items; upon exploratory analysis, 9 items were excluded due to extraction value of commonality smaller than 0.5. Content validity of the questionnaire was approved by accredited academic experts. To assess the construct validity, convergent and divergent validity criteria were used. The results of factor loadings of each item showed that all items had factor loading of over 0.4 and average extracted variance of over 0.5, thus convergent validity of the variables was confirmed. In addition, the values ​​of the square root of the average variance extracted (AVE) was highest, indicating the validity of divergent validity of the variables. Composite reliability and validity of the questionnaire for all variables showed high levels of 0.7. Results showed that the size and components affecting establishment of entrepreneurial university included internal factors (capabilities, management and leadership, structure, prospects, financial resources and research, cultural and education policies) and external factors (interaction with environment and internationalization of the university). Finally, test of the model using t-test showed that the size and the identified factors had a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial university.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial university, external factors, internal factors, innovation
  • Dr Ahmad Askari, Dr Hamidreza Kordlouie *, Dr Vahidreza Mirabi, Shahram Zare Pages 243-250
    The basic objective of this study is to design the model of effectiveness of electronic advertisement on consumer buying behavior. The research population is customers and consumers of large food stores in Shiraz that used a store's website. The sample of this study is as big as 400 people. Cluster random sampling method based on visible traits in the population with the highest estimated number of customers with a cautionary view was carried out. To evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire in this study, Cronbach's alpha was used. Cronbach's alpha was estimated 92%for the whole questionnaires and fluctuated between76%and 98% for its subscales. In order to analyze the data of questionnaires and to test the hypotheses, factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques were used. The results show that by rejecting the first hypothesis and confirming the rest of assumptions and other relationships between the independent, mediator and dependent variables, the whole model is generally acceptable. This means that content and communication stimuli would get to the behavioral reaction phase after the process of influencing.
    Keywords: electronic, advertisement, consumer, behavior, food
  • Maryam Shirvani *, Dr Hossein Ahmadi, Dr Rasool Vatandoust Pages 251-260
    According to the non-physical aspects of conservation in the world today and intangible effects were considered serious. Conservation process, but help to understand the purpose and effect of not reading, but perception is a matter of epistemological roots in philosophy and in modern philosophy the process of understanding a monument-art conservation in connection with the audience is important. The audience as an integral part of the conservation that is effective in the formation of the protective interactions. So how to understand and get the audience's perception of the effectiveness and value in him is vital. On this basis, the aim of this paper is to review and reach the audience in understanding how the process is the philosophical foundations value conservation and the main question raised is whether the formation is based on the principles of philosophy devoted to protecting the perception place? To access the call to review the evolution of the contact position in this field and the principles of conservation and understanding of the philosophy and the philosophy of protecting reviews override and analysis and review of the vote, Islamic and Western philosophy has been done in this area. This study is an analysis of the findings found that the effect of that sensory perception, rational and imaginary in philosophy, has been developed and subjective and objective process, in discussing his philosophy of conservation for immediate steps to get the whole effect, thinking the values of work, interpretation and effect of the appreciation of the presence and reading of this show that understanding the importance of the three principles behind the creation and validation of the integrity, authenticity and value perception lies and categories subject to the special relationship with the audience taking effect. When the relationship between the audiences with a monument is established on the basis of perceived value can be expected readings mean conservation will take effect.
    Keywords: perception, audience, monument, conservation
  • Fatemeh Dorjvar * Pages 261-268
    The present research with an emphasis on coffee houses at Qajar age has recognized motives and effect of social and political factors such as conditional event in formation of art traditions in coffee house so as to examine the communication function of coffee house painting at this space. Coffee house at Qajar age has been found as a place for people’s gathering which had communicative-cultural function in parallel to people’s daily activity. Extensiveness of political and social events and diversity of effective art and cultural activities in these gatherings which have caused acquisition of clients have increased significance of function at this space. Most of the arts including coffee house painting increased in the context of this place. With regard to the research findings, despite related works which have grounded on folk art boom in coffee house painting, it can perceive the controversial effect of this art event in the society focused on this art’s intellectual approach to the subjects with transnational themes which had caused people’s awakening. The present research intends to detect the factors contributed in formation of coffee house painting with the effective national-religious themes in social events at Qajar age.
    Keywords: coffee house, people's gathering, painting, Qajar age
  • Dr Nasrin Rahneshan, Ali Emami * Pages 269-280
    Typology solution in architecture science seeks classifying constructions and spaces in terms of join features. Typology studies can be infrastructure of design in micro and minor levels. Therefore being oblivious of it in architecture and city planning can lead to state of chaos in urban aspect and makes heterogeneous urban textures. Current paper seeks to find factors influencing on formation of different housing types in old texture of Gorgan and to generalize them in contemporary designs. By influencing in all ratios from residential areas to alley and neighborhood it can make a texture to solve problems such as density and transportation. The research method is descriptive-analytical. Information were obtained and analyzed by a combination of documentation studies and deep interview with experts` views where some questions were asked in old texture of Gorgan. The research findings indicated that economy factor has an effective role in type of design of old residential texture of Gorgan along with two factors of climate and culture. Economic factor has had abundant influence in size of houses, their communication and climate left influence in formation of appearance of buildings and their yards and finally culture left effect on religious factors, social relations, security and so on) finally the results indicate old texture of Gorgan apply certain and systematic principles in design in which all sporadic sections look like a uniform.
    Keywords: Domicile type, Typology, Climate, Culture, Old texture of Gorgan
  • Dr Mohammadreza Rabiee Mandajin, Zahra Pooresmaeel * Pages 281-290
    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of management information system on employees’ performance of Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company in district 5. The present study was an applied research in terms of purpose and a descriptive correlational survey in terms of method. Cochran's formula was used to determine sample size which was 219 employees. The statistical sample was selected using simple random sampling. A standard questionnaire was distributed among them to answer the questions. Some experts were asked to give their opinion on the face validity of the questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was examined using Cronbach's alpha test. The data were analyzed using linear regression test. The results indicated that management information system affects employees’ performance, decision-making, and reducing time of activities in Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company in district 5. Friedman test results to rank the impact of management information system on employees’ performance indicated that performance of employees is the first priority in terms of effectiveness.
    Keywords: management information system, employee performance, Water, Wastewater Company
  • Daryoush Mohammadi * Pages 291-298
    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of coach-oriented organization and team performance in the mental health staff General Directorate of Youth and Sport of Ardabil. Descriptive and correlational methodology has been applied to the target and the field was done in this study population all staff General Directorate of Youth and Sport was Ardabil province in the number of them 85 persons. Limited due to the small population size of the population sampled and analyzed, so is the population size and sample size. To collect data from questionnaires in coach-oriented organization and team performance staff (researchers) and mental health (Goldenberg and Hiller, 1979) was used. To analyze the data descriptive statistics (frequency tables mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and multiple regressions) is used in which the coach-oriented organizational relationship with the staff in mental health and team performance The SPSS19software were analyzed. The results showed that between team performance and organizational staff coach-oriented relationship (r = 0.314), there was a significant (p
    Keywords: organizational coach, oriented, mental health, team performance, General Directorate of Youth, Sport
  • Seyyed Ali Mohammad Yasrebi, Jalil Ghanavati, Mehdi Kazemzadeh * Pages 299-310
    Clarification of the legal and religious status of property ownership rights and paving the way for elimination of defects and completing existing rules and therefore, expanding economic security as well as determining and explaining the limits of expropriation by religious legitimate government and religious statement of permission of such an action from the Islamic State and clearing objectives which cause political system ignore ownership of individuals and expropriation of them are among thing which are required to be reviewed in the Iranian legal system because article 1 of the urban land law approved in 1987 states that: “this law was passed in order to regulate and formulate issues related to land and increased supply and reforming and stabilizing its price as one of the major factors of production and public and social welfare and creating more accurate and wider backgrounds to maintain and exploit the lands as well as allowing for the implementation of Article 31 and meeting the goals set forth in Articles 43, 45 and 47 of constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran to provide housing and public facilities”. Nevertheless, the author of this article is trying to answer this question that what are legal basis and purposes of expropriation and limiting urban lands ownership? To answer this crucial question; we will initially explain the concept of expropriation and then, we will review principles and legal reasons for permission for this action by the government and then, we will explain the purposes of expropriation and limiting land ownership. Legal Principles of expropriation and limitation of ownership of urban lands by the government are cases such as special powers of the supreme Leader, private owners being bound to observe the legal criteria, preventing injurious to others in the exercise of the ownership right and the necessity of observing Islamic standards in financial and economic affairs. Objectives of expropriation and Limitation of Urban lands ownership by the government are items such as Public service, avoiding loss of others and issuing fines and penalties (financial punishment).
    Keywords: expropriation, public service, public interest, justice, the supreme leader
  • Darya Nosrat Pour *, Dr Hassanali Pourmand, Dr Ali Afshar Pages 311-320
    Traditional houses enjoy an organizing with inner spaces based on religious and traditional notions of Iranian families. Space flexibility, readability, introversion, spatial hierarchy and family privacy have had a special status in architecture of Iranian houses, replaced with an outward-oriented architecture. The traditional architecture which has had all the necessary spaces for any communication inside the house has converted to the hotel architecture that its residents have not expected the stability and comfort from it, to whom just the equipment and services at hotel architecture are of great importance to which they have no sense and attachment. Living at contemporary houses has raised the problems such as reduced sense of belonging, comfort and emotional and family problems. The present research intends to compare traditional houses with contemporary houses by study on architecture plans of Iranian traditional houses and emphasis on their spatial richness and quality so as to get familiar with spatial concepts of these houses and take an effective step on how to influence these neglected concepts on single-dimensional spaces of contemporary houses.
    Keywords: traditional houses, traditional architecture, contemporary houses, Iranian architecture
  • Dr Mahdi Modiri, Mahdi Khazaei *, Dr Esmaeil Abbasi, Elham Modiri Pages 321-328
    Hail phenomenon is one of the hazardous weather phenomena that can make the highest amount of damage to farms, gardens, cars, rooftops, etc. in a very short time (a few minutes), depending on the diameter of the particles. One of the best ways to study this devastating climatic phenomenon is the use of atmospheric instability indices. The indices which are calculated with the help of radiosonde data give a fairly comprehensive vision regarding the occurrence of such phenomenon. In this study, the incidence of moderate to severe hail is investigated in the period of 1990-2010. First, the atmospheric codes related to hail phenomena were applied to extract the data, then radiosonde data in intended time were received and applying the RAOB software, the physical status of atmosphere was studied. In the studied period, two hail examples were reported on November 27, 2008 and December 5, 2008. In the first instance of hail that occurred on November 27, 2008, the status of some indicators was calculated and it was found that LCL was at an altitude of 284 meters, CCL at an altitude of 1582 meters, LFC at an altitude of 6230 meters, the ice surface at an altitude of 3278 meters, the LI index was -0.2, the K index was 25.7 ° C, and PWC was 28 mm. In the above mentioned conditions, there was a hail with a diameter of 25.4 mm. In the second instance of hail that occurred on December 5, 2008, the status of some indicators was calculated and the results showed that LCL was at an altitude of 280 meters, CCL at an altitude of 1762 meters, LFC at an altitude of 2271 meters, the ice surface at an altitude of 2771 meters, the LI index was -1.4, the K index was 27.1 ° C, and PWC was 23.6 mm. In the above mentioned conditions, there was a hail with a diameter of 3.6 mm. Given that in many ways, the status of most atmospheric indicators in the two above examples of hail were close to each other, it turns out that in similar circumstances, the greater the distance the ice level gets to the summit of cloud, the greater is the probability of hails larger in diameter. The value of this distance for November 27, 2008 was at approximately 6384 meters and for December 5, 2008, it was at about 5012 meters.
    Keywords: instability indicators, hail, Skew, T, Bandar Abbas station
  • Haniye Eslami Nosratabadi *, Somaiye Omidvari Pages 329-336
    Suitable utilization of daylight in architecture, in addition to meeting the physical and emotional needs of human increase the quality of living spaces. From this perspective, our country's rich architecture has valuable achievements and experiences, which requires recognizing and introducing it to the architectural community of Iran and the world. The present research intends to examine the various qualities made at the back of light entrances using descriptive-analytical method, field observation and study on library documents and obtain the factors contributed in creation of these qualities and take step to reuse these ideas in modern architecture.
    Keywords: entrance, quality, house spaces
  • Zohreh Sharei* Pages 337-351
    The present research aims to examine the relationship between diversity management and its effect on staffs’ affective commitment with study on mediation role of Transformational leadership and perceived justice in Qaen health network. In theoretical sector with integration of human resource management and performance theories and the theory of diversity and leadership, a theoretical model has been made. The main question of research is when the diversity management puts a positive effect on staffs’ affective commitment and why these two variables affect each other. The statistical population consists of all the staffs at the administrative sector in Qaen health network. After collecting data, the hypotheses were tested using the structural equation technique and software Smart PLS. the results from statistical analyses indicated that diversity management puts a positive effect on staffs’ affective commitment, but diversity management does not put a positive effect on perceived justice. Transformational leadership has a mediation role between diversity management and perceived justice. The perceived justice has a mediation role in effect of transformational leadership and staffs’ affective commitment. Further transformational leadership and perceived justice have a mediation role between the diversity management and affective commitment.
    Keywords: affective commitment, transformational leadership, organizational justice, diversity management