فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue:6, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/07/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahdi Banaee *, Behzad Nemadoost Haghi, Somayeh Tahery, Shima Shahafve, Maryam Vaziriyan Pages 1-5
    Background
    Paraquat is a non-selective contact herbicide, widely used to control weeds in agriculture farms and aquatic plants in surface waters. Paraquat can have adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to detect the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial formulations of paraquat.
    Methods
    The fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 mg.L-1) of paraquat for 21 days. Biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities were measured.
    Results
    A significantly increase was observed in AST activity in fish exposed to 0.4 mg.L-1 paraquat. Paraquat caused a significant (P
    Conclusion
    Exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of paraquat may cause changes in blood biochemical parameters in common carp.
    Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Common carp, Paraquat
  • Behnaz Bazargani, Gilani *, Mohamadreza Pajohi, Alamoti, Aliasghar Bahari, Abas Ali Sari Pages 7-13
    Background
    This study was performed to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in the livers and kidneys of cattle, sheep and goats from a mining region in the west of Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 90 samples were collected from the livers and kidneys of cattle (n=30), sheep (n=30) and goats (n=30) from a slaughterhouse in Hamedan City, western Iran. Lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
    Results
    Lead concentration exceeded the permissible limit in all samples. Cadmium level was within the permissible limit in most samples, except for the cattle and sheep kidneys. Iron concentration was normal in all samples, except for sheep livers and kidneys. The rest of the elements (manganese, zinc and copper) were within the safe range. There were no sex and age-related significant differences in metal concentrations of cattle samples. The highest effects of age and sex were observed in sheep samples.
    Conclusion
    The soil of these areas contains high level of lead and cadmium, contaminating the plants, water and animals of these regions; therefore, precise care and health inspection of livestock in these areas are recommended.
    Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Heavy Metals, Liver, Kidney, Ruminants
  • Mohammad Ghashghaee *, Vahid Farzaneh Pages 15-21
    Background
    The removal of toxic metals from sewage and wastewaters is one of the most important concerns in the twenty first century. The removal of poisonous Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by different low-cost available nanoporous adsorbents was investigated in the present study.
    Methods
    Fumed silica, bentonite (BN), hydrotalcite (HT), MCM-41, Na-Y, mordenite (MOR) and SAPO-34 were used at different adsorbent-to-metal ion ratios. Two predominant species of Cr were considered including chromate and hydrogen chromate ions.
    Results
    Both HT and Na-Y adsorbed the toxic bichromate ions more favorably than other sorbents. Overall, the efficiency of the Cr removal followed the sequence of HT > SAPO-34 > MOR > MCM-41 > Na-Y > silica > BN. Because of its surface chemistry, HT with an uptake of 65.2 mg/g showed the highest toxic abatement among the seven adsorbents investigated under the acidic conditions, followed by the microporous materials SAPO-34 and MOR with uptakes of 41.2 and 41.0 mg/g, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Both HT and Na-Y adsorbed the toxic bichromate ions more favorably than other sorbents. The high pore volume and the apparent surface area of a non-functionalized MCM-41 were not effective in the adsorption of Cr compounds. Overall, HT was the best choice owing to its appropriate surface chemistry with respect to the Cr oxygenates.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Clays, Chromium, Environment, Toxic Metals, Zeolites
  • Amin Jahangard, Mojgan Sohrabi*, Zahra Beigmohammadi Pages 23-29
    Background
    In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions.
    Methods
    In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University,) to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution.
    Results
    Optimum conditions for Pb (II) removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model.
    Conclusion
    It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: Biosorption, Coconut Husk, Pb (II), Water Pollution
  • Habib Janadeleh *, Masoumeh Kardani Pages 31-37
    Background
    The concentrations of heavy metals in the tissues and organs of fishes indicate the concentrations of heavy metals in water and their accumulation in food chains. In the present study, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, V and Pb in three common species of fish and the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of the fishes were estimated.
    Methods
    The concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, V and Pb) in the muscles, heart, liver, and gills of Liza abu, Barbus grypus and Cyprinus carpio, collected from Karkheh River, Southern Iran were measured. Associated human health risk was also evaluated by hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) of muscle tissues.
    Results
    Bioaccumulation of heavy metals was the highest in the livers followed by gills, heart and muscle. Zn was the most accumulated metal in liver of C. Carpio while Cd had the lowest concentration in the muscle of L. abu. There were significant differences in metal concentration among different fish and different tissues (P
    Conclusion
    The present study was a large-scale investigation of heavy metals in three common species of fish in Karkheh River. Occasional consumption of these fish is not likely to cause adverse effects. However, hazard indices for C. carpio and Liza abu were 1.751 and 1.21, respectively, which implies that continuous and excessive intake of these fish could result in chronic non-carcinogenic adverse effects.
    Keywords: Chemical Water Pollutants, Fishes, Heavy Metals, Iran
  • Fatemeh Masomi, Mehdi Hassanshahian* Pages 39-43
    Background
    In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic fungi has been increased. Medicinal plants are one way to overcome antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of five medicinal plants on the growth of Candida albicans.
    Methods
    This study was done in the Microbiology Lab of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2015. Five medicinal plants include: Trachyspermum ammi (seed), Teucrium polium (leaf), Piper nigrum (seed), Pistachia vera (skin), Camelia sinensis (leaf) were collected. Collected plant materials were extracted by ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration method. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts was evaluated by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Besides, MIC and MBC of each extract was determined.
    Results
    All plant extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of P. vera had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans (ZOI: 40 mm). The lowest antifungal effect between these five plants related to Piper nigrum (ZOI: 13 mm). Besides, the P. vera extracts had the best MIC and MBC values (6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml).
    Conclusion
    This study strongly evidence the maximum antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against C. albicans that this inhibitory effect varies with the different solvent-extract form. A more comprehensive study need to identify the effective compounds that have these antifungal properties.
    Keywords: Antibiotic, Antifungal Activity, Extracts, Medicinal Plants, Inhibitory Effect
  • Rahim Nejadrahim, Mohammad Delirrad* Pages 45-50
    Background
    Foodborne botulism (FBB) is a rare paralyzing disease caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). It is still a health concern in many countries. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of FBB in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
    Methods
    Botulism surveillance data of the Health Deputy of Urmia Medical Sciences University, northwestern Iran was used in this retrospective survey from 2010 to 2014. Demographics, clinical features, bioassay results, implicated foods and outcome were analyzed. Clinically, patients were classified to three groups (mild, moderate, and severe).
    Results
    During the five years, 57 cases of FBB were identified involving 36 men (63.2%) and 21 women (37.8%). Mean age was 22.35±17.84 yr. Most events were sporadic (86%). Bioassay confirmed serotype A of BoNT in 19 patients (33.3%). The most implicated food was locally-made cheese (n=10). Average incubation period was 24.35±12.35 h. Clinically, mild, moderate and severe forms were observed in 68.4%, 19.3% and 12.3% of patients, respectively. All cases were hospitalized and treated with trivalent antitoxin. Mean hospital stay was 7.71±3.94 days Eight patients (14%) required mechanical ventilation and three of them deceased (5.3%). Median annual incidence rate of FBB was 0.37 cases per 100,000 population in this study.
    Conclusion
    Comparing other part of the world, FBB has a medium incidence rate in our province. Unpasteurized dairy products are the main causative foods and BoNT/A is the most commonly recognized toxin type. Promoting correct preservation and appropriate cooking are recommended for preventing FBB.
    Keywords: Botulinum Neurotoxin, Botulism, Foodborne, Epidemiology, Iran
  • Deepak Jain*, Ashima Mittal Pages 51-53
    Background
    Hair dye poisoning, with main toxic component paraphenylene diamine, is a medical emergency. It is on increasing trend in developing countries due to wide availability and low cost of hair dyes. It carries a high mortality and does not have any specific antidote.
    Case Report: Twenty three years old patient presented with breathelessness along with difficulty in speaking for one hour after consuming hair dye. He developed cervicofacial edema followed by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria and acute kidney injury, classical of hair dye poisoning. Laboratory investigations revealed blood urea of 100 mg/dl and serum creatinine of 3.8 mg/dl. The serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were 1230 U/L and urine myoglobin was positive. He was treated conservatively for acute kidney injury and discharged in stable condition.
    Conclusion
    Early diagnosis and treatment of poisoning due to hair dyes leads to improved prognosis, so widespread awareness is needed about this emerging form of poisoning.
    Keywords: Acute Kidney Injury, Hair Dye, Para, Phenylene Diamine, Rhabdomyolysis