فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال بیست و هفتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1395)
  • سال بیست و هفتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • بیژن خواجه نوری، مهری مرادخانی، الهام شیردل، شهناز براتی صفحه 1
    خانواده نخستین هسته جامعه و از عوامل اصلی انتقال فرهنگ، اندیشه، اخلاق، سنت و عواطف از نسلی به نسل دیگر است و ثمره این نهاد فرزند است. برای به ثمر رسیدن فرزندان هر یک از پدر و مادر وظایفی را بر عهده دارند، در این میان بیشترین سهم در تربیت و تاثیرپذیری بر فرزندان را مادران بر عهده دارند؛ مادر از ابتدایی ترین مراحل پیدایش به عنوان مربی همراه انسان است. بنابراین سلامت روانی، جسمانی، اجتماعی و هویت مادران برای تربیت فرزندان سالم لازم و ضروری است. به همین دلیل در این پژوهش به بررسی رابطه بین سبک فرزندپروری والدین و ابعاد هویت اجتماعی مادران شهر ایلام پرداخته شده است. در ابتدا مطالعه های انجام شده در این حوزه مرور گردیدند، سپس بر اساس نظریه ای مبتنی بر آراء گیدنز شش فرضیه ارائه شد. برای آزمون فرضیه ها 400 نفر از مادران شهر ایلام به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی چند مرحله ای انتخاب شدند. روش تحقیق این مطالعه پیمایشی و با استفاده از پرسشنامه است. نتایج حاصل از آزمون اتا نشان دهنده همبستگی بین متغیرهای ابعاد هویت اجتماعی و سبک فرزندپروری والدین است؛ از همه مهم تر همبستگی بین هویت اجتماعی مادران با سبک فرزندپروری مقتدرانه است. در واقع مادرانی که به هویت جنسی، ملی، قومی و گروهی تثبیت شده ای دست پیدا کرده اند شیوه تربیتی مقتدرانه که سالم ترین شکل روابط خانوادگی است را برای تربیت فرزندان خود اعمال کرده اند. در مقابل بحران هویت مادران به انتخاب نامناسب ترین سبک فرزندپروری؛ یعنی سبک فرزندپروری بی توجه منجر شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سبک فرزندپروری، بعد کنترل، آزادی، بعد محبت، طرد، هویت اجتماعی، مادران، ایلام
  • آرمان حیدری *، حمیده دهقانی صفحه 15
    پژوهش حاضر با روش کیفی به ارزیابی پدیده تعارض خانواده – کار و چگونگی مدیریت آن در بین زنان معلم متاهل و بچه دار شهر دلوار پرداخته است. تحلیل مصاحبه ها نشان داد عوامل مرتبط با این تعارض و مدیریت ان را می توان در سه مقوله محوری « سرمایه اجتماعی(نوعی و خاص) » ، « عوامل تکنولوژیک»، و « خود مدیریتی فردی( مدیریت ابزاری، شناختی و عاطفی) »؛ و یک مقوله هسته « اجتماعی، تکنو و فردی محور بودن پدیده تعارض خانواده – کار» جای داد. مقوله هسته بیانگر این واقعیت است که عوامل اجتماعی، تکنولوژیک و فردی، در تعامل با هم، کمیت و کیفیت تعارض تجربه شده زنان مورد مصاحبه را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهند. متناسب با ارزیابی های مصاحبه شوندگان، نبود سرمایه اجتماعی نوعی( سازمانی) زمینه تشدیدکننده این تعارض بوده، در مقابل، و ضعیت سرمایه اجتماعی خاص(خانوادگی)، به ویژه همسر، در بین مصاحبه شوندگان ناهمگون بوده، به طوریکه خانم های برخوردار از حمایت اجتماعی خاص میزان خیلی کمتری از این نوع تعارض را به نسبت سایر زنان تجربه کرده اند. عوامل تکنولوژیک که در تحقیقات پیشین اصلا مورد توجه قرار نگرفته اند، زمینه تشدید تعارض تجربه شده همه زنان مورد مصاحبه را فراهم کرده اند. تاکتیک های فردی اتخاذ شده، نیز، هر چند برای مدیرت تعارض موثر بوده اند، اما آنها بیشتر ابزارهایی بوده اند که با هدف تخفیف تنش خانوادگی در جهت تایید برتری مردان و خودقربانی کردن زنان در حوزه خانواده عمل کرده اند تا اینکه کاهنده فشار مضاعف تعارض خانوده کار باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: تعارض خانواده، کار، مدیریت تعارض، زنان معلم متاهل، دلوار، حمایت اجتماعی، مدیریت فردی
  • منصور حقیقتیان، سیدعلی هاشمیان فر، زهیرمصطفی بلوردی* صفحه 41
    امروزه افراد با ورود به دوره ی سالمندی تغییرات بسیاری در زندگی شان احساس می کنند. یکی از این بسترهای تحولی ناظر بر ساختار مصرف و سبک زندگی آنان است؛ این نوشتار با رویکردی پدیدارشناختی بدنبال درک تجارب زیسته سالمندان از این مقوله است. بر این مبنا، ابتدا با طرح ملاحظات نظری، با روش نمونه گیری مبتنی بر هدف و در نظر داشتن اشباع اطلاعاتی، مصاحبه های عمیق و نیمه ساختاریافته را میان 21 نفر از سالمندان شهر کرمان به اجرا گذارده است. سپس با اهتمام به روش کلایزی مضامین اصلی«مصرف تجسدی» با 2 درون مایه فرعی تر رژیم های مصرف، مصرف پوشاک و مضمون اصلی «مصرف فرهنگی» با درون مایه های مصرف هنری، مصرف فراغتی و سبک گذران دینی، تحلیل یافته ها پیگیری شده است. یافته ها و مفاهیم مشترک در تجربه سالمندان نشان می دهد که ما با یافته های ناهمسازی رو به رو هستیم. مصرف سالمندان، از سویی متاثر از ساختارهای حاکم بر فرهنگ جامعه و انتظارات متفاوت از سالمندان، شرایط جسمانی و عدم استطاعت مالی است و ازدیگر سو، بر بنیادهای منزلت یابی و مصارف عامیانه استوار است.
    کلیدواژگان: سالمندان، مصرف، مصرف تجسدی، مصرف فرهنگی، مصرف تجملی، مصرف ضرورت، الگوی ضرورت گرایانه، الگوی زیباشناسانه
  • افشار کبیری* صفحه 55
    پژوهش حاضر به بررسی رابطه منابع مالی دولت و کیفیت حکمرانی پرداخته است. موضوع تاثیر درآمدهای دولت بر کیفیت حکمرانی یکی از محوری ترین موضوعات پارادایم جامعه شناسی مالی است. در بررسی آثار منابع مالی دولت ها، به ویژه تاثیر آن بر کیفیت حکمرانی در دهه های اخیر، دیدگاه های متفاوتی مطرح شده است. برخی معتقدند وفور منابع مالی تبعات منفی بر ساختار اجتماعی- سیاسی کشورها دارد، در نقطه مقابل، مخالفان ایده فوق بر تبعات مثبت وفور منابع بر بهبود و ارتقای کیفیت حکمرانی تاکید کرده اند. در بخش چارچوب نظری استدلالهای موافقان و مخالفان مطرح شده است. در گام بعدی راه حل نظری مسئله در قالب فرضیات استنتاج شد. در بخش تجربی نیز فرضیات پژوهش با استفاده از داده های تجربی بین کشوری مورد داوری قرار گرفت. این پژوهش به لحاظ روش شناختی، تطبیقی بین کشوری با استفاده از N بزرگ است و واحد تحلیل آن کشور می باشد. روش تحلیل این مقاله روش فازی است که با استفاده از نرم افزار FSQCA پردازش و تحلیل شده است. یافته های تجربی ناظر بر سازگاری بین دو مجموعه برابر با 83/0 می باشد. این ارزش نشان می دهد که 83 درصد موردهای مطالعه شده، این ادعا را تایید می-کند که درآمدهای غیررانتی دولت، شرطی لازم و نه کافی برای حکمرانی خوب است. براین اساس می توان مدعی شد که شواهد تجربی برای استدلال علی قطعی مبتنی بر شرط لازم بودن درآمدهای غیررانتی دولت برای حکمرانی-خوب، دلالت حمایتی کامل ندارد و مجموعه کشورهای با حکمرانی خوب زیرمجموعه کامل مجموعه کشورهای غیررانتی نیست. اما چون نسبت مشاهده شده بزرگتر از نسبت معیار است(80/0)، می توان گفت که درآمدهای غیررانتی دولت شرطی تقریبا همیشه لازم برای حکمرانی خوب می باشد. شاخص پوشش درآمدهای غیررانتی دولت با حکمرانی خوب نیز برابر با 73/0 است که بیانگر میزان اهمیت عامل منابع مالی غیررانتی دولت برای حکمرانی خوب است.
    کلیدواژگان: منابع مالی دولت، رانت، کیفیت حکمرانی، جامعه شناسی مالی، فازی
  • سید علیرضا افشانی *، اکرم جنتی فر صفحه 73
    مشارکت را نوعی کنش هدفمند در فرایند تعاملی بین کنشگر و محیط اجتماعی و در جهت نیل به اهداف معین و از پیش تعیین شده، تعریف کرده اند. پژوهش حاضر به مقایسه میزان مشارکت اجتماعی و عوامل مرتبط با آن در بین دانش آموزان دبیرستان های دولتی و غیرانتفاعی شهر یزد پراخته است. تحقیق از نوع پیمایشی بوده و داده ها با ابزار پرسشنامه و با استفاده از ترکیبی از شیوه نمونهگیری طبقه ای و خوشه-ای و از 642 دانش آموز در مدارس دولتی و غیرانتفاعی شهر یزد گردآوری شده است. اعتبار ابزار به صورت محتوایی محرز شده و برای سنجش پایایی از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان داد بین مشارکت اجتماعی دانش آموزان مدارس دولتی و مدارس غیرانتفاعی تفاوت معناداری وجود داشت بدین معنا که مشارکت دانش آموزان مدارس دولتی بیش از دانش آموزان مدارس غیرانتفاعی بود. نتایج همچنین حاکی از آن بود که بین متغیرهای میزان استفاده از وسائل ارتباط جمعی، میزان اعتماد اجتماعی، میزان دینداری و میزان انسجام هنجاری با میزان مشارکت اجتماعی دانش آموزان رابطه معنادار و مستقیمی وجود دارد. همچنین بین متغیرهای پایگاه اجتماعی_اقتصادی و میزان بیگانگی اجتماعی با مشارکت اجتماعی رابطه معنادار و معکوسی وجود داشت. بین متغیرهای جنس و تقدیرگرایی با مشارکت اجتماعی نیز رابطه معنی داری مشاهده نشد. با استفاده از واریانس خطی ترکیب متغیرهای مستقل، در مجموع بیش از 41 درصد از تغییرات میزان مشارکت اجتماعی دانش آموزان تبیین گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت اجتماعی، دانش آموز، مدارس دولتی، مدارس غیرانتفاعی، شهر یزد
  • قربانعلی سبکتگین ریزی، مجید روهنده، سید محمد بساطیان، احمد جعفری صفحه 97
    مشارکت امری است که امروزه در تمامی جوامع مورد پذیرش قرار گرفته و روز به روز نیز بر اهمیت آن افزوده می گردد. درچنین شرایطی، برای تقویت و گسترش امر مشارکت مردم در جامعه به عنوان یک اصل حیاتی، شناخت عوامل موثر بر این امر ضروری است. از اینرو پژوهش پیش رو به مطالعه و بررسی عوامل اجتماعی (پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی، رضایتمندی اجتماعی و رضایتمندی سیاسی) موثر بر مشارکت سیاسی- اجتماعی به روش پیمایشی پرداخته است. در این تحقیق از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای استفاده شده و با استفاده از فرمول نمونه گیری کوکران حجم نمونه به تعداد 384 نفر از میان شهروندان شهر کرج تعیین شده است. اما با توجه به ریزش های احتمالی، نهایتا حجم نمونه 400 نفر برآورد وموردبرسی قرارگرفت. با اجرای پرسشنامه در میان نمونه آماری و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار spss ،محاسبه آزمون آماری همبستگی پیرسون،نتایج نشان داد که بین میزان مشارکت سیاسی- اجتماعی با رضایتمندی سیاسی53/. و رضایتمندی اجتماعی 18/. همبستگی معناداری در سطح 99 درصد اطمینان وجود دارد. متغیر پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی رابطه معناداری با متغیر وابسته تحقیق ندارد. ضمن اینکه نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نیز نشان داد از میان سه متغیر مستقل مذکور، رضایتمندی سیاسی دارای بیشترین تاثیر و متغیر رضایتمندی اجتماعی دارای کمترین تاثیر بر متغیر مشارکت سیاسی- اجتماعی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اجتماع محلی، شهروندی، رضایتمندی، مشارکت سیاسی، اجتماعی، فعالیت سیاسی
  • ابراهیم مسعودنیا*، الهه پوررحیمی صفحه 117
    اختلالات رفتاری، اختلالات بسیار شایع و ناتوان کننده هستند که بر تنوعی از عملکردها، بویژه بر عملکرد مدرسه کودکان اثر گذاشته و مشکلات بسیاری را برای معلمان، والدین و خود کودکان و نوجوانان ایجاد می کند و آثار منفی بر یادگیری، ارتباط و کارایی اجتماعی آنان می گذارد. پژوهش ها نشان می دهند که شیوع اختلالات رفتاری در کودکان رو به افزایش است و این احتمال داده می شود که گسترش روزافزون بازی های رایانه ای یکی از دلایل عمده آن باشد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه بین میزان استفاده از بازی های رایانه ای و بروز اختلالات رفتاری دانش آموزان پسر مقطع ابتدایی صورت گرفته است.
    این پژوهش با روش توصیفی و در قالب یک طرح پیمایشی و مقطعی انجام شد. داده های تحقیق، از 314 نفر از دانش آموزان پسر که در سال تحصیلی1392-1391، در پایه های سوم تا ششم ابتدایی شهر یزد اشتغال به تحصیل داشتند، جمع آوری شد. این افراد، با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمرحله ای از بین 10 مدرسه منطقه یک و دو یزد انتخاب شدند. ابزار سنجش تحقیق عبارت بود از آزمون ارزیابی اختلالات رفتاری و پرسشنامه انجام بازی های رایانه ای. داده ها با استفاده از تحلیل واریانس چند متغیری تحلیل شدند.
    تفاوت معناداری بین دانش آموزان با سطوح متفاوت انجام بازی های رایانه ای، از نظر اختلال های رفتاری بطور کلی (01/0 > p)، و نیز از نظر سه شکل از اختلالل های رفتاری یعنی: اختلال سلوک (01/0 > p)، بی قراری (01/0 > p) و حواس پرتی (01/0 > p) وجود داشت.
    استفاده از بازی های رایانه ای، یک عامل مهم و موثر در ابتلاء دانش آموزان به اختلالات رفتاری است و خطر ابتلا به اختلالات رفتاری چون اختلالات سلوک، بی قراری و اختلال حواس پرتی را در بین دانش آموزان پسر دبستانی افزایش می دهد. بنابراین به منظور کاهش اثرات منفی ناشی از استفاده بیش از حد از بازی های رایانه ای بر ابتلاء به اختلالات رفتاری دانش آموزان دبستانی لازم است تا نظارت بیشتری از سوی والدین بر فرزندانشان؛ درمیزان استفاده از بازی های رایانه ای صورت پذیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: بازی های رایانه ای، اختلالات رفتاری، اختلال سلوک، تمایلات بزهکارانه، بی قراری، حواس پرتی، دانش آموزان پسر دبستانی
  • گلمراد مرادی*، محسن صفاریان صفحه 135
    پیروی از قواعد اجتماعی و تطابق با انتظارات نقش اجتماعی برای سازگاری اجتماعی چه در گروه های همسالان و چه در خانواده مهم است و فقدان چنین مهارتهایی می تواند تاثیر زیادی بر افراد بگذارد هدف اصلی این مطالعه، تبیین و پیش بینی عوامل اقتصادی- اجتماعی مرتبط با مسئولیت اجتماعی جوانان شاهد و ایثارگر استان کرمانشاه می باشد. امروزه در جامعه در میان اکثر فرزندان شاهد و ایثارگر مساله تعهد و پایبندی به وظایف و اخلاقیات و همچنین ارزش شهادت در نزد بیشتر جوانان خانواده های شاهد و ایثارگر کم رنگ شده است و حتی خیلی از جوانان نسبت به ارزش این پدیده احساس مسئولیت ندارند. داده ها از طریق پرسشنامه ساختار یافته برای 500 نفر جوان شاهد و ایثارگر که بطور تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند، گردآوری شد. از روش های آماری آلفای کرونباخ برای پایایی ابزار سنجش، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون برای آزمون فرضیات، تحلیل واریانس برای آزمون مقایسه میانگین ها و رگرسیون و تحلیل مسیر برای سنجش مدل تحقیق استفاده شد. براساس یافته های تحقیق رابطه معنی داری بین متغیرهای، سن (19/0r=)، سبک فرزندپروری استبدادی(259/0- r=)، سبک فرزندپروری استبدادی (180/0- r=) ، عزت نفس (207/0r=)، جهت گیری دینی (464/0r=) و سرمایه اجتماعی(344/0r=) با مسئولیت اجتماعی جوانان وجود دارد. نتایج رگرسیون نشان می دهد که متغیر وابسته مستقیما تحت تاثیر متغیرهای سرمایه اجتماعی(45/0=Beta)، جهت گیری های مذهبی (23/0=Beta)، عزت نفس(19/0=Beta)، هویت اجتماعی(19/0=Beta)، سبک فرزندپروری(18/0- =Beta) و عضویت افراد در نهادها(14/0=Beta)، قرارگرفته است و در مجموع این 6 متغیر توانستند 35 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته را پیش بینی کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: مسئولیت اجتماعی، عزت نفس، سرمایه اجتماعی، سبک فرزندپروری
  • ابوالقاسم شهریاری*، محسن خلیلی، حسین اکبری صفحه 147
    حقوق اساسی دربردارنده ملاک هایی است که اعضای جامعه را توانا می سازد تا به استناد بدان در برابر دست اندازی های دولت، مقاومت کنند؛ اما آنچه ایجادکننده این توانایی در میان اعضاء جامعه است، نه وجود آن به صورت مجموعه قوانین مصوب تحت لوای قانون اساسی، بلکه آگاهی بدان ها است. آگاهی به حقوق اساسی سدی در برابر تمامیت خواهی دولت است. این آگاهی در خلا شکل نمی گیرد و نظریه پردازان متغیرهای مختلفی را به عنوان ایجادکننده و افزایش دهنده آگاهی از حقوق معرفی کرده اند. بنابراین، هدف این پژوهش که به روش پیمایش صورت گرفته است، در گام اول سنجش میزان آگاهی از حقوق اساسی و در گام بعد شناسایی عوامل موثر بر آن است. متغیر اصلی تحقیق، سرمایه اجتماعی است که نظریه پردازان معتقدند از طریق بهبود کمیت و کیفیت اطلاعات افراد، بالابردن سرعت گردش آن میان شبکه اجتماعی فرد و کاهش هزینه مبادله این اطلاعات، بر آگاهی افراد تاثیر می گذارد. همچنین متغیرهای تساهل سیاسی، تساهل مذهبی، حضور در حوزه عمومی ، نظریه آموزش رسانه ای، در کنار متغیرهای زمینه ای سن، جنسیت، وضعیت تاهل، پایگاه اقتصادی-اجتماعی و مقطع تحصیلی، به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل انتخاب گردیدند. نتایج حاصل نشان می دهد که آگاهی از حقوق در جامعه مورد بررسی از وضعیت مناسبی برخوردار نیست. همچنین، نتایج حاصل از معادله ساختاری مشخص می سازد که بیشترین سهم را در آگاهی از حقوق اساسی به ترتیب سرمایه اجتماعی با ضریب 40، تساهل مذهبی با ضریب 33 و تساهل سیاسی با ضریب 29 دارا هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی از حقوق اساسی، سرمایه اجتماعی، تساهل مذهبی، تساهل سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی
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  • Bijan Khajenoori, Mehri Moradkhani, Elham Shirdel, Shahnaz Barati Page 1
    Introduction
    Parent-child interrelations comprise one of the important discussions in psychology as well as social sciences with parenting styles as one of the critical topics of the mentioned areas (Bagherpoor Kamachali¡ 2007: 34). Undoubtedly¡ family is the most important organization and the bedrock of physical¡ mental¡ and social growth and welfare for a child¡ and the leading factor for their (physical¡ mental and¡ social) balance. Socializing and fraternizing with cultural laws¡ rules and values occurs naturally within the family¡ setting the stage for the child to turn into a social being through practicing preliminary intra-family interactions (Moosavi¡ 2003). In other words¡ each of the parents has their own share of responsibilities in seeing their child off and into a full-grown person¡ with most of the weight pertaining to child nurturing and positive influence falling on the mother. Maternal mental¡ physical and¡ social health as well as a healthy¡ well-defined identity¡ therefore¡ is crucial in raising healthy children¡ with the mother being an ever-present guide ever since the primary stages of a child’s life. To this end¡ in this study¡ the relation between parenting styles and aspects of social identity pertaining to Ilam city’s mothers has been brought under investigation. First¡ previous studies related to the area were reviewed and Giddens’stheory was selected as the framework for the investigation. As a next step¡ a total of six hypotheses were presented based on a theory riding on Giddens’s opinions.
    Material and
    Methods
    In order to put said hypotheses to test¡ 400 Ilam city’s mothers were chosen through multistage random sampling. The investigative method through which the study has been carried out is one of survey and questionnaire. The produced results of ETA testing reveal a correlation between the two variables under study¡ namely ‘aspects of social identity’ and ‘parenting style’¡ with ‘maternal social identity’ and ‘authoritative parenting style’ being the most important among all other correlations.
    Discussion of results &
    Conclusions
    Also the produced results at the logistic regression level and parental statistics reveal that 71.6¡ 76.1¡ 80¡ 74 percent (respectively) of the variables pertaining to the ‘authoritative’¡ ‘authoritarian’¡ ‘easy going’ and ‘permissive’ styles seem to be correctly predicted and classified. The results of the investigation confirm that there has been a significant decrease in the implementation of both ‘authoritarian’ and ‘permissive’ styles¡ in which the child is overlooked altogether whereas the two methods ‘authoritative’ and ‘easy going’ have been increasingly brought into use. The results further depict that an upgrade in maternal social identity brings about the ‘authoritative’ as the ideal style of choice in parenting by mothers. In fact¡ mothers with consistent identities tend to have a better understanding of their own abilities which in turn leads to a successful observation of both the ‘control’ and ‘affection’ aspects of parenting dynamics. A healthy growth of identity in mothers helps them establish warm¡ amicable relationships among family members (Steinberg¡ 2001). Results from the studies by Monadi (2010)¡ Khabaz (2010)¡ Marcia (2002)andLomeo (1999) are in line with one conducted here. In fact mothers who have already established a consistent sexual¡ national¡ ethnic and group identity¡ have implemented the ‘authoritative’ style in raising their children which represents the healthiest in intra-family relationships. On the contrary¡ identity crisis has led a second group to implement the ‘permissive’ style as the least appropriate way to raise children. In the end¡ the results from this study depict the consolidation of identity in Ilam city’s mothers and consequently¡ their best choice of style in parenting.
    Keywords: parenting style, control, freedom aspect, affection, rejection aspect, social identity, mothers, Ilam
  • Arman Heidari, Hamideh Dehghani Page 15
    Introduction
    Intersections of two important institutions of family and work and its varried implications for married working women can be differentiated and compared in three historical periods. In the preindustrial era, the proximity of working place and family life and the availability of informal social supports such as greater children and grandmothers etc provided conditions for working women in which they could reconcile their duties of having two important familial and working roles without experiencing any kind of work- family conflict. With the arrival of industrialization, the adjacent spheres of these institutions separated from each other; but severe gender role differentiation, the absence of women in the labor market and limitation of their roles to private and familial spaces, and allocation of the role of " breadwinner" to men exclusively prevented from or, at least, limited the conflicts arising from the interrelations of these two important institutions. In the post-industrial era, as a result of the massive entry of women into the labor market, the collapse of the male breadwinner model, and the emergence and increasing numbers of the dual- employment families, the relationship between work and family domains has found a specific quality that is usually referenced as work- family conflict. The conflict that as a worldwide phenomenon has been reported among married working women of all over the world. However, the quantity and quality of this conflict diversify according to societal cultural values, national policies, employment opportunities, family structures, and among different occupational groups and the individual characteristics of the working women themselves. The purpose of this article was to explore and analyze the modifying contexts of married women teachers with children’s experience of work – family conflict and to identify tactics they use for its managing.
    Material &
    Methods
    The participants in the study were 19 married women teachers with children in Education of Delvar town, in Bushehr province of Iran, that selected on a no probable method; and purposeful, theoretical and maximum variation sampling strategies. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze data collected via the in- depth and focus group interviews. The authenticity and validity of findings evaluated by combination of the well known criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirm ability.
    Discussion of Results&
    Conclusions
    analysis of the interviews showed that the lived experience of these women in respect of intensification or dilution of the work- family conflict and its individual management could be represented via the three axial categories of " social support"( specific and generic); " uncontrollability of the children in the new media environment " ; and " individual management tactics( instrumental, cognitive and emotional tactics); and one core category by the name of " socio- techno- individual being driven of work- family conflict phenomena". The axial and core categories reflect the situation in which interviewed women in proportion to the amount of their benefit or lack of familial social support have experienced more or little work – family conflict. However, all these women, as a result of extensiveness and at the same time uncontrollability of new media technologies and their prevalent absences from the home, have been concerned about their children’s, unreasonable and uncustomary uses of these media. Most of these women, according to their educational qualifications, educational level and financial resources, rather than passivity in the face of the pressures of their double exhausting roles, have used various tactics for managing and governance of their familial and mothering duties. It could be said that although all of the women as a result of living in relatively traditional town(Delvar) and transitional and Islamic country(Iran) have had very much concerns about their housekeeping responsibilities, but the intensity Keywords: married women teachers, work- family conflict, Delvar city, grounded theory of the experienced concern and negative outcomes for those varied according to their living in different contextual and intervening conditions that could intensify or reduce this conflict, conditions that include individual capabilities, familial conditions and the age and sex of their children.
    Keywords: Family-work conflict, Conflict Management, Married Women Teachers, Delvar, Social Support, Individual Control
  • Mansour Haghighatiyan, † Seyedali Hashemianfar, Zahirmostafa Balvardi Page 41
    Introduction
    All over the world, the population of the elderly is growing and the situation in Iran, in this regard, is not an exception. The prediction of an “elderly explosion” in the near future is not far-fetched. This concept will probably stimulate many debates in terms of its dimensions and consequences for the society. In this regard, the concept “dynamic aging” will also be raised. One of the most effective formulations and conceptualization in this regard is the concept of lifestyle. Nevertheless, studies relating to the lifestyles of the elderly in this country are very much limited and usually closely relate only to physical health and quality of life and are also just limited to periodic studies. Identifying elderly lifestyles by qualitative methods and entering into the experiences of the elderly to explore the effects of aging on lifestyle, identifying consumption patterns, the motivations, and reactions of people to lifestyle changes are what this study aims at. Following that, in order to establish the framework of the study, stimulate theoretical sensitivity, extract and interpret the relevant concepts, the utilized approaches are offered as the “rational consumer” and the “craft consumer”. The rational choice approach which indirectly involves rationality in choosing social events enables the consumer to measure his/her emotions. The perspective of craft consumer assumes that people are active in fulfilling their aims towards goods consumption. It means that consumers separate goods from their common uses by recontextualization , giving new meanings or significations to goods. Of course, it’s not claimed that all consumers, even the elderly, are skillful consumers. There are unskillful options for consumption as well and sometimes, due to financial and physical conditions, consumption is imposed on consumers. However, the significance of all functions of skillful consumption doesn’t involve high levels of investment or high expenses. Since the required cultural capital is easily gained through the various forms of the media, increasing skillful consumption among people, including the elderly, is also observed. Nevertheless, part of this increasing skillful consumption relates to the issue of modernization. In this regard, the influence of Giddens is easily seen. He considers modern societies to be “de-traditionalized “and sees one of the most important aspects of consumption as a protection mechanism and continuation of ontological security which refers to protection and continuance of the quality of daily life.
    Methods and Materials: This study was carried out in 2014 with a qualitative and phenomenological method. The sampling technique was based on purposive sampling with 21 participants. The data was gatered through in-depth and semi-structured interviews. The data analysis method was the seven-step Colizzi method. The criteria of participating in this study was being over the age 60 , living in the family, having no fixed mental problems, having no physical problems that can disrupt daily activities, willingness to participate in the study, and being able to talk about experiences.
    Conclusion of
    Results And Discussion
    Te experiences of the elderly show that they had their especial lived-experiences of this issue. Their experiences constitute a continuum that that extends from consumption based on structural elements (compulsions, environmental and physical conditions) to consumption based on symbols. Findings showed that the elderly, on the one hand, under the effects of structural elements, don’t have the freedom and choices available to other age groups; since their positions, consumption habits and their choices in different areas, such as diet, is dependent on their status and age. At the other end of the continuum were experiences that show that consumption is mostly a “symbolic act”. Some of the elderly tended to be inclined towards ways through which they can show their especial language, status style, definitions and the fulfillment of their identity. Some of the experiences of the elderly were in the ” intermediate position” or “intermediate experience”. The elderly of this study showed their understanding and awareness of events, expectations and social tendencies by buying and wearing new clothes. On the whole, this study showed that the field of consumption and consumption acts are reflective of cultural changes in the society and analyzing them for exploring those change is an inevitable necessity. Consumption manners of the participants, in this study, showed some trends of cultural changes. As a result, cultural planning for the elderly, like any other planning, requires understanding of their values and inclinations.
    Keywords: elderly, consumption, structural elements, symbolic act, intermediate experience
  • Dr Afshar Kabiri* Page 55
    The present study examines the relationship between state finances revenues and the quality of governance. Government revenue impact on the quality of governance is one of the most pivotal Fiscal Sociology Paradigm. The financial effects of the state ,particularly its impact on the quality of governance in recent decades, many researchers have proposed different approaches . Some believe the negative consequences of resource abundance on social -political structure, in point of contrast, opponents of the idea of ​​a positive impact on improving the quality of governance and resource abundance have focused .The theoretical arguments Supporters and against have been proposed. The next step in the theoretical solution was derived hypotheses. Hepoteses was assesed by empirical internation data. in the methodology of This study is cross-national comparative, and the unit of analysis is the country. The method analysis this paper uses fuzzy processing and analysis software is FSQCA. Consistency between the two sets of empirical findings observer with 0.83. This value indicates that 83 percent of the cases studied confirms the claim that unrent revenues state, a necessary condition, but not good enough to governance. Accordingly, it claimed to be the definitive empirical evidence for causal reasoning that necessity unrent revenues stat for the good governance, does not imply full support and complete subset of countries with good governance is unrent countries. But the ratio is larger than the norm (0.80), we can say that unrent revenues state is almost always necessary for good governance. Covrage ratio of good governance to unrent revenues state equal to 0.73, which indicates the importance of unrent revenues state for good governance.
    Keywords: Financial revenues state, quality of governance, rent, Fiscal Sociology Paradigm, fuzzy
  • Seyedalireza Afshani*, Akram Janatifar Page 73
    Introduction
    Social participation is one of the important and constructive factors of Social capital. Social participation is defined as a kind of purposeful act during an interactional process between the actor and social environment for achieving the defined and predestinate aim. Despite the broad and in-depth discussions about social participation, it can be claimed that a general theory on all or most of variables related to participation remained to be developed. Obviously, it doesnt mean that no conceptual model can describe the participation. Although various theories have been proposed to explain the social participation, a model for predicting the different levels of social participation has not been represented yet. Furthermore, students are builders of the future for every society, and paying attention to them, in particular their participation, has great importance for themselves and their society. The present study compares the level of social participation between the students of state and non-profit high schools in Yazd as well as its related factors.
    Material &
    Methods
    This survey study is practical in terms of content, cross-sectional, and extensive. In the current study, the population was all junior high school students who attend state schools and nonprofit schools in Yazd. According to the statistical outcome measured by the Department of Education of Yazd, 7421 students were in state schools, and 3290 were in nonprofit schools. The Sampling method which applied in this survey study is a sampling of 642 state and nonprofit school students in Yazd (310 students from state schools and 332 students from nonprofit schools) Owing to collecting the data, participants filled out a questionnaire. A combination of stratified sampling method and cluster sampling method was applied. Owing to collecting the data, participants filled out a questionnaire. The validity of the data collection tool was ensured through a content validity and its reliability through a Cronbach's alpha. The Cronbach's alpha measured for the main variable was 0.901, and it measured for independent variables as follows: 0.747 for using mass media, 0.810 for social trust, 0.833 for normative integration, 0.805 for religiousness, 0.703 for fatalism and 0.744 for social alienation. The gleaned data were analyzed by the statistical softwares, namely SPSS 22.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    More than half of the participants were girls (51.4%) The average age of the participants was 16. In addition, of all the participants 34.9% in the first grade, 24.9% in second grade, 24.5% in third grade, and 15.7% in fourth grade were enrolled. The mean score was 63 for the main variable (social participation) Also, the score of social participation was mostly moderate. The mean score measured for the dependent variables as follows: using mass media = 16.71, social trust = 46.80, religiousness = 46.04, normative integration = 17.63, social alienation = 58.98 and fatalism = 19.36.
    Findings showed that there was a significant difference between social participation of nonprofit and state high school students. There was a significant and direct relationship between the variables including the level of mass media, social trust, religiousness, and normative Integration with social participation; however, there was a significant and reverse relationship between variables including socioeconomic status and social alienation with social participation. There was not any significant relationship between the variables of gender and fatalism with social participation. The results of multiple regression support the significant role of grade, socioeconomic status, mass media, social trust, religiousness, social alienation in social participation. Furthermore, through variance of the linear combination of the independent variables, 41 percent of the variance in social participation was explained.
    Keywords: Social Participation, Student, State Schools, Nonprofit Schools, Yazd
  • Ghorbanali Saboktakinrizi, Majid Rohandeh, Sayed Mohammad Sobatiyan, Ahmad Jafari Page 97
    Introduction
    In modern societies participation is considered as a pleasant phenomenon. That can increase social trust, social solidarity and presence of social groups in public and political life in order to achieve sustainable development of society. So, in international level, comprehensive participation of people in social, economic, political and cultural affairs remembered as an indicator of development. Generally, public participation recognized as a fundamental element of a desired social planning. A comprehensive and desired plan is a plan to do with people, not for people (Zimmerman, 1996: 1). However in Iran, in the development and modernization project take less attention in creating mechanisms for public participation and the transfer of some decision-making authority to peoples. As well as destabilizing and dominating the state to the private sphere faced the life word of individuals with many problems. On the other hand, individualistic and hermitistic attitudes embedded in public culture reinforce this. As a result, it has become important to maintain private and individual interests and meantime considering to the collective interests and follow-up them has not been raised. In such circumstances, the exploring factors that influenced public participation to be seen as a vital and necessary principle to strengthen and expand public participation in society. In response to that need, this paper aims to study the effects of political satisfaction and social satisfaction on socio-political participation.
    Materials And Method
    Participation: Inspired by the theoretical and empirical literature can be said that the participation has certain components, for example, voluntary work, cooperate in community affairs, urban and rural, direct or indirect, simple membership in the local communities, charitable and business activities in these organizations, participate in the decision making process, the person engaging in the activity levels of the political system, being a social or political official, organized effort of citizens and influencing political guidance of society. In terms of operational definition, in this paper the socio-political participation measured both subjective (attitudinal) and objective (behavioral) levels. Objective level combined from indicators such as; the spirit of participatory, the individual evaluation of effectiveness in participation and awareness. Also, the objective level combined from indicators such as; participatory membership (the regularity and amount of membership). This scale's stability estimated by Cronbach's alpha to 0.84.
    Social satisfaction: The social satisfaction implies the amount of individual's satisfaction of society and community in which to live. This concept represents its own indicators that include personal satisfaction and the satisfaction of social conditions. This scale's stability estimated by Cronbach's alpha to 0.70.
    Political satisfaction: the concept of political satisfaction points to the level of satisfaction from political situation, institutions and political leaders and officials (Azimi, 2000). Indicators for this concept are satisfaction from officials and consent from governmental institution's performances. This scale's stability estimated by Cronbach's alpha to 0.85.
    Method
    In present paper survey used as method. Data gathered by administrating self-constructed questionnaire. The publication combined from all citizens of Karaj that had above 18 years and live in this city by 2011. Using random sampling method 400 citizens selected from mentioned above population for answering the questionnaire. In analyzing the data, the methods of descriptive statistics used for describing the features of sample in demographic and other variables. Also, the relationships between main variables analyzed by inferential statistics tests.
    Discotion: Description of demographic variables: 74.8% of respondents are men and rest women. The average mean of sample is 27 old year. 15% of respondents have Bachelor degree in science. 66.5% of respondents are single. Also, the average mean of respondent's income is 706 Tomman per month.
    Description of main variables: The mean of respondent's socio-political participation is 43.17, with 12.04 to standard deviation. This suggests that their participation level is mediocre and has very dispersion. In social satisfaction scale 23.8% of respondents have, 55.3% average and 9% high consent. Respectively similar to social in the case of political satisfaction, 62.3% respondents have low, 25.5% middle and 4% high consent. Also, 34.8% of respondents placed in low level, 48.8% in middle level and 11.8% in high level of socio-economic status scale.
    Analysis of relations between variables: In terms of two variables relations, the political satisfaction correlated positively and significantly with participation about 0.53. The correlation between social satisfaction and participation is 0.18 and this correlation is significant. Also, the correlation between socio-economic status and participation is -0.065 that not significant statistically. In multiple relations the multiple liner regression analysis showed that the political satisfaction had the most significant effect in the estimation of distribution of participation. Totally, the independent variables could explain up to 30% of variance of socio-political participation.
    Conclusion
    In this study it was observed that the socio-political participation among citizens of Karaj on average, and even lower-middle. As well as, social and political satisfaction among them is lower than expected. These facts suggest the existence of major problems, which must be carefully explored. In this way, and in the framework of this paper can be point to the effect of political and social satisfaction in contributing to the social and political dimensions. The results showed that along with satisfaction increase (particularly in term of political satisfaction), the participation of individuals will increase dramatically. This fact implies that attraction of people's participation does not only accomplish in condition which is empty from satisfaction but also requires a positive opinion of the current social and political conditions to make it to the experience of participation. These results support the conceptual implications of theories such as the theory of Kinder and Kyvyt and even Inglehart's theory that emphasis the effect of satisfaction from political and social situation of society on the public participation. In this study it was observed that the socio-economic base not significant effect on participation. This fining is not coordinate with some conceptual implications (such as Denis Heily, 1997 and Almond and Powel, 2000) and even with some research in Iran (Like: Hoseini, 2005 and Taghvaei, 2009). Perhaps this could be referred to the substantive difference in the communities which studied and citation of previous researchers to characters of Iran society and strongly and especially to the unique features of observed population. Totally, the results of this study showed that increasing citizen's participation in political and social affairs, regardless of the level of satisfaction, that implies the how meet their needs and expectations of the social, economic and political state of society is not possible. Therefore, public authorities at various levels should regard to this issue as great.
    Keywords: community, citizenship, satisfaction, political participation, social, political activities
  • Ebrahim Masoudnia, Elaheh Pourrahimian Page 117
    Introduction
    Behavioral disorders, are the most common and debilitating diseases that affect a variety of functions, especially on children's school performance, and create many problems for teachers, parents and children, and have negative effects on their learning, communication, and social performance. These disorders can be observed in the early years of primary school and between the ages of 8 and 15 years to reach their peak. Previous studies on the behavioral problems in Iran, reported the prevalence of these disorders is very high among elementary school students and about 10 to 31%. This study examines four types of behavioral disorders such as, conduct disorder, delinquent tendencies, restlessness, and distraction. Etiology of behavioral disorder is very complex. One of the risk factors in incidence and prevalence of behavioral disorders, which has attracted much attention in recent years, is the use of computer games. However, few studies have been done on the social and psychological effects of video games on Iran, little research has been conducted on the effects of video games on the incidence of behavioral disorders in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between computer games and behavioral disorders such as conduct disorder, delinquent tendencies, restlessness, and distraction.
    Materials And Methods
    This study was a cross-sectional case-control study. Data were collected from 314 primary school students in the academic year 2013 and 2014 in Yazd city. These students were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Measuring tools were: questionnaire of doing computer games, and behavioral disorder appraisal test. Data were analyzed by using of MANOVA method.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    Three hundred and fourteen students from third grade to sixth grade studied. Students were distributed: 27.1% in the third grade, 28.4% in fourth grade, 23.2%t in fifth grade and 21.2% in the sixth grade of primary school. Most students (95.2%) have computer at home. There was significant difference between students interested in computer games sports for delinquent tendencies. The prevalence of delinquent tendencies were more common among students who play sports. Also, the prevalence of conduct disorder was higher among students who play adventure computer games, cars and motorcycles. Our results showed that the prevalence of restless disorder was higher in students who were doing war computer games. Also, there was significant difference between students interested in computer games events, cars and motorcycles regarding to conduct disorder. Our results showed a significant difference between students with different levels of computer games regarding to many behavioral disorders. Behavioral problems among students was significantly associated with the duration of the computer game. There was significant difference between students with different levels of computer games, regarding to conduct disorder, restlessness disorder, and distraction disorder. About the mechanism of the effect of computer games on behavioral disorders, there are three basic hypotheses. Arousal hypothesis holds, monitor of electronic media, may be less attractive other activities, such as work or school. Depersonalized theory, believes that the use of computer games could be depersonalization process. During this process, the child is affected by the excitement of the game, trying to destroy his rival, forget itself, and does not pay attention to what others do not even hear them. This process can lead to impaired attention deficit, distraction, emotional and anxiety, and conduct disorders in children and adolescents. According to the theory of displacement, time spent on the computer and video games may simply replace the time that is spent on other activities, that are activities that control growth of abnormal behavior and behavior to provide impulse control. Due to the growing use of computer games, easy access to the games in our society can be one of the causes of behavioral disorders in children. Therefore, it is necessary, parents prevent children from engaging in too much computer games and make them aware of the negative consequences of excessive use of computer games.
    Keywords: Computer Games, Conduct Disorder, Delinquent Tendencies, Restlessness, Distraction, Male Elementary Students