فهرست مطالب

Hepatitis - Volume:16 Issue: 10, 2016
  • Volume:16 Issue: 10, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Bita Geramizadeh*, Mohammad Baghernezhad Page 1
    Context: Echinococcus multilocularis is the cause of alveolar hydatid disease, which most commonly involves the liver in more than 90% of cases. This disease is endemic in northern Iran. However, there are very few published cases from Iran. In this article, we will review all of the published cases of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis from Iran regarding all aspects, including clinical, paraclinical, and treatment protocols..
    Evidence Acquisition: In this brief review, the published cases of hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE) from Iran were retrieved for review via a search in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, IranMedex, scientific information database (SID), Magiran, and Irandoc (1995 - 2015) using the keywords Echinococcus multilocularis and Iran, Alveolar hydatid cyst and Iran, liver and Alveolar hydatid cyst and Iran, and Hepatic alveolar hydatid cyst and Iran. The following inclusion criteria were employed: 1, articles must be written in English or Farsi; 2, articles must have been published between 1995 and 2015; 3) cases must have been confirmed by pathological diagnosis..
    Results
    There were 24 published cases of liver-involved alveolar hydatid cyst from Iran. The disease was more common in young- to middle-aged women in northeast Iran. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were abdominal pain with hepatomegaly and liver mass. Most of the patients were treated by surgery and albendazole. The few unresectable liver masses were treated by medical therapy. No liver transplantation for this disease was reported from Iran..
    Conclusions
    Hepatic alveolar hydatid cyst should be considered one of the important differential diagnoses of liver masses, especially in endemic areas of the world..
    Keywords: Alveolar Hydatid Cyst, Liver, Alveolar Echinococcosis, Echinococcosis multilocularis
  • Claudia Minosse, Sabrina Coen, Ubaldo Visco Comandini, Raffaella Lionetti, Marzia Montalbano, Stefano Cerilli, Donatella Vincenti, Andrea Baiocchini, Maria R. Capobianchi, Stefano Menzo* Page 2
    Background
    A functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is feasible, but a clear view of the intrahepatic viral dynamics in each patient is needed. Intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is the stable form of the viral genome in infected cells, and represents the ideal marker of parenchymal colonization. Its relationships with easily accessible peripheral parameters need to be elucidated in order to avoid invasive procedures in patients..
    Objectives
    The goal of this study was to design, set up, and validate a reliable and straightforward method for the quantification of the cccDNA and total DNA of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a variety of clinical samples..
    Patients and
    Methods
    Clinical samples from a cohort of CHB patients, including liver biopsies in some, were collected for the analysis of intracellular HBV molecular markers using novel molecular assays..
    Results
    A plasmid construct, including sequences from the HBV genome and from the human gene hTERT, was generated as an isomolar multi-standard for HBV quantitation and normalization to the cellular contents. The specificity of the real-time assay for the cccDNA was assessed using Dane particles isolated on a density gradient. A comparison of liver tissue from 6 untreated and 6 treated patients showed that the treatment deeply reduced the replicative capacity (total DNA/cccDNA), but had limited impact on the parenchymal colonization. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and granulocytes from the treated and untreated patients were also analyzed..
    Conclusions
    A straightforward method for the quantification of intracellular HBV molecular parameters in clinical samples was developed and validated. The widespread use of such versatile assays could better define the prognosis of CHB, and allow a more rational approach to time-limited tailored treatment strategies..
    Keywords: HBV, cccDNA, Hepatitis, Liver Biopsy, Granulocytes, Replicative Capacity
  • Dondu Uskudar Cansu*, Tuncer Temel, Adem Erturk, Timucin Kasifoglu, Berat Acu, Cengiz Korkmaz Page 3
    Background
    Budd-Chiari syndrome, which is a rare complication of Behcet’s disease, carries a high mortality rate..
    Objectives
    The aim of the study was to present our long-term follow up experience with patients suffering from Budd-Chiari syndrome due to Behcet’s disease..
    Methods
    The records of 402 patients with Behcet’s disease were evaluated retrospectively. To facilitate detection of the long-term complications caused by Budd-Chiari syndrome, the patients were evaluated via physical examinations, laboratory tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy results..
    Results
    The data for 402 patients diagnosed with Behcet’s disease, who were followed up at our hospital over 16 years, were analyzed retrospectively. Five of these 402 patients (1.2%) were diagnosed as having Budd-Chiari syndrome. The patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome were aged between 23 and 54, and all five were male. The interval between the onset of Behcet’s disease and the development of Budd-Chiari syndrome ranged from 1 to 8 years. All the patients had combined venous occlusion (affecting the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava). Portal venous thrombosis was detected in only one patient (Case 1), who died 1 month after the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome. The survival time for the other four patients after the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome ranged from 4 to 16 years. During the long-term follow-up, hepatic masses were detected via radiological surveillance in Case 3 (in the form of large regenerative nodules) and Case 4 (nodular regenerative hyperplasia and cirrhosis)..
    Conclusions
    In our study, portal venous thrombosis was detected in the patient who died during the acute period only. A study including large numbers of Budd-Chiari-syndrome patients with Behcet’s disease and portal venous thrombosis would be helpful to determine the prognostic significance of portal venous thrombosis in Budd-Chiari-syndrome patients with Behcet’s disease. In addition, patients should be monitored regularly for the development of hepatic masses via a long-term surveillance program..
    Keywords: Behcet's Disease, Budd, Chiari Syndrome, Portal Vein, Thrombosis, Prognosis, Cirrhosis
  • Masood Ziaee, Davod Javanmard*, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Namaei, Ghodsiyeh Azarkar Page 4
    Background
    Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen..
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran..
    Methods
    This was a population-based study comprising 5,235 randomized samples for HBV screening. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was followed by direct sequencing, and the sequences blast with present sequences of NCBI database for genotyping. Alignment and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA-6 software, and mutation pattern of this segment was finally surveyed in Bioedit software..
    Results
    The mean age was 39.07 ± 14.04 years, with 52.2% female and 47.8% male. All isolates belonged to HBV genotype D, sub-genotype D1. The most amino acid substitutions of surface protein were Q129H (34.42%) and A168V (8.2%), other escape mutants observed in this study were P127L/T, S117G, T125M, S143L, D144E and E164D. In the RT gene, Q149K was the most frequently identified amino acid substitution (9.83%), followed by L122F (8.19%), N118D/T (6.55%), L157M (4.91%), and H124Y (3.27%)..
    Conclusions
    This finding represents an ongoing dominancy of HBV genotype D in Eastern Iran, corresponding to other parts of Iran. There were a lot of variations in the S gene leading to an escape mutation, some of which affected the corresponding area of the RT region..
    Keywords: Hepatitis B, Genotyping, Mutations, HBsAg, RT, Southern Khorasan, Iran
  • Faezeh Ghasemi, Majid Ghayour, Mobarhan, Alireza Pasdar, Hamid Pourianfar, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Hamed Gouklani, Zahra Meshkat* Page 5
    Background
    The E2 glycoprotein is an important encoded hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein that contains three different variable regions..
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to construct an HCV 1a/JFH1 chimeric virus by replacing the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) fragment of the highly variable region of the E2 gene of the Japanese Fulminant hepatitis genotype 2a JFH1 virus with a similar region of HCV genotype 1a. This chimera was produced as a model virus with the ability to be cultured. We analyzed the adapted virus and the variations of nucleic acids within it..
    Methods
    Specific primers were designed for the igVR of HCV genotype 1a followed by the overlap-PCR method for the synthesis of the desired DNA fragment. The amplified igVR-1a chimera gene and pFL-J6/JFH were digested by KpnI and BsiWI restriction enzymes, and the fragment was ligated into pFL-J6/JFH. The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coli JM109 strain competent cells. All clones were confirmed by colony PCR using specific primers, and the confirmed recombinant vector was sequenced. The recombinant vector was targeted for RNA synthesis by T7 RNA polymerase enzyme. RNA transfection was performed in the Huh7.5 cell line. Virus production in several passages and the evaluated viral load were studied using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA methods. After 30 passages, the RNA virus was extracted and cloned in PCDNA3.1 vector, and was then sequenced.
    Results
    Quantitative real-time PCR results showed 11,292,514 copies/mL of chimeric virus production in cell culture. The virus production was confirmed using ELISA, which showed a virus core production of 808.2 pg/mL. The results of cloning and sequencing showed that some of the nucleic acids in the chimera virus were changed, affecting the viral behavior in the cell culture..
    Conclusions
    Real-time PCR and ELISA showed high levels of production of 1a/JFH1 chimeric HCV in the Huh7.5 cell culture. The constructed virus can be used for future studies, including the development of new HCV drugs and vaccines..
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, E2 Glycoprotein, Intergenotypic Variable Region, Real, time PCR
  • Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Hedieh Heydarzadeh, Saeed Ranjbar, Fatemeh Salimi, Masoud Aghaeifard, Seyed Moayed Alavian*, Azadeh Reshadmanesh Page 6
    Background
    Cancerous cells proliferate as fast as possible without a proper surveillance system. This rapid cell division leads to enormous mutation rates, which help a tumor establish..
    Objectives
    This study evaluated the potential of inducing apoptosis using Noxa and Puma in a hepatocarcinoma cell line..
    Methods
    The current study generated two recombinant lentiviruses, pLEX-GCN and pLEX-GCP, bearing Noxa and Puma, respectively. Transduction of both genes to hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) was verified using fluorescent microscopic analysis, western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To evaluate the potential of Noxa and Puma to initiate apoptosis, a caspase-9 real-time, MTT assay, and a 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reagent were performed to stain apoptotic cells..
    Results
    The data verified successful transduction to HepG2 and HEK293T. Higher relative expression of Noxa and Puma rather than the untransduced cell line showed these genes are expressed more in HepG2 in comparison to HEK293T. The results of the real-time PCR, MTT assay, and DAPI reagent illustrated that higher cells initiated apoptosis following Puma transduction rather than Noxa..
    Conclusions
    In this approach, the suicide gene was transferred to transformed cells and ignited apoptosis to exterminate them. Puma is a more potent killer gene and has higher capabilities to start intrinsic apoptosis pathway..
    Keywords: Lentivirus, Killer Gene, Puma, Noxa, Cancer Gene Therapy
  • Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Saeed Gholamzadeh, Abdorrasoul Malekpour*, Mohammad Ghorbani, Masoud Torkzadeh Mahani, Safa Lotfi, Ali Fakhrzad Page 7
    Background
    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has six major genotypes. The purpose of this study was to phylogenetically investigate the differences between the genotypes of HCV, and to determine the types of amino acid codon usage in the structure of the virus in order to discover new methods for treatment regimes..
    Methods
    The codon usage of the six genotypes of the HCV nucleotide sequence was investigated through the online application available on the website Gene Infinity. Also, phylogenetic analysis and the evolutionary relationship of HCV genotypes were analyzed with MEGA 7 software..
    Results
    The six genotypes of HCV were divided into two groups based on their codon usage properties. In the first group, genotypes 1 and 5 (74.02%), and in the second group, genotypes 2 and 6 (72.43%) were shown to have the most similarity in terms of codon usage. Unlike the results with respect to determining the similarity of codon usage, the phylogenetic analysis showed the closest resemblance and correlation between genotypes 1 and 4. The results also showed that HCV has a GC (guanine-cytosine) abundant genome structure and prefers codons with GC for translation..
    Conclusions
    Genotypes 1 and 4 demonstrated remarkable similarity in terms of genome sequences and proteins, but surprisingly, in terms of the preferred codons for gene expression, they showed the greatest difference. More studies are therefore needed to confirm the results and select the best approach for treatment of these genotypes based on their codon usage properties..
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Codon Usage, Bioinformatic Study, Phylogenetic Analysis
  • Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour*, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad Page 8
    Background
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a ‘putative’ genotype J..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure..
    Methods
    For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families. It contains annotation of each family in the form of textual descriptions, links to other resources and literature references. Genome projects have used Pfam extensively for large-scale functional annotation of genomic data; Pfam database is a large collection of protein families, each represented by multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models (HMMs). The Pfam search tools are databases that identify Pfam of proteins. These Pfam IDs were analyzed in Sherlocc program and the location of RCCs in HBV genome and proteins were detected and reported as translated EMBL nucleotide sequence data library (TrEMBL) entries. The TrEMBL is a computer-annotated supplement of SWISS-PROT that contains all the translations of European molecular biology laboratory (EMBL) nucleotide sequence entries not yet integrated in SWISS-PROT. Furthermore, the structures of TrEMBL entries proteins were studied in the PDB database and 3D structures of the HBV proteins and locations of RCCs were visualized and studied using Swiss PDB Viewer software®..
    Results
    The Pfam search tool found nine protein families in three frames. Results of Pfams studies in the Sherlocc program showed that this program has not identified RCCs in the external core antigen (PF08290) and truncated HBeAg gene (PF08290) of HBV. By contrast, the RCCs were identified in gene of hepatitis core antigen (PF00906 and the residues 224 - 234 and 251 - 255), large envelope protein S (PF00695 and the residues 53-56 and 70 - 84), X protein (PF00739 and the residues 10 - 24, 29 - 83, 95 - 99. 122 - 129, 139 - 143), DNA polymerase (viral) N-terminal domain (PF00242 and the residues 59 - 62, 214 - 217, 407 - 413) and protein P (Pf00336 and the residues 225 - 228). In HBV genome, seven RCCs were identified in the gene area of hepatitis core antigen, large envelope protein S and DNA polymerase, while protein structures of TrEMBL entries sequences found in Sherlocc program outputs were not complete..
    Conclusions
    Based on the location of detected RCCs in the structure of HBV proteins, it was found that these RCCs may have a critical role in correct folding of HBV proteins and can be considered as drug targets. The results of this study provide new and deep perspectives about structure of HBV proteins for further researches and designing new drugs for treatment of HBV..
    Keywords: Rare Codon Cluster, Hepatitis B Virus, Computational Analysis, Homology Modeling
  • Nasir Fakhar, Saman Nikeghbalian, Kourosh Kazemi, Ali Reza Shamsayeefar, Siavash Gholami, Amir Kasraianfard*, Seyed Ali Malek, Hosseini Page 9
    Background
    The current organ shortage has prompted the use of marginal organs. We conducted this retrospective study to present our experience with transplanting deceased donor livers with elevated levels of serum transaminases and to explain whether elevated levels of serum transaminases in donors affect allograft function and survival of the recipients..
    Methods
    Data of deceased donor livers and patients, who underwent liver transplantation from March 2013 to March 2015 at Shiraz center for organ transplantation, was reviewed. Liver donors with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of more than 500 IU/l and their related recipients were considered as the case group (n = 24) and the others were considered as the control group (n = 834)..
    Results
    In the case group, the medians of levels of serum AST and ALT of donors were 834 ± 425 IU/L (range: 250 - 2285) and 507 ± 367 IU/L (range: 100 - 1600), respectively. Recipients were followed for a median of 13.6 ± 9 months (range: 7 - 28.4). Post-transplant complications were acute rejection (n = 5), infection (n = 3), portal vein thrombosis (n = 3), bile duct stricture (n = 1), and hepatic artery stenosis (n = 1). The one-year survival rate of the patients was 91.7%. Demographics, post-transplant complications and one-year survival rates were not significantly different between the two study groups..
    Conclusions
    Transplanting deceased donor livers with markedly elevated liver enzymes may be an acceptable choice for expanding the donor pool..
    Keywords: Liver Transplantation, Extended, Criteria Donor, Serum Transaminases, Organ Shortage
  • Ali Kargar Kheirabad, Fahime Bahri, Mohammad Kargar, Iman Ghasemzadeh* Page 10
    Background
    Infection with blood-borne viruses including hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis G (HGV) viruses is a substantial health problem. Varying prevalences of these infections in different studies reflect the role of predisposing risk factors in different countries or even different regions of a country..
    Objectives
    The objective of the present survey was to assess the prevalences of HCV and HGV virus infections among hemodialysis (HD) patients in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran, 2015..
    Methods
    A total of 149 subjects with chronic renal failure undergoing HD at Shahid Mohammadi hospital in the Hormozgan province of southern Iran from January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2015 were evaluated for anti-HCV and antibodies against HGV E2 glycoprotein by census sampling method. Thereafter, all of the specimens were evaluated for molecular assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other techniques. Investigated data were recorded for each participant in a pre-designed data collection sheet. All statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 for Windows by t-test and chi-square test (χ2)..
    Results
    The mean age of patients was 56.23 ± 12.35 years (minimum age 18, maximum age 85). Both kinds of assays determined that five (3.36%) patients were HCV positive, whereas no HGV positives were diagnosed. The prevalence of HCV is associated with longer duration of HD (P value = 0.008), history of blood transfusion (P value = 0.037) and drug addiction (P value = 0.035)..
    Conclusions
    History of drug addiction and/or blood transfusion and longer duration of HD treatment were the main risk factors determining the prevalence of HCV infection in the Hormozgan province of southern Iran in 2015. However, the values observed in the present investigation reflect the effective management techniques imposed by healthcare authorities and relevant organizations in recent years..
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis G Virus, Hemodialysis, Iran, Prevalence
  • Hong Lin, Hong Zhao, Xinyi Tang, Wenjia Hu, Nizheng Jiang, Shaowen Zhu, Chengyin Huang* Page 11
    Background
    Hepatitis B infections, characterized by the presence of a viral genome without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; Occult hepatitis B infection [OBI]), have been reported recently..
    Objectives
    We performed serological and molecular characterization of OBI among blood donors at Jiangsu province blood center during years 2013 and 2014..
    Methods
    All donor samples were routinely screened by double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum (TP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Single-reactive, nonreactive, and ALT-elevated samples were pooled or resolved by nucleic acid testing (NAT). Seromarkers were examined in HBsAg-/DNA samples. After 1 to 12 months of follow up, seromarkers were screened again to verify OBI samples..
    Results
    We studied 157119 samples from blood donors. A total of 154397 ELISA nonreactive donor samples were identified, and HBV DNA was detected in 81 samples; no samples were positive for HIV or HCV RNA. Hepatitis B virus viral loads in most donors were less than 20 - 200 IU/mL. There was only one HBsAg-positive sample. Eighty HBsAg-/DNA samples were evaluated further. Of these samples, 85% (68/80) were reactive for anti-HBc and 36.2% (29/800) were reactive for anti-HBc and anti-HBs; 11.3% (9/80) did not have any detectable serological markers. Twenty-nine donors were followed up. One was HBsAg ELISA positive, and of six seronegative donors, all had anti-HBc and anti-HBs, but were negative for DNA. Samples were HBV genotypes B, C and D. Mutations in the S region of HBV DNA included S114T, G119R, P120S, T125M, C139Y, T140I, C147W, T148A, A159V/G, E164D, V168A, and R169C..
    Conclusions
    Overall, we found that OBI was rare, but that the prevalence of OBI was slightly higher in Jiangsu than in other areas of China..
    Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, Infection, Serology, Molecular Characterization, Blood Donors