فهرست مطالب

Archives of Neuroscience - Volume:3 Issue:4, 2016
  • Volume:3 Issue:4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/08/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Lorena Vega, Zelaya, Ancor Sanz, Garcia, Guillermo J. Ortega, Rafael G. De Sola, Jesus Pastor * Page 1
    Context: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most frequent drug-resistant epilepsy. It has a high success rate in surgical treatment, provided that the epileptic zone (EZ) was accurately localized through a pre-surgical evaluation and removed. Pharmacological activation inducing interictal activity is tested as a complementary method in the pre-surgical diagnosis, although with nonspecific results and limited safety, due to poorly tolerated side effects..
    Evidence Acquisition: Etomidate is a well-tolerated, fast onset and rapid decline drug with a few side effects. Studies conducted to evaluate the safety and usefulness of etomidate to identify the EZ showed that etomidate activates irritative zone only in the areas where spikes previously appeared in basal conditions, besides having a high coefficient of lateralization for ictal onset zone (IOZ). Regarding the analysis of the topography of the voltage sources, it is shown that interictal, ictal and etomidate-induced activities greatly overlap, indicating that the biophysical mechanisms are similar, and the cortical areas where all types of activities appear are likely the same or closely related. In addition, from the point of view of complex networks, etomidate produces very similar changes in the limbic network to those occurring during temporal seizures i.e. an impaired connectivity in the ipsilateral side to the IOZ..
    Results
    All findings suggest that etomidate, in a specific manner, activates the neural and biophysical mechanisms of spontaneous epilepsy..
    Conclusions
    This technique can be used as a diagnostic tool during the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with TLE to define the region resected during epilepsy surgery with confidence..
    Keywords: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Video, Electroencephalography, Foramen Ovale Electrodes, Interictal Activity, Etomidate, Voltage Sources, Monopolar Model, Complex Networks
  • Sayed Alireza Mirsane*, Sayed Mojtaba Mirsane, Nasrin Oraei Page 2
  • Francesco Raudino* Page 3
    Context: Pathologic studies often show an involvement of the spinal cord in the early stages of the Alzheimer’s (AD) disease; clinical studies further show a statistically-relevant frequency of gait impairment and an increased risk of falling. Therefore, the spinal cord is possibly involved in the Alzheimer’s disease and has a role in the appearance of some symptoms..
    Evidence Acquisition: Medline literature search..
    Results
    Several pathologic studies in animals and humans show abnormalities in the spinal cord and particularly in the anterior horn lesions that are typical of AD. Several clinical studies show frequent and precocious impairment of the gait, which is possibly related to the pathology of the spinal cord..
    Conclusions
    The AD disease does not only affect the brain, and cognitive symptoms, as well as non-cognitive symptoms are typical of the early stages of the disease..
    Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease, Spinal Cord in Alzheimer's Disease, Non, Cognitive Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease
  • Linda Marschner *, Tariq Ahmed, An Schreurs, Benoit Lechat, Fred Van Leuven, Jesper Mogensen, Detlef Balschun Page 4
    Background
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), even single-impact mild TBI (mTBI), is associated with increased risk of neuronal damage and neurodegeneration, leading to dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The tell-tale histopathological defects of AD, deposits of amyloid and protein tau are observed following TBI. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the association, and its impact on synaptic plasticity..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to analyze whether mTBI alters or accelerates relevant changes in synaptic plasticity at early stages of tau pathology in a mouse model..
    Methods
    A total of 24 mice were analyzed in this study, comprising Tau.P301L transgenic mice and age and background matched wild-type mice as controls. Animals received a mild single-dose closed-head impact injury or a sham surgery. We measured ex vivo parameters of basal synaptic excitability, short-term synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation..
    Results
    While no changes in basal synaptic excitability and presynaptic short-term plasticity were observed, long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region was severely impaired. This deficit was aggravated in the Tau.P301L mice compared to wild-type control animals..
    Conclusions
    Our data imply a high health risk of even a single mTBI episode. Single-impact mTBI combined with genetic predisposition is proposed to trigger signals implicated in neurodegeneration..
    Keywords: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Neurodegeneration, Synaptic Plasticity, LTP
  • Daniel Bereczki Jr *, Zoltan Simony, Zoltan Szakacs, Geza Szilagyi Page 5
    Introduction
    Intravenous thrombolysis may be withheld due to current exclusion criteria even if the patient arrives at hospital in time. However, under certain circumstances, some of these contraindications could be eliminated..
    Case Presentation
    We report a systemic thrombolysis after reversal of anticoagulation with protamine sulfate in an acute stroke patient with suspected subacute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) receiving full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)..
    Conclusions
    Considering the fact that only less than 10% of all acute strokes are eligible for intravenous thrombolysis, in particular circumstances and weighing a risk-benefit ratio, elimination of certain exclusion criteria could be a reasonable method to decrease the number of patients who currently fail to receive adequate treatment..
    Keywords: Thrombolytic Therapy, Stroke, Low, Molecular, Weight Heparin, Protamine Sulfate
  • Roshan Koul * Page 6
    Context: Rigid spine syndrome is rare in children. It is commonly observed in the end stage of the muscular dystrophies. Another entity called primary rigid spine or spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome, rigidity of spine is noted at the beginning of a muscle disease. The two conditions should be differentiated..
    Evidence Acquisition: The first child with primary rigid spine syndrome was observed in 1996. Twelve children were observed over the last eighteen years and were followed up regularly in the hospital under study. The children were diagnosed with rigid spine syndrome if there was restriction of the neck movements, particularly on the bending of the spine. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, biochemical tests, electrophysiological findings, imaging and muscle biopsy. Genetic tests were not available in the past, but were done recently in three children..
    Results
    Twelve children (nine males and three females) were observed. Ten children had primary rigid spine and two had secondary rigid spine syndrome..
    Conclusions
    The current study described twelve children with rigid spine syndrome from Oman; ten with primary rigid spine (rigid spinal muscular dystrophy) and two with secondary rigid spine syndrome. The condition is rare in children. Early neck stiffness is the key to diagnosis..
    Keywords: Rigid Spine Syndrome, Primary, Children, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Selenomyopathy
  • Michael Chih Chien Kuo* Page 7
    Background
    Elderly people face difficulties in encoding as part of aging. A better understanding of the encoding process and deficits helps to develop and design more effective memory strategies in the future..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to examine intentional encoding processes in older adults using the event-related potential (ERP) technique..
    Methods
    Fifteen healthy elderly subjects completed the experiment. A study and recognition subsequent memory effect (SME) paradigm was implemented. Subjects memorized Chinese characters using their own strategies while having their electroencephalograms recorded..
    Results
    At recognition phase, percentage of correct judgments was 70.7 ± 8.6 and the d-prime for recognition performance was 1.1 ± 0.5. SMEs were marginally significant from 240 to 360 ms and significant from 360 to 700 ms post-stimulus with a superior scalp distribution. SME in late positive complex (LPC) was not significant..
    Conclusions
    Behavioral and ERP evidence suggested that healthy elderly adults attempted to encode in a semantic-like manner. In addition, they appeared to have decreased the ability to elaborately process newly formed memory representations and perform cognitive binding of concepts..
    Keywords: Event, Related Potentials, Aging, Episodic Memory
  • Otavio Turolo Da Silva, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim* Page 8
  • Miroslava Seredova, Andrea Maskova, Martina Mrstinova, Ladislav Volicer * Page 9
    Background
    Psychosocial interventions are increasingly used in psychiatric patient. One of the modalities of this approach is use of animals, e.g., horses..
    Objectives
    Investigation of hippotherapy effects in patients with schizophrenia..
    Methods
    25 patients with paranoid schizophrenia, or acute and transient psychotic disorders attended 90 minutes hippotherapy sessions two days a week for a period of three weeks. We evaluated effects of hippotherapy on well-being of patients defined as a state that has five characteristics - excellent mood, the feeling of total relaxation, no sense of fear, a willingness to establish contacts, and willingness to communicate. The participants indicated their current mental condition before and after each hippotherapy session..
    Results
    Hippotherapy increased well-being (F = 7.81, P = 0.007) and the differences between the well-being scores before and after the treatments increased with treatment repetitions (F = 7.81, P = 0.007). The effect hippotherapy was statistically significant for all well-being characteristics except for tension in the first treatment and contact in the second treatment..
    Conclusions
    These results indicate that hippotherapy is a useful psychotherapeutic strategy for patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders..
    Keywords: Well Being, Schizophrenia, Equine, Assisted Therapy
  • Mahnaz Taherianfard*, Mehrzad Banihashemi Page 10
    Background
    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been acknowledged as an estrogenic chemical able to interact with estrogen receptors. Bisphenol A at high concentration inhibited the GABAA receptor mediated response..
    Objectives
    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of BPA on GABAAα1 receptors density in amygdala and cerebellum of adult rats and the possible modulatory effect of passive avoidance learning..
    Methods
    Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 200 to 220 g were used. Bisphenol A 5 and 50 mg kg-1 day-1 were administrated by oral intake for 15 days. Learning and memory tasks were performed by shuttle-box. Densities of GABAAα1 receptor were investigated by immunohistochemical procedure..
    Results
    Rats with learning had significantly higher GABAAα1 receptor as compared to control rats. The administration of BPA at both low and high doses significantly reduced receptor density in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with control rats. Learning significantly increased receptor density in rats treated with BPA as compared to unlearned BPA treated rats, however, it could not completely reverse this parameter and these rats still had lower receptor density than controls..
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, BPA induces dose-dependent down-regulation of GABAAα1 receptors in the amygdala and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum of adult rats, which could be partially compensated by learning..
    Keywords: GABAAα1 Receptors Density, Bisphenol A, Learning, Amygdala, Cerebellum