فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Nourossadat Kariman*, Maryam Bakhtiari, Samaneh Mansouri, Saeed Mehravar Page 1
    Background
    Unwanted pregnancies remain a main public health problem worldwide. In Iran, comparative studies on the risk factors of unwanted pregnancies and their effects on maternal health are rare..
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of unwanted pregnancies and their impact on maternal behavior during pregnancy..
    Patients and
    Methods
    This case-control study was carried out on 240 pregnant women who referred to the healthcare centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science for receiving routine prenatal care. Of the 240 women, 120 had unwanted pregnancies (case) and 120 had wanted pregnancies (control). Data collection was performed using a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, t-tests, Mann Whitney U tests, odds ratios, and logistic regression analysis..
    Results
    Compared to women with wanted pregnancies, those with unwanted pregnancies were more employed (23.3% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.006), had lower education levels (P = 0.016), had lower incomes (P = 0.009), had more children (1.30 ± 1.08 vs. 0.53 ± 0.67, P = 0.001), and had more traditional marriages (15% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002). Also, women with unwanted pregnancies had significantly lower tendencies to do prenatal care (P = 0.002), had a higher tendency to abortion (P = 0.001), had higher previous abortion attempts (P = 0.001), and had higher levels of unhealthy behaviors (P = 0.017) compared to those with wanted pregnancies..
    Conclusions
    Lower education and socioeconomic status, longer marriage duration, being employed, and unwilling of spouse were among the risk factors of unwanted pregnancies. These women are at high risk for unhealthy behaviors and have a higher tendency to abortion that consequently threatens their health..
    Keywords: Unwanted Pregnancy, Pregnant Women, Risk Factors, Tehran, Iran
  • Amin Soheili, Aram Feizi *, Alireza Rahmani, Naser Parizad, Javad Sheykh, Kanlou Page 2
    Background
    Workplace Violence (WPV) is one of the most complex and dangerous occupational hazards faced by pre-hospital emergency medical technicians (EMTs)..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the extent, nature and contributing factors of WPV against EMTs in Urmia, Iran..
    Materials And Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 EMTs from April to October 2014. A questionnaire was used for collecting the data. Descriptive statistics were applied to the data..
    Results
    Most of the participants (79%) experienced WPV during the past six months. Accident scene was the most important place of violence and the patients’ companions were the main perpetrators of violence. Overall, 76% of violence victims reported “lack of awareness of the EMTs’ duties” as the most important contributing factor for WPV..
    Conclusions
    This study highlighted the high frequency of WPV against EMTs. Evidently, the health care systems’ officials would benefit from taking proper actions in this area, particularly by “staff and public education”..
    Keywords: Workplace Violence, Physical Violence, Verbal Violence, Emergency Medical Technicians
  • Rouhangiz Karimi, Mohammad Afshar*, Morteza Salimian, Alireza Sharif, Milad Hidariyan Page 3
    Background
    Some of the studies confirmed the effectiveness of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). However, these studies had small sample size and used different methods such as PRP gel or PRP injections. The results are also contraversial..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of PRP dressing on healing of DFUs..
    Patients and
    Methods
    A randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients with DFUs referred to Kashan’s Shahid Beheshti hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to control (n = 25) and experimental (n = 25) groups. Data collection instrument consisted of two checklists; one for gathering demographic information and the other one included questions about ulcer characteristics and its treatment. After surgical debridement, ulcers depth and surface area were measured. Then, the ulcers of the control group were irrigated and dressed with sterile gauzes. However, in the intervention group, ulcers were dressed with sterile gauzes impregnated with PRP. Ulcers depth and surface area of all ulcers were measured on the days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after debridement. Independent-samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze data..
    Results
    At baseline, the mean ulcer depth were 15.08 ± 10.43 and 19.08 ± 14.01 mm in the control and intervention groups, respectively (P = 0.26), which decreased to 13.03 ± 14.1 and 4.560 ± 5.76 after three weeks (P = 0.04). Moreover, the mean ulcer surface area were 14.17 ± 8.52 and 12.791 ± 14.86 mm2 in control and intervention groups respectively (P = 0.69), which decreased to 11.88 ± 13.65 and 2.68 ± 5.94 after three weeks (P = 0.03)..
    Conclusions
    PRP dressing could significantly decrease the depth and surface area of DFUs in a three-week period..
    Keywords: PRP Dressing, Ulcer Healing, Diabetic Foot Ulcer, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
  • Zahra Khademian, Marzie Moattari *, Fatemeh Khademian Page 4
    Background
    Identification of the attributes of nursing and the ideal career, and their similarities and differences, as perceived by nursing students will help to plan strategies to train and retain future nursing workforce..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to compare the attributes of nursing with the ideal career, as perceived by nursing students..
    Materials And Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2012 at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The participants were 181 undergraduate nursing students (127 females and 54 males) selected using a census method. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Spearman correlation, and Wilcoxon rank sign test..
    Results
    Perceptions of nursing and the ideal career were different in nineteen attributes (P
    Conclusions
    Perceptions of nursing were significantly different from those of the ideal career in most of the attributes. Therefore, it is recommended that nurses’ income, workplace safety, and sense of being appreciated and respected by all authorities should be improved..
    Keywords: Career Choice, Education, Job Satisfaction, Health Occupations, Motivation, Nursing, Perception, Students
  • Zahra Farsi, Seyedeh Azam Sajadi, Reza Eslami* Page 5
    Background
    Coronary angiography is a stressful procedure for most patients. The physiological responses caused by anxiety during coronary angiography increase the likelihood of dysrhythmia, coronary artery spasm, and rupture..
    Objectives
    This study compared the effects of peer education and an orientation tour on anxiety in patients who were candidates for coronary artery angiography..
    Patients and
    Methods
    This single blind quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014. A total of 177 patients who were candidates for coronary artery angiography were divided into three groups: a peer education group, an orientation tour group, and a control group. The patients in the peer education group were trained by a peer educator, and the patients in in the orientation tour group were trained by the researcher, who worked in the angiography unit. The DASS-21 questionnaire was used to measure the patients’ anxiety levels before the intervention and two hours before undergoing the coronary angiography. The data were analyzed using a Chi-square test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U tests, and an interquartile range..
    Results
    The three groups did not significantly differ regarding the mean anxiety scores before the intervention. However, a significant difference was observed between the mean anxiety scores of the three groups after the intervention (P = 0.0001). In the peer education group, the mean anxiety score was 5.34 ± 2.52 and decreased to 3.69 ± 2.87 after the intervention (P = 0.0001). In the orientation tour group, the mean anxiety was 5.53 ± 3.49, which and changed to 3.10 ± 2.22 (P = 0.0001). However, the mean anxiety score significantly increased in the control group (5.66 ± 2.94 vs. 6.53 ± 3.43, P = 0.017)..
    Conclusions
    Both methods of peer education and orientation tour decreased the anxiety levels in patients undergoing coronary artery angiography. Therefore, these approaches should be carried out according to the hospital condition and facilities..
    Keywords: Angiography, Anxiety, Coronary Artery, Orientation, Peer Group, Education
  • Fateme Mohammadi, Marzieh Momennasab*, Shahrzad Yektatalab, Zahra Kouchaki, Farzaneh Mozafari Page 6
    Background
    Doctoral program in nursing aims to train nursing professionals and managers to improve the quality of care and ultimately to promote public health. Some critics believe that in Iran this program mostly focuses on training instructors and researchers and neither improves the function and position of nursing discipline nor meets the needs of the community..
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of nursing doctoral program based on the Patrick model from the perspective of nursing doctoral students..
    Materials And Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 nursing students who were conveniently selected from seven nursing schools. A questionnaire designed based on the Patrick model was used. Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Percentage of the effectiveness scores was reported..
    Results
    The mean score of effectiveness of the nursing doctoral program was 84.76 ± 2.73, which assumed a good level. Multiple regression analysis showed that job status and being native in the field of education explains 11% of the variance in the effectiveness score..
    Conclusions
    Although the efficacy of nursing doctoral program is good, however, it needs revision to enhance the outcomes of the program in order to meet public needs and to increase learners’ satisfaction..
    Keywords: Evaluation, Nursing, PhD Program, Education, Patrick Model
  • Khatereh Seylani, Staffan Karlsson, Ingalill Rahm Hallberg, Easa Mohammadi, Reza Negarandeh* Page 7
    Background
    Nursing students are expected to deliver holistic care in their upcoming career. Developing spirituality during nursing training is poorly understood..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to explore the process of developing spirituality among Iranian nursing undergraduates..
    Patients and
    Methods
    The study employed Grounded theory approach and purposive sampling with maximum variation to select the participants among undergraduate nursing students in their fourth-year of study in the nursing school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data were gathered through semi structured interviews with nineteen nursing students and one faculty member (n = 20). Strauss and Corbin approach was selected for data analysis..
    Results
    Data analysis revealed that developing spirituality during nursing education is an intuitive development including three stages: early frustration, intuitive development through hardship and seeking meaning and fulfilment. This process is influenced by educational/caring environment as well as role models..
    Conclusions
    Upbringing capable nurses to deliver spiritual care require supportive environment and influential role models to encourage students’ spiritual development. Developing spiritually may end in delivering spiritual care and provide nursing students with inner strength for better confrontation with serious situations common in their upcoming career..
    Keywords: Spiritual Development, Nursing Students, Undergraduate Education, Grounded Theory
  • Nastaran Afsordeh, Azhdar Heydari, Mahmoud Salami, Samaneh Sadat Alavi, Elaheh Arbabi, Sara Karimi, Gholamali Hamidi * Page 8
    Background
    In many epileptic women, the ovarian cycle influences the risk and severity of seizures. Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the neural excitatory effects of estrogen. Soybean is a rich source of plant estrogens. Therefore, soy intake can affect the risk and severity of seizures in women. Nurses and midwives need to be aware of the effects of diets containing estrogen in pregnant and post-menopausal women, as well as during the sexual cycle periods..
    Objectives
    Due to the limitations of human studies, this study aimed to investigate the effect of estradiol and soy extract on the onset of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in ovariectomized rats..
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, sixty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of ten. All of the groups except for the negative control groups were ovariectomized. One group received estradiol (100 µg/kg), one group was treated with alcoholic extract of soy (20 mg/kg), and the other group received vehicle over 28 days. PTZ (90 mg/kg) was used to induce seizure in all groups. Behavioral changes were observed over 30 minutes. All data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc test..
    Results
    The mean ± SD of the clonic seizure threshold was 61.84 ± 8.53 in the group that received estradiol, while it was 71.70 ± 10.85 in the control group, 64.69 ± 3.23 in rats with laparotomy without removing the ovaries, 51.30 ± 6.84 in rats with laparotomy and removing the ovaries, 52.7 ± 7.18 in ovariectomized rats that received sesame oil as vehicle, and 59.2 ± 4.91, in the soy groups. Therefore, estradiol significantly increased the clonic seizure threshold, while the alcoholic extract of soy had no effect..
    Conclusions
    We concluded that the chronic administration of estradiol has an anticonvulsant effect in the animal model. However, alcoholic extract of soy has no effect on the onset of clonic seizures..
    Keywords: Soybean, Estradiol, Ovariectomized, Seizure
  • Yoshiyuki Kashiwagi *, Shige Kakinohana Page 9
    Background
    The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are high among Filipino women. The lack of knowledge on preventive behavior and early detection related to breast cancer is considered a reason..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge about breast cancer and selected sociodemographic characteristics, daily life factors, reproductive factors, and perceived breast cancer risk factors..
    Patients and
    Methods
    This study used a cross-sectional design. The study population consisted of 527 women. Interviews were conducted by the investigators. The contents of the questionnaire collected basic characteristics of the respondents, including their sociodemographic profiles, their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, preventive behaviors, early detection, and their daily life and reproductive factors. Predictor variables were analyzed using a Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and a t-test. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for any significant differences (P
    Results
    Less than half of the women (42.7%) had knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, and an equivalent number had knowledge on breast cancer symptoms. Women with higher educational levels were noted to give birth to their first child at a significantly older age and have a significantly lower number of childbirths. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that body mass index, education history, knowledge about symptoms, knowing how to conduct a breast self-examination, family history of cancer, and passive smoking could predict breast cancer knowledge..
    Conclusions
    Women who were aware of risk factors for breast cancer possessed a higher education level and had knowledge of the association of risk factors with preventive behaviors and early detection. However, a minority of women (42.7%) knew enough about breast cancer, preventive behaviors, and what actions to take for early detection..
    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Prevention, Filipino
  • Minden B. Sexton*, Maria Muzik, Ellen G. Mcginnis, Kelsie Thelan Rodriguez, Heather A. Flynn, Katherine L. Rosenblum Page 10
    Background
    There is increased awareness that resilience serves as a protective factor against adverse psychophysiological sequelae in the context of stress. However, there are few instruments to assess this construct in adult populations. The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) has been developed to assess adaptation following stress exposure. While this instrument has previously demonstrated impressive reliability and construct validity, prior research has not supported the consistency of the originally described factor structure. There is also limited evidence regarding the measurement of resilience in the context of cumulative stress exposure..
    Objectives
    This research explores the psychometric properties of the CD-RISC in mothers with childhood histories of maltreatment.
    Materials And Methods
    Postpartum women who endorsed a history of childhood abuse or neglect (N = 141) completed the CD-RISC, the childhood trauma questionnaire and other surveys measuring positive and negative health and functioning. We calculated descriptive statistics with percentage counts and means as appropriate. Internal reliability was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha and the calculation of item-to-total score correlations. Parallel analysis (PA) was utilized to derive the number of retained factors..
    Results
    A recent parenting transition concomitant with a history of maltreatment was associated with lower CD-RISC scores. Internal reliability and concurrent validity analyses were satisfactory and consistent with predicted hypotheses. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) supported a four-factor model of resilience with this population..
    Conclusions
    This research offers further evidence of the reliability and validity of the CD-RISC. Further, the results of the EFA with parallel analysis offer an empirically-driven derivation of factors for this population..
    Keywords: Connor, Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience, Postpartum, Mothers, Trauma, Abuse, Neglect, Maltreatment, Validity, Reliability