فهرست مطالب

Anatomical Sciences Journal - Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2016
  • Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/04/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Reza Samanipour, Hossein Salehi Rozveh Pages 73-78
    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs), and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. Application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires their in vitro differentiation into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This protocol would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review article critically examines the various experimental strategies used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BMMSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC, and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone.
    Keywords: Embryonic stem cell, Bone tissue, Osteogenesis, Tissue engineering
  • Babak Pourmollaabbassi, Batool Hashemibeni, Ebrahim Esfandiari Pages 79-92
    Human adipose tissue represents an abundant, practical and appealing source of donor tissue for autologous cell replacement. Recent findings have shown that stem cells within the stromalvascular fraction of adipose tissue display a multilineage developmental potential. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells can be differentiated towards adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic,myogenic and neurogenic lineages. However, the success of using autologous fat tissue grafts to repair soft tissue defects is limited. Researchers are now investigating strategies to engineer volumes of adipose tissue that may be used in these cases. A necessary component for engineering a viable tissue construct is an appropriate cell source. Attempts to engineer adipose tissue have involved using preadipocytes and adipocytes as the base cell source. This research reviews the current state of adipose tissue-engineering methods and describes the shift toward tissue-engineering strategies using stem cells.
    Keywords: Adipocyte, Tissue engineering, Adipose tissue, Regeneration
  • Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi, Reza Vazirinejad, Khalil Komlakh, Ahmad Shabanizadeh, Zahra Taghipour, Hamid Reza Jafari, Naveh, Akram Mollahoseini, Mahdi Shareiati Kohbanani Pages 93-98
    Introduction
    We compared the effect of the teaching aids and review sessions on learning anatomy subjects by the medical students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    In this study, during each semester, practical anatomy courses were presented by using different teaching aids such as, cadaver, bones, and training videos to the students. For all studied groups, at the end of each semester and a few days before the final exam, the regular review sessions were held by course lecturers. Then, student’s viewpoints about the effect of both teaching aids and review sessions on their learning process were investigated, using the study checklist. Finally, the mean final scores of students who participated in the review session were compared with those who did not.
    Results
    The mean scores of anatomy practice exam (range 1-20) of students who did not participate in review sessions were significantly lower than the student who did participate in these sessions. Among the medical and dental students, a significant difference was reported with regard to the effectiveness of teaching aids and review sessions on learning process. Viewpoint of senior students in comparison to junior students were more positive about practical courses and review sessions. Overall, students’ viewpoints about the effect of both teaching aids and review sessions on their learning process were positive and there was no significant difference between them with regard to their gender or field of study. However, medical and dental students believed that using teaching aids such as bones and models was very effective in their learning process of head and neck course. These opinions were significantly different between students of these two courses compare to students in the other courses (for models: P=0.022, for bones: P=0.007).
    Conclusion
    Practical anatomy and review sessions play an important role in the learning process of different subjects. Therefore, we suggest that practical courses and review sessions be held with greater emphasis and for a longer time.
    Keywords: Anatomy, Learning, Teaching
  • Reza Samanipour, Saeed Karbasi, Batool Hashemibeni Pages 99-110
    Introduction
    As the ability to repair cartilage tissue in body is limited, finding a suitable method for cartilage regeneration has gained the attention of many scholars. For this purpose, scaffold structure and morphology, along with cell culture on it, can be a novel method to treat cartilage injuries, osteoarthritis.
    Methods
    In this study, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is selected as the scaffold. Firstly, PHB (6% w/v) solution was prepared using chloroform solvent by employing solvent and electrospinning methods. With regard to phase studies, morphology, and specifying agent groups, we used specific characterization devices such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To compare the behaviour of cellular scaffolds, they were divided into 2 groups of scaffolds, and the chondrocyte cells were cultured. To perform phase studies, analysis of MTT and trypan blue were carried out for measuring the viability and attachment on the surface of the scaffold, and the specification of scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to determine the morphology of the cells.
    Results
    Through performing MTT test on the first, third and seventh days, it was found that these types of scaffolds are significantly different from those in the control group (P
    Conclusion
    Comparing cell behavior on two scaffolds indicates that cell attachment, cell growth and proliferation, and cell migration on the electrospun scaffold is better than the scaffold provided by using solvent casting approach.
    Keywords: Cartilage tissue engineering, Polyhydroxybutyrate, Scaffolding, Casting solvent, Electro spinning
  • Amir Abdolmaleki, Reza Mastery Farahani, Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Abbas Aliaghaei, Seyyed Hossein Mirjavadi, Hojjat, Allah Abbaszadeh Pages 111-118
    Introduction
    Interhemispheric transmission of signal is done by corpus callosum (CC) as the largest fiber tract in brain. CC comprised 5 segments of rostrum, genu, body, isthmus, and splenium. Contradictory reports exist about sexual dimorphism of CC. We designed this study to assess probable sexual differences of CC and its different parts in men and women.
    Methods
    We analyzed magnetic resonance (MR) images of 68 females and 60 males in midsagittal view by PmsDViewer software. Data were analyzed by Student t test. These cases had no neurologic and pathologic diseases.
    Results
    MRI anthropometric analysis indicates that all segments of CC are larger in men compared to women. Moreover, our results also revealed that although all segments of CC were bigger in men, this increase in size was more prominent in the anterior segments of CC.
    Conclusion
    These findings indicate gender-related differences regarding CC segments. Notably, brain size as an interfering variable was eliminated in this study.
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, Corpus callosum, Sexual differences
  • Ghasem Akbari, Hasan Gilanpour, Mohammad Babae Pages 119-124
    Introduction
    The Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) is considered the only well-known species of the family Sciuridae in the Middle East. Since some people keep this squirrel as a domestic pet, their attendance at veterinary clinics is increasing. So far, no study has been conducted on the arterial supply of the pelvic cavity and limb in the squirrel. Hence, this research was performed to fill this gap.
    Methods
    Out of 5 adult male Persian squirrels, 2 were used for obtaining the Rhodopas cast and 3 for red-latex injection. To this end, after opening the abdominal cavity, Rhodopas and red-latex were injected into their aortae after branches to the renal arteries to specify their pattern of distribution in the pelvic region and limbs.
    Results
    The abdominal aorta in the pelvic region bifurcates into right and left common iliac arteries. Each common iliac artery is divided into the internal and external iliac arteries. The external iliac artery branches off from pudendoepigastric trunk and lateral circumflex femoral artery. Then this artery in the femoral canal continues as femoral artery branching the medial circumflex femoral, genicular, saphenous arteries and continues as popliteal artery. The internal iliac artery, after branching the umbilical artery, ramifies into 4 branches; cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, urogenital, and finally the internal pudendal artery as the last branch.
    Conclusion
    The origins of the median sacral, obturator, and cranial gluteal arteries in Persian squirrel are considerably different from other rodents and small mammals.
    Keywords: Aorta, Artery, Pelvic region, Persian squirrel, Rhodopas cast
  • Javad Sadeghinezhad, Mohammad Taghi Sheibani, Iman Memarian Pages 125-130
    Introduction
    The zygomatic salivary gland is only present in carnivores. Most studies related to the characterization of the zygomatic salivary are pivoted around the domestic species, but only few studies are available on the zygomatic salivary gland of wild species. We carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the histological and mucin histochemical features of the zygomatic salivary gland in the Persian leopard in comparison with that of the domestic cat.
    Methods
    This study was executed on 2 Persian leopards and 3 domestic cats. The samples were collected from all animals and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome staining were used for general histological study. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) at pH values of 1.0 and 2.5 and PAS-AB (pH 2.5) were used for the mucin histochemical examination.
    Results
    Histological studies showed that the zygomatic salivary gland in the Persian leopard was generally similar to that of the domestic cat with some differences. Lobulation was incomplete in the Persian leopard. The parenchyma was composed of mucous acini, related serous demilunes, and few serous acini clusters with differences between two species. Mucin histochemical investigation showed that the secretory units contained neutral, acidic carboxylated, and acidic sulfated mucins varying in quantity and distribution.
    Conclusion
    This study is the first description of the histological and mucin histochemical features of the zygomatic salivary gland of the leopard. The finding of the present study showed large similarities between the Persian leopard and domestic cat.
    Keywords: Persian leopard, Domestic cat, Histology, Mucin, Zygomatic salivary gland
  • Masoumeh Aminizadeh, Raziyeh Shojaiepoor, Reza Aminizadeh Pages 131-136
    This is a case of delayed replantation of avulsed maxillary central incisor after an extended dry extra-alveolar period. A 10-year-old boy presented with avulsed maxillary central incisor after a fall that resulted in dental trauma, occurring 18 hours earlier. Treatment guidelines for avulsed mature permanent teeth with prolonged extraoral time were carried out for the teeth and the extraoral endodontic treatment was completed. After having been repositioned, the tooth was stabilized for 6 weeks and prophylactic antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical and radiographic controls were done during the next 12 months. During the follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable, functional position but revealed clinical initial replacement resorption and ankylosis.
    Keywords: Avulsion, Replantation, Tooth