فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Health Studies - Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2016
  • Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Aliakbar Roudbari Page 1
    Background
    One of the new methods for elimination or destruction of estrogen hormones is ultrasound irradiation. The aim of study was to determine the main mechanism of steroid hormones removal by ultrasound.
    Methods
    In this study, estrogen and 17 beta estradiol irradiated with ultrasound at different frequencies, powers, and exposure times in two cases: with and without butyl alcohol in a batch mode cylindrical reactor made of plexiglas in the amount of 1 liter. Residual concentrations of hormones were measured by solid phase extraction and Gas chromatography-Mass chromatography (GC-MS).
    Results
    The result showed that ultrasound has high ability on removing hormones E1 and E2 (between 56.3% to 79.2%). Also after adding butyl alcohol which is free radical scavenger, the removal efficiency of both hormones greatly reduced but didn’t reach to zero, so the main mechanism of hormones removal was hydroxyl free radical production however the cavitation phenomenon played a role in the removal.
    Conclusions
    Due to the high efficiency of ultrasound for the removal, as well as defects in other removal methods, it is suggested that researchers study in optimizing the effective parameters on it and technical and economical comparison with other removal methods.
    Keywords: Steroid hormones, Ultrasound, Removal mechanism, Hydroxyl free radical
  • Enhancing Blood Donation Intentions Using the Train-the-Trainer (TTT) Model: A Field Trial Study
    Seyed Mohammad Mirrezaie *, Mostafa Jamali, Bashir Hajibeigi, Mohammad Mehdi Golmakani, Hossein Sadegh, Ali Abbasian, Masoumeh Mirzamoradi Page 5
    Background
    In Iran, despite various attempts to increase recruitment of female blood donors, women include less than 10% of the blood donors.
    Methods
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate impact of face to face education via TTT model on people’s willingness to donate blood specially women. A field trial study was designed based on face to face educational plan for population in 22 municipally regions of Tehran (capital of Iran) from March 2010 to February 2011.
    Results
    Total number of volunteers in trial 2 was 9178 cases including 2785 females and 6393 males compared with 4074 cases including 454 females and 3620 males in trial 1. Female/male ratio in trials 1 and 2 were 0.13 and 0.44, respectively, (P
    Conclusions
    Overall, the face to face education is an appropriate method for safe blood donor motivation and recruitment.
    Keywords: Blood donor, Recruitment, Education, TTT Model, Iran
  • Fatemeh Mehravar, Behnaz Bazrafshan, Abdollahe Abbasi *, Roghieh Golsha Page 6
    Background
    Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is reported to be a global problem. Previous studies showed that the prevalence rate for primary MDR-TB was higher and has been increasing. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary drug resistance strains isolated from patients with smear-positive of the new cases to anti-TB drugs.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 266 smear positive pulmonary TB Iranian patients were enrolled during the April 2011 and March 2012. Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis isolates to the first-line drugs: Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Streptomycin were performed by the proportion method using the conventional Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium.
    Results
    The average age was 48.4 ± 21.3 years and 56.5 percent were male. In this study, out of 266 pulmonary TB suspects studied, susceptibility testing was performed for 189 isolates. Resistance to at least one drug was 11.1% (21/189). Resistance among newly diagnosed patients was most common for streptomycin and MDR prevalence rates (resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN) among these patients were 2.1%.
    Conclusions
    Our finding suggests that the incidence of MDR tuberculosis in high TB burden setting stresses the need for drug susceptibility testing to be done for every patient who is culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Keywords: Mycobacterium infections, Tuberculosis, Gram, Positive bacterial infections, Multidrug, resistant tuberculosis
  • Cloning and expression of human vasohibin1 gene in E. Coli
    Somaye Malmir, Ali Zarei Mahmodabadi, Masoomeh Masoomikarimi, Soheilaalsadat Mirhoseini Ardakani, Elmira Roshaniasl, Shahnaz Shekarforoush, Moslem Jafarisani *, Reza Ahmadi Page 7
    Background
    Angiogenesis is an important process in various physiologic and pathologic states. The most significant stimulator of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor. In contrast, vasohibin1 acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor which specially inhibits new vessels formation. The aim of the present study was to clone and express of vasohibin1 gene in E.coli as well as purification of recombinant vasohibin1 protein.
    Methods
    Total RNA was extracted from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cDNA was synthesized by RT-PCR. cDNA was amplified using specific designed primer set. The PCR product was evaluated by electrophoresis and then cloned in pET28a expression vector which transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3) as a host. IPTG is used as an expression inducer in media. Alternatively PCR products were analyzed by sequencing and double digestion with EcoRI and hindIII restriction endonuclease. The expressed protein was purified by Ni-NTA column and confirmed by SDS Page and western blotting. Evaluation of gene inhibition was carried out through Western blot and RT-PCR.
    Results
    No mutation or sequence variants were found as a result of sequencing analysis in PCR products. Moreover, the quantity and quality of expressed recombinant protein in the presence of IPTG with selected vector in E.coli was approximately high. VASH1 significantly prevented from the receptor expression. The quality and level of expressed protein in pET28 expression vector indicate the efficacy of applied system in vasohibin1 production.
    Conclusions
    The produced vasohibin1 protein probably can be used as an angiogenesis inhibitor in further studies on retinopathies.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis, Vasohibin1, Cloning, Gene Expression
  • Parvaneh Sardarabadi, Masoud Soleimani, Amir Atashi *, Shahram Pour Beiranvand, Mahshid Akhavan Rahnama, Azadeh Anbarlou Page 10
    Background
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCS) can be obtained from autologous cells for therapeutic purposes. So far, many studies have been done to produce induced pluripotent cells by transferring specific pluripotency genes using different methods. In this study, pluripotency genes expression induced by external stresses was assessed in cord blood mononuclear cells.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood. Isolated cells were divided to several groups. First group have been exposed to HCL (pH 5.7) for 25 minutes, and then transferred to the medium with normal pH. Second group was triturated with hamilton syringe for 15 min (external pressure) and the last group without treatment was considered as control. Then, total RNA was extracted on day 7. Gene expression of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1, and KLF4 was evaluated using qRT-PCR.
    Results
    Gene expression of OCT4, NANOG, REX1, and KLF4 were increased after exposure to acidic pH and external pressure in comparison with control cells (P
    Conclusions
    Exposure of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to acidic pH and external pressure lead to re-activate pluripotency genes in mature cells. These findings indicate that mature cells may be reprogrammed with manipulation of environmental conditions.
    Keywords: Reprogramming, External pressure, Acidic pH, Mononuclear cells, Cord blood
  • Maryam Chegeni, Akbar Fotouhi, Mohammad Hassan Hassan Emamian *, Kazem Mohammad Page 14
    Background
    The secular trend in growth is a well documented and common phenomenon in many developed and developing countries. In this study, we examined the secular trends in birth length and weight among Iranian neonates between 1991 and 2011.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in 2014. Using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, the birth weights and lengths of neonates born in Shahroud, Iran were collected from family health records. The mean birth weights and lengths were calculated for each year. Secular trends were analysed using linear regression models.
    Results
    Among a random sample of 11,165 neonates, the mean birthweight of neonates during the investigation period changed from 3232.1 ± 444.1 g in 1991 to 3204.1 ± 436.9 g in 2011, and the mean birthlength changed from 49.5 ± 2.2 cm to 49.3 ± 1.9 cm. The mean birth weights and lengths between 1991 and 2011 were not significantly different; however, the mean birthweight decreased by 47.8 g between 1997 and 2001 as compared to that between 1991 and 1996 (P
    Conclusions
    The mean birth length and weight of new-borns in Shahroud did not change significantly over the 21 years study period, but we found significant differences when looking at the 5-year intervals.
    Keywords: Anthropometry, Birth weight, Trends, Iran
  • Shima Mohammadkhani, Jaber Yeganeh, Saeid Nazemi * Page 26
    Background
    Today through various industrial processes, toxic heavy metals released into aquatic environment that are harmful to all ecosystems. In the present investigation, removal of such contaminants from industrial waste waters is necessary. The purpose was made to extend an ecofriendly technology by using a bio carbon generated from sunflower wasted biomass.
    Methods
    The impact of initial pH of solution (2-10), initial heavy metal concentration and bio carbon dose on the adsorption processes was studied. Although determination of heavy metals done by atomic absorption spectroscopy, as the concentration of samples after adding adsorbent evaluate and capability of adsorbent has been defined.
    Results
    The equilibrium data were found to be well described by Langmuire model. The langmuire is otherm feasibility was checked with the dimensionless separation factor (RL).
    Conclusions
    Introduction of new adsorbent represent a great challenge for both academia and industry. And along all methods for removal contamination, we choose adsorption processes. Overall, the work demonstrates the possible use of sunflower wasted biomass, as an effective adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from waste waters.
    Keywords: Adsorbent, Sunflower wasted biomass, Heavy metals
  • Nooshin Ahmadian Chashmi, Sarvenaz Emadi, Hossein Khastar* Page 36
    Background
    Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is one of the most important causative mechanisms of acute kidney injury that is a major clinical problem occurs in some of the hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the Effects of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.
    Methods
    Male mice were randomly assigned to three groups (n=9):1 Sham operated,2 renal IR (45 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion),3 renal IR HT (5 mg/kg orally for 7 days before renal IR and one hour before IR). Animal were sacrificed and the blood and kidney tissue samples were collected for glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) evaluation.
    Results
    Renal IR injury led to decreases in renal tissue GSH and increases in MDA levels compared to sham operated. hydroxytyrosol partly inhibited the IR-induced decrease in GSH activity. In addition, in renal IR HT group, MDA was increased compared to renal IR group.
    Conclusions
    These findings suggest that HT diminished oxidative stress in renal tissue after renal IR.
    Keywords: Ischemia reperfusion, Acute kidney injury, Hydroxytyrosol, Oxidative stress