فهرست مطالب

Archives of Trauma Research - Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2016
  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • Eric M. Padegimas*, William J. Warrender, Christopher M. Jones, Asif M. Ilyas Page 1
    Context: Hand injuries are a common emergency department presentation. Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures and can be seen in the setting of low or high energy trauma. The most common injury pattern is a metacarpal neck fracture. In this study, the authors aim to review the surgical indications for metacarpal neck fractures, the fixation options available along with the risk and benefits of each..
    Evidence Acquisition: Literature review of the different treatment modalities for metacarpal neck fractures. Review focuses on surgical indications and the risks and benefits of different operative techniques..
    Results
    The indications for surgery are based on the amount of dorsal angulation of the distal fragment. The ulnar digits can tolerate greater angulation as the radial digits more easily lose grip strength. The most widely utilized fixation techniques are pinning with k-wires, dorsal plating, or intramedullary fixation. There is currently no consensus on an optimal fixation technique as surgical management has been found to have a complication rate up to 36%. Plate and screw fixation demonstrated especially high complication rates..
    Conclusions
    Metacarpal neck fractures are a common injury in young and active patients that results in substantial missed time from work. While the surgical indications are well-described, there is no consensus on the optimal treatment modality because of high complication rates. Dorsal plating has higher complication rates than closed reduction and percutaneous pinning, but is necessary in comminuted fractures. The lack of an ideal fixation construct suggests that further study of the commonly utilized techniques as well as novel techniques is necessary..
    Keywords: Metacarpal Bone, Neck Fractures, Hand, Fracture Fixation, Internal, Bone Wires
  • Homayoun Sadeghi, Bazargani, Erfan Ayubi, Saber Azami, Aghdash, Leila Abedi, Alireza Zemestani, Louiz Amanati, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Naeema Syedi, Saeid Safiri * Page 2
    Context: Despite considerable attention given to health statistics of road traffic crashes (RTCs), the epidemiological aspects of injuries resulting from RTCs are not fully understood in Iran and other developing countries. The aim of this review was to study the epidemiological pattern and issues arising due to RTCs in Iran..
    Evidence Acquisition: The scope of this study involves data from a broad range of published literature on RTCs in Iran. Data collection for this study was conducted by searching for keywords such as traffic accidents, traffic crashes, motorcycle accidents, motorcycle crashes, motorcycle injury, motor vehicle injury, motor vehicle crashes and motor vehicle accidents, Iran and Iranian in various databases such as Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Magiran, Iranian scientific information database (SID) and IranMedex..
    Results
    This study comprised of 95 articles. It is evident from this review that a large number of severe RTCs occur due to collision of two or more vehicles and most of the victims are males aged between 30 and 39 years. Male pedestrian, drivers and passengers are more likely to be severely injured in comparison to females. One of the most prevalent causes of death among adults involved in the RTCs are head injuries and the majority of deaths occur prior to hospitalization. Mortality rates for RTCs are higher in summer, especially during midnight among all age groups. The most common individual and environmental risk factors associated with RTCs include lack of attention, getting trapped in the car, listening to music, fatigue and sleepiness, duration and distance and negligence of seatbelt usage while driving..
    Conclusions
    The findings of the current study will be beneficial in prevention of RTCs and its associated complications and hence will be vital for policy makers, health service managers and stakeholders..
    Keywords: Epidemiological Studies, Road Traffic Crashes, Iran, Injuries, Prevention
  • Rebecca Stier *, Dietmar Otte, Christian MUller, Maximilian Petri, Ralph Gaulke, Christian Krettek, Stephan Brand Page 3
    Background
    The effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries is well- documented. Recent studies differ regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing facial injuries, especially those of the mid-face and the mandible..
    Objectives
    The present study was conducted to determine the protective effect of a bicycle helmet in preventing mid-face and mandibular fractures..
    Patients and
    Methods
    Data from an accident research unit were analyzed to collect technical collision details (relative collision speed, type of collision, collision partner, and use of a helmet) and clinical data (type of fracture)..
    Results
    Between 1999 and 2011, 5,350 bicycle crashes were included in the study. Of these, 175 (3.3%) had fractures of the mid-face or mandible. In total, 228 mid-face or mandibular fractures were identified. A significant correlation was found between age and relative collision speed, and the incidence of a fracture. While no significant correlation was found between the use of a helmet and the incidence of mid-facial fractures, the use of a helmet was correlated with a significantly increased incidence of mandibular fractures..
    Conclusions
    Higher age of cyclists and increasing speed of the accident opponent significantly increase the likelihood of sustaining facial fractures. The use of bicycle helmets does not significantly reduce the incidence of mid-facial fractures, while being correlated with an even increased incidence of mandibular fractures..
    Keywords: Bicyclist, Bicycle Helmet, Facial Injury, Mid, face Fracture, Mandibular Fracture
  • Nightmare Frequency, Nightmare Distress and the Efficiency of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    Katia Levrier, Andre Marchand, Genevieve Belleville*, Beaulieu, Prevost Dominic, Stephane Guay Page 4
    Background
    Up to 71% of trauma victims diagnosed with PTSD have frequent nightmares (NM), compared to only 2% to 5% of the general population..
    Objectives
    The present study examined whether nightmares before the beginning of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could influence overall PTSD symptom reduction for 71 individuals with PTSD and different types of traumatic events..
    Patients and
    Methods
    Participants received a validated CBT of 20 weekly individual sessions. They were evaluated at five measurement times: at pre-treatment, after the third and ninth session, at post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up..
    Results
    The presence of nightmares did not impact overall CBT efficiency. Specific CBT components were efficient in reducing the frequency and distress of nightmares..
    Conclusions
    Most participants no longer had PTSD but some still had nightmares..
    Keywords: PTSD, Dream, Cognitive, Behavior Therapy, Trauma, Sleep, Nightmare
  • Axel Prokop*, Marc Chmielnicki Page 5
    Background
    In geriatric patients with Pauwels types II and III femoral neck fractures, hemiprosthesis is the therapy of choice..
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to analyze the results after cemented hemiprosthesis placement, the first year after surgery..
    Patients and
    Methods
    This retrospective study was conducted on 319 patients over 70 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated surgically at our hospital from 2007 to 2012. All medical information was available including retrospective posthospital discharge records as well as inpatient course and one-year mortality..
    Results
    From a total of 319 patients, 78% (n = 249) were female and 22% (n = 70) were male, with the mean age of 83.6 years. Seventeen percent of the patients suffered from heart failure, 23% from diabetes, and 19% from renal insufficiency. Time to surgery averaged one day postinjury. Average operative time skin-to-skin was 50 minutes. Seventy-three percent of the patients could mobilize independently on discharge. Of the remaining patients, 2/3 had already lost independent mobilization prior to the fracture. Hospital mortality averaged 5% (national average in Germany: 8%), and 30-day and 90-day mortality rates were 5% and 15%, respectively. Within one year, 22% of the patients died (national average: 27%). Also, 14 patients were re-admitted, for contralateral prosthetic implantation (n = 7) or revision after the periprosthetic fracture (n = 5). Fifty-three percent of the patients were admitted to hospital during the year for other diseases (national average: 54%)..
    Conclusions
    Hemiprosthesis placement for displaced femoral neck fractures is a common and safe procedure. Despite recent decreases in hospital mortality, the risk of death remains more than twice as high within one year than that for uninjured patients of the same age..
    Keywords: Geriatric, Femur Fracture, Hemiprosthesis, Trauma in Elderly
  • Iraj Mohammadfam, Ahmad Soltanzadeh*, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Mehdi Akbarzadeh Page 6
    Background
    Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries..
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors..
    Materials And Methods
    The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively..
    Results
    The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P
    Conclusions
    Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries..
    Keywords: Traumatic Occupational Injuries, Structural Equation Modeling, Accident Severity Rate, Individual, Organizational Factors, Construction Industry
  • Mohsen Radan, Rezvan Moniri *, Ahmad Khorshidi, Hamidreza Gilasi, Zohreh Norouzi, Fahimeh Beigi, Yasaman Dasteh Goli Page 7
    Background
    Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant pathogen in burn patients..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, including those resistant to imipenemase (IMP), in a burn unit in Isfahan, Iran..
    Patients and
    Methods
    One hundred and fifty P. aeruginosa isolates from burn patients were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by the disc diffusion method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. Production of MBL was identified with the EDTA disk method. DNA was purified from the MBL-positive isolates, and detection of the blaIMP gene was performed with PCR..
    Results
    Fifty-seven out of 150 (38%) isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), and 93 (62%) were extensively-drug resistant (XDR). Among all isolates, the resistance rate to ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, ceftazidime, and cefepime was higher than 90%, while the resistance rates to piperacillin/tazobactam and aztreonam were 70.7% and 86%, respectively. Colistin and polymyxin B remained the most effective studied antibiotics. All of the imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were MBL-positive, and 107 out of 144 (74.3%) of the MBL isolates were positive for the blaIMP gene..
    Conclusions
    The results of this study show that the rate of P. aeruginosa-caused burn wound infections was very high, and many of the isolates were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Such extensive resistance to antimicrobial classes is important because few treatment options remain for patients with burn wound infections. blaIMP-producing P. aeruginosa isolates are a rising threat in burn-care units, and should be controlled by conducting infection-control assessments..
    Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Carbapenem, Resistant, Metallo, Beta, Lactamase, Burn, P. aeruginosa
  • Shahrokh Yousefzadeh, Chabok, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Taklimie, Reza Malekpouri, Alireza Razzaghi * Page 8
    Background
    Road traffic accident (RTA) is one of the main causes of trauma and known as a growing public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. Assessing the trend of fatalities in the past years and forecasting it enables us to make the appropriate planning for prevention and control..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the trend of RTAs and forecast it in the next years by using time series modeling..
    Materials And Methods
    In this historical analytical study, the RTA mortalities in Zanjan Province, Iran, were evaluated during 2007 - 2013. The time series analyses including Box-Jenkins models were used to assess the trend of accident fatalities in previous years and forecast it for the next 4 years..
    Results
    The mean age of the victims was 37.22 years (SD = 20.01). From a total of 2571 deaths, 77.5% (n = 1992) were males and 22.5% (n = 579) were females. The study models showed a descending trend of fatalities in the study years. The SARIMA (1, 1, 3) (0, 1, 0) 12 model was recognized as a best fit model in forecasting the trend of fatalities. Forecasting model also showed a descending trend of traffic accident mortalities in the next 4 years..
    Conclusions
    There was a decreasing trend in the study and the future years. It seems that implementation of some interventions in the recent decade has had a positive effect on the decline of RTA fatalities. Nevertheless, there is still a need to pay more attention in order to prevent the occurrence and the mortalities related to traffic accidents..
    Keywords: Traffic Accidents, Mortality, Forecasting, Trends
  • Lincoln Paiva Costa*, Luiz Eduardo Moreira Teixeira, Gustavo Silame Maranh, Atilde, O. Lima, Marcelo Mendes Ferreira, Mateus Antunes De Andrade, Paula Vieira Teixeira Vidigal, AndrÉ Augusto Gomes Faraco, Eduardo Frois Temponi, Ivana Duval De Ara, Uacute, Jo Page 9
    Background
    The systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis is the standard treatment in the prevention of osteomyelitis after open fractures, with topical application of antimicrobials as an alternative due to their high concentrations at the site of the fracture, low systemic concentrations and fewer side effects..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylaxis of osteomyelitis through experimental model of open fractures with the use of chitosan films, whether or not impregnated with ciprofloxacin..
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, 24 Holtzman rats were distributed into 4 groups of 6 rats each. The CT (control of treatment) group: an open fracture model treated with systemic antimicrobial; the IC (infection control) group: an open fracture untreated model; the C (chitosan) group: an open fracture model treated using a chitosan film; and the CA (chitosan with antimicrobial) group: an open fracture model treated using a chitosan film impregnated with antimicrobial. After 3 weeks the animals were killed by an overdose of anesthetic, and a fragment osseous was removed for histological and microbiological analysis. The comparisons between the groups considered significant values of P ≤ 0.05..
    Results
    In cultures of the CT group, there was less bacterial growth compared to the results of the cultures of the IC (P = 0.005), C (P = 0.005) and CA (P = 0.009) groups. The inflammation was lower in the CT group compared to the IC (P = 0.014), C (P = 0.001) and CA (P = 0.007) groups..
    Conclusions
    In this experimental model of open fracture, the chitosan film pure or impregnated with ciprofloxacin was not effective in the prophylaxis of osteomyelitis..
    Keywords: Open Fracture, Prophylaxis, Osteomyelitis, Chitosan, Ciprofloxacin
  • Nader Shahrokhi, Zahra Soltani *, Mohammad Khaksari, Saeid Karamouzian, Behshad Mofid, Gholamreza Asadikaram Page 10
    Background
    Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI..
    Patients and
    Methods
    In this study, the serum levels of ICAM-1 and NSE of 32 male DAI patients (18 - 60 years of age, a Glasgow coma scale of 12 or less, and admitted within 4 hours after injury) who were randomized for a controlled phase II trial of progesterone were analyzed. The analysis was performed between the control and progesterone groups at admission time, and 24 hours and six days after DAI, respectively..
    Results
    A reduction in the serum level of ICAM-1 was noticed in the progesterone group 24 hours after the injury (P
    Conclusions
    In summary, progesterone administration reduced serum ICAM-1, and whereby may attenuate blood brain barrier disruption, the latter needs further investigation for confirmation..
    Keywords: Intercellular Adhesion Molecule, 1, Neuron, Specific Enolase, Progesterone, Serum, Diffuse Axonal Injury
  • Munir Farooq, Younis Kamal*, Hayat Ahmad Khan, Naseemul Gani, Adil Bashir Shah, Mohammed Ashraf Khan, Shahid Bhat Page 11
    Introduction
    There is very limited literature describing the association of lateral condyle mass (LCM) fracture of the distal humerus associated concurrently with olecranon fracture. Herein, a case is reported of a displaced LCM fracture with displaced olecranon fracture, due to complex trauma while getting out of a vehicle, which was managed by open reduction and internal fixation..
    Case Presentation
    A 4.5- year- old boy suffered severe pain and swelling around his right elbow due to trauma which he suffered while trying to get out of a vehicle which was in motion. Plain radiographs of the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views showed a displaced lateral mass fracture associated with a displaced olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation was carried out and near normal function was achieved..
    Conclusions
    In view of the paucity of literature and rare incidence of this injury, this case report highlights the need to be aware of other injuries which can occur in association with LCM fractures in children..
    Keywords: Lateral Mass Fracture, Olecranon Fracture, Complex Elbow Injuries
  • Ceren Poroy, Cansu Cibik, Bulent Yazici * Page 12
    Introduction
    Penetration of a bicycle brake handle into the orbit is a rare and serious type of trauma. Globe subluxation due to such trauma has not been previously reported. .
    Case Presentation
    A 10-year-old girl presented after falling from a bicycle, which resulted in the handbrake penetrating her right upper eyelid. On examination, the globe was subluxated anteriorly, there was no light perception, and the pupilla was fixed and dilated. Radiologic studies revealed orbitonasal fractures, hemorrhage, emphysema in the orbit and cranium, and rupture of the extraocular muscles. The globe was replaced into the orbit with the help of lateral cantholysis and orbital septotomy. During 22 months of follow-up, the globe remained intact, but total loss of vision, blepharoptosis, and extraocular motility restriction persisted..
    Conclusions
    This case and previous reports show that bicycle brake handles can cause severe, penetrating orbital and cerebral traumas that can result in vision loss or fatality. Brake handles should be designed to protect bicyclists from such injuries..
    Keywords: Brain Injuries, Child, Orbital Fracture, Optic Nerve Injuries, Extraocular Muscle