فهرست مطالب

علوم اجتماعی - سال سیزدهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1395)
  • سال سیزدهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/05/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • علمی_پژوهشی
  • اسماعیل بلالی، سلیمان پاک سرشت، فرهاد رشیدی صفحات 1-25
    بروز تعارض درون گروهی در گروه های آموزشی دانشگاه ها همانند دیگر نهادهای اجتماعی دور از انتظار نیست. یکی از مسائل مهم و اساسی در جامعه امروزی، به ویژه در جامعه دانشگاهی و در درون گروه های آموزشی دانشگاه ها، مساله تعارض درون گروهی است.برای تبیین این مساله و طرح فرضیات، از نظریات عدم تجانس اعضا، پاردایم جاذبه/ شباهت بیرنه، اعتماد، پردازش اطلاعات پوندی، توجه به هدف دوگانه بلیک و موتون، هویت اجتماعی، تئوری ائتلاف ماریگان و براس بهره گرفته شده است. این بررسی با هدف مطالعه تاثیر ساختار گروه (تقابل ها، اعتماد، خرده گروه ها، اندازه و ترکیب گروه و غیره) بر تعارضات درون گروهی طراحی شده است. روش مطالعه، پیمایشی بوده واطلاعات لازم با استفاده از پرسش نامه کتبی از 357 نفر به دست آمده است. شواهد نشان می دهند که گویه های پرسش نامه از روایی و اعتبار خوبی برخوردار هستند. همچنین، غیر از تفاوت های زمینه ای مرتبط با ترکیب گروه و نیز تعدد باندها و وجود دوره های تکمیلی، بقیه متغیرها ارتباطات معنادار و مثبتی با تعارض درون گروهی در گروه های آموزشی دارند. بر این اساس، متغیرهای تعدد گرایش های علمی درون رشته ای، ضعف اعتماد، تقابل نسل ها، اندازه گروه با تعارض درون گروهی ارتباط دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: گروه آموزشی، تعارض درون گروهی، اعتماد، ساختار، دانشگاه
  • سید حسین سراج زاده، مریم جامه شورانی، فرشاد محمدی صفحات 27-48
    شادمانی و رضایت از زندگی یکی از موضوع های با اهمیت پژوهشی برای پژوهش گران رشته های گوناگون علوم اجتماعی است؛ زیرا احساس شادمانی می تواند نقش بسزایی در فرآیند توسعه یک جامعه و ارتقای کیفیت زندگی افراد ایفا کند. یکی از مهم ترین عوامل اجتماعی و فرهنگی مرتبط با شادمانی که مورد توجه پژوهش گران واقع شده است، باورها و پای بندی دینی است. این مقاله بر آن است تا ضمن مرور رویکردهای مختلف مربوط به رابطه دین داری و شادمانی، با رویکردی ترکیبی این رابطه به صورت تجربی مطالعه شود. به این منظور، به روش پیمایش و با نمونه ای از دانشجویان دانشگاه خوارزمی در سال 1391، رابطه دین داری با متغیرهای حمایت اجتماعی، معناداری زندگی و سازگاری با ناکامی ها و محرومیت ها آزمون شد. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات پرسش نامه بود. براساس یافته های تحقیق، دین داری به واسطه متغیرهای حمایت اجتماعی، معناداری زندگی و سازگاری با ناکامی ها و محرومیت ها، می تواند شادمانی افراد را افزایش دهد. با وجود این، با کنترل این متغیرها اثر دین داری بر شادمانی جهت منفی ضعیفی پیدا می کند که ممکن است به خاطر ایجاد نوعی وسواس و ترس از گناه و مجازات ناشی از آن، ایجاد دنیاگریزی و جزمیت گرایی باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: دین داری، حمایت اجتماعی، معنی داری زندگی، سازگاری، ناکامی، محرومیت، شادمانی
  • صمد عدلی پور، سیداحمد میرمحمدتبار، سیمین افشار، مریم سهرابی صفحات 49-71
    با گسترش فناوری های نوین اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی همچون شبکه های ماهواره ی، افراد و گروه های قومی به شیوه های گوناگون از این رسانه ها در راه ایجاد و تثبیت هویت قومی استفاده می کنند. چنان که هر روزه بر تعداد شبکه های ماهواره ای که با محور قومیت فعالیت می کنند و مخاطبان آن افزوده می شود و این امر، در آینده نقش دولت و رسانه ملی را در زمینه ارتباطات و اطلاع رسانی با چالش رو به رو خواهد کرد. در این راستا، پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش ترکیبی به مطالعه تاثیر برنامه های شبکه های ماهواره ای ترک زبان (کشور آذربایجان و ترکیه) بر هویت قومی مخاطبان جوان این شبکه ها پرداخته است. همچنین، به مهم ترین دلایل و زمینه های گرایش جوانان به شبکه های ماهواره ای ترک زبان در شهر تبریز نیز پرداخته شده است. یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که بین مدت زمان استفاده، میزان استفاده، استفاده هدفمند و اعتماد به محتوای برنامه های شبکه های ماهواره ای ترک زبان با هویت قومی کاربران، رابطه معنادار مستقیمی وجود دارد. همچنین، سایر یافته های پژوهش نشان دهنده آن است که نارضایتی از برنامه های شبکه استانی سیمای آذربایجان شرقی، ضعف در بازنمایی فرهنگی و بازنمایی نامناسب ترک ها در برنامه های رسانه ملی از مهم ترین دلایل و زمینه های گرایش جوانان تبریزی به سمت شبکه های ماهواره ای ترک زبان است.
    کلیدواژگان: شبکه های ماهواره ای ترک زبان، هویت، هویت قومی، جوانان شهر تبریز
  • اسدالله بابایی فرد صفحات 73-108
    امروزه از جهانی شدن در بسیاری از حوزه های گوناگون علمی بحث شده و گرایش‏های مختلفی نسبت به این پدیده وجود دارد. فرض بنیادی این پژوهش این بوده است که چگونگی اثرگذاری جهانی-شدن به زمینه های اجتماعی- فرهنگی هر جامعه وابسته است. این پژوهش، با تکیه بر برخی استدلال های نظری، به ویژه دیدگاه های استوارت هال و آنتونی گیدنز و همچنین نتایج داده های مصاحبه با دانشجویان دانشگاه تهران، نشان می دهد که جهانی شدن به معنای غربی شدن نیست. در این پژوهش، 30 دانشجو از 14 دانشکده دانشگاه تهران به طور تصادفی جهت انجام مصاحبه انتخاب شده اند. هدف اساسی این پژوهش بررسی رابطه بین استفاده از اینترنت به عنوان یکی از ابزارهای مهم جهانی شدن و هویت فرهنگی دانشجویان دانشگاه تهران بوده است. به طور کلی، در این پژوهش ملاحظه شد که در حوزه های مختلف زندگی برای دانشجویان خانواده و دین جایگاه مهمی دارند. از نظر آن ها، تعلق به قومیت و ملیت و گرایش به جهانی شدن منافاتی با هم ندارند. همچنین معتقدند که زنده نگه داشتن نام و یاد شخصیت ها و مفاخر ملی به خاطر کارکردهایی که برای جامعه دارد، ضروری است. بیش تر آن ها معتقدند که نه تنها اینترنت باعث ایجاد اختلال در روابط اجتماعی شان نشده است، بلکه توانسته اند به طور چشم گیری از داده های گوناگون اینترنت در حوزه های علمی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی استفاده کنند و نهایتا این که آن ها تبادل بین فرهنگی و ارتباطات های جهانی را لازمه پویایی، پیشرفت و توسعه هر جامعه به شمار می آورند.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت قومی، هویت ملی، هویت سازی خانواده، جهانی شدن، کثرت گرایی فرهنگی
  • مجید کوششی، محمد میرزایی، ابوالقاسم پوررضا، غلامرضا حسنی درمیان صفحات 109-129
    بررسی حاضر به منظور تبیین تاثیر عوامل جمعیتی و اجتماعی بر سطح سلامت سالمندان 60 سال و بالاتر در شهر مشهد صورت گرفته است. چارچوب نظری با رویکردی بین رشته ای مبتنی بر نظریه گذار جمعیتی و سرمایه اجتماعی است. روش تحقیق پیمایشی و شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای بوده است. حجم نمونه آماری 570 نفر و ابزار سنجش، پرسش نامه استاندارد سلامت SF36 بوده که برای جمع آماری اطلاعات از تکنیک مصاحبه استفاده شده است. سازه سنجش سرمایه اجتماعی براساس مفاهیم نظریه پاتنام و کلمن تنظیم شده است و در سنجش اعتبار سازه های پرسش نامه، علاوه بر استفاده از شیوه اعتبار محتوا از طریق تحلیل عاملی، سازه ها تایید شده است. همچنین، تایید پایایی درونی پرسش نامه توسط ضریب الفای کرنباخ بوده و تجزیه و تحلیل دادها از طریق روش های آماری (آزمون های تک متغیره، رگرسیون چندمتغیره، و در انتها، معادلات ساختاری و تحلیل مسیر) با کمک دو نرم افزار SPSS و EQS انجام شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داده است که سلامت سالمندان در شهر مشهد در حد متوسط است؛ اما سلامت مردان بیش تر از زنان است. تحصیلات بالاتر، دارای همسر بودن، وضعیت اقتصادی مطلوب تر، بر سلامت تاثیر مثبتی دارد. افزیش میزان انزوای اجتماعی و سن، رابطه منفی با میزان سلامت سالمندان داشته است. سرمایه اجتماعی به عنوان موثرترین متغیر، 20 درصد از تغییرات سلامت سالمندان را تبیین کرده و در مجموع، 37 درصد تغییرات سلامت توسط متغیرهای تحقیق حاضر، تبیین شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سلامت، سال خوردگی، سالمندان، سرمایه اجتماعی، مشهد
  • حسین میرزایی، توکل آقایاری هیر، خاطره حیدرنژاد، لاله فتحی صفحات 131-148
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی رابطه هم زیستی اجتماعی و برخی از عوامل مرتبط با آن در دانش آموزان دختر دوره پیش دانشگاهی شهر تبریز در سال تحصیلی 91-1390 می‏باشد. هم زیستی محصول زندگی اجتماعی است و کارآیی یک جامعه را به شدت بالا می برد. هم زیستی حالتی ذهنی و رفتاری است و شامل به رسمیت شناختن موجودیت گروه دیگر با وجود تفاوت‏هایشان در ابعاد، هدف‏ها، ارزش‏ها، ایدئولوژی ها و حوزه های دیگر با به رسمیت شناختن و ارزش گذاردن به دیگران، شخصیت دادن به اعضای گروه دیگر، عدم برتری انگاری گروه خود و آمادگی برای همکاری، مراوده و رقابت با دیگران است. متغیرهای مختلفی بر هم زیستی اجتماعی اثر می گذارند و در این پژوهش متغیرهای حمایت اجتماعی، سرمایه اجتماعی و روابط خانوادگی متغیرهای مستقل مورد مطالعه هستند. مطالعه از نوع پیمایشی بوده و اطلاعات مورد نیاز با استفاده از پرسش نامه محقق ساخته جمع آوری شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق، کلیه دانش آموزان دختر مقطع متوسطه، پیش دانشگاهی شهر تبریز (5866 نفر) می‏باشد که از میان آن ها یک نمونه 360 نفری از طریق فرمول کوکران و به شیوه خوشه‏ای انتخاب و مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان داد میانگین هم زیستی اجتماعی (7/67) بوده که بالاتر از متوسط است. همچنین، رابطه متغیر هم زیستی اجتماعی با سرمایه اجتماعی (305/0)، حمایت اجتماعی (359/0) و رابطه خانوادگی (134/0) مستقیم، معنادار و مثبت بوده است؛ اما تفاوت میانگین هم زیستی اجتماعی مشاهده شده دانش آموزان براساس خاستگاه زندگی والدینشان معنادار نبوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: هم زیستی اجتماعی، حمایت اجتماعی، سرمایه اجتماعی، روابط خانوادگی
  • فرناز سبحانی، حسین بهروان، محسن نوغانی دخت بهمنی صفحات 149-170
    با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی دلایل گرایش و عدم گرایش کاربران به سایت های همسریابی بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که مهم ترین عوامل مرتبط با عضویت افراد در سایت های همسریابی عبارتند از: کسب استقلال در انتخاب همسر، بی تعهدی جامعه و والدین در انتخاب همسر برای فرزندان خود، مزایای بیشتر سایت های همسریابی نسبت به ازدواج های سنتی، محدود شدن روابط افراد در کلان شهرها، رفع تبعیض جنسی، رفع نیازهای فردی، مشکلات ارتباطی در دنیای واقعی، مطلقه بودن، نقص عضو داشتن، بالارفتن سن، برون همسری، رفع تبعیض و پیش داوری و در مقابل عواملی چون نگرش های منفی نسبت به سایت های همسریابی، ضعف نظارت، عدم اطمینان به فضای مجازی، در عدم گرایش به این سایت ها اثرگذار بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سایت های همسریابی، تحلیل محتوای کیفی، انتخاب عقلانی، گم نامی
  • محمد عباس زاده، لیلا علوی، حسین بنی فاطمه، محمدباقر علیزاده اقدم صفحات 171-196
    بررسی نوع رفتار زیست محیطی و عوامل موثر بر آن از مهم ترین موضوع های جامعه شناسی محیط زیست است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نحوه تاثیرگذاری تجربه زیست محیطی و نگرش زیست محیطی بر رفتار زیست محیطی آن ها انجام شده است. روش پژوهش، پیمایش بوده و نمونه مورد بررسی از شهروندان شهر تبریز در بازه سنی 15 تا 75 سال است و به شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای انتخاب شده اند. ابزار مورد استفاده پژوهش پرسش نامه است. اعتبار ابزار با تکنیک تحلیل عاملی و محاسبه KMO و پایایی آن با محاسبه آلفای کرونباخ بررسی شده است. یافته ها حاکی از آن است که تجربه زیست محیطی شهروندان تبریزی 83/50 درصد مقیاس تعریف شده است. میانگین درصدی نمرات رفتار زیست محیطی برابر با 5/74 بوده که کمتر از میانگین درصدی نگرش زیست محیطی با مقدار 83/75 است. نتایج مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری نشان می دهد که متغیر نگرش زیست محیطی با ضریب 39/0 بر رفتار زیست محیطی تاثیر داشته و متغیر تجربه زیست محیطی نیز با ضریب مسیر 13/0 بر رفتار زیست-محیطی موثر است. متغیر تجربه زیست محیطی نیز با ضریب مسیر 3/0 بر نگرش زیست محیطی تاثیر می گذارد؛ بنابراین، تجربه زیست محیطی با تاثیر بر نگرش زیست محیطی، به طور غیرمستقیم بر رفتار زیست محیطی با مقدار 117/0 موثر است.
    کلیدواژگان: رفتار مسوولانه زیست محیطی، نگرش مسوولانه زیست محیطی، تجربه زیست محیطی، مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری، تبریز
  • زهرا غفاری، منصور حقیقتیان صفحات 197-216
    هدف این مقاله، بررسی تاثیر سرمایه فرهنگی عینیت یافته بر تحرک اجتماعی میان نسلی در شهر گرگان است. روش تحقیق مورد استفاده در پژوهش، پیمایشی مبتنی بر روش همبستگی است. ابزار تحقیق، پرسش نامه محقق ساخته است که برای تعیین اعتبار پرسش نامه از تکنیک اعتبار صوری و اعتبار محتوا با استعانت از تکنیک ضریب نسبی روایی محتوا استفاده شد. بعد از طراحی پرسش نامه و اجرای پایلوت بین 30 پاسخ گو، میزان پایایی سوالات با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 82/0 محاسبه شد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه زنان و مردان 30 تا 54 ساله ساکن شهر گرگان که تعداد آن ها بر اساس سرشماری سال 1390 برابر با 146238 نفر می باشد. حجم نمونه بر اساس فرمول کوکران 384 نفر تعیین شد. برای انتخاب نمونه ها از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی چند مرحله ای مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که بین سرمایه فرهنگی عینیت یافته با تحرک اجتماعی میان نسلی افراد در شهرگرگان، در سطح ضریب اطمینان 95 درصد رابطه وجود ندارد. تفاوت جنسیتی در میزان تحرک اجتماعی وجود دارد که به نفع مردان است. میزان تحرک اجتماعی پاسخ گویان، 6/8 درصد دارای تحرک میان نسلی نزولی، 24 درصد دارای تحرک میان نسلی افقی و 4/67 درصد دارای تحرک میان نسلی صعودی بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه فرهنگی عینیت یافته، تحرک اجتماعی میان نسلی، گرگان
  • علی اکبر مجدی، حسین رمضانی، مژگان عظیمی هاشمی صفحات 217-238
    مقاله حاضر، حاصل پژوهشی است که با هدف بررسی رابطه حمایت اجتماعی (حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و حمایت اجتماعی دریافت شده) با سبک های هویتی (برگرفته از نظریه برزونسکی) به روش پیمایشی، در جامعه اماری فرزندان شاهد (شهدا، جانبازان 50 درصد به بالا و آزادگان) شهر نیشابور که تعداد کل آن ها 3938 نفر بود، با حجم نمونه 350 نفر انجام شده است. میزان حمایت اجتماعی برای پاسخ گویان زن از پاسخ گویان مرد بیش تر بود. پاسخ گویان زن بیش تر از پاسخ گویان مرد از سبک های هویت اطلاعاتی، هنجاری و تعهد هویت استفاده می کنند و در مقابل، پاسخ گویان مرد بیش تر از سبک هویت سردرگم استفاده می کنند. متغیرهای سن و سطح تحصیلات با سبک هویت اطلاعاتی، سبک هویت هنجاری و تعهد هویت هم بستگی اماری معناداری دارند؛ ولی هم بستگی سن با سبک هویت سردرگم– اجتنابی معنادار نبود. حمایت اجتماعی دریافت شده تاثیر بیش تری بر سبک های هویتی پاسخ گویان دارد. هم بستگی حمایت اجتماعی با سبک های هویت اطلاعاتی، هویت هنجاری و تعهد هویت مستقیم و با سبک هویت سردرگم- اجتنابی معکوس است.
    کلیدواژگان: حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده، حمایت اجتماعی دریافت شده، سبک های هویتی برزونسکی، ایثارگران
  • علی یوسفی، محمد قربانی، سمیه ورشوی صفحات 239-260
    نوشتار حاضر به این دو سوال پاسخ می دهد که خانوارهای شهری ساکن استان های خراسان رضوی، شمالی و جنوبی، فایده مصرف ماهی را در مقایسه با غذاهای جای گزین چگونه ارزیابی می کنند و چه عواملی بر ارزیابی آن ها از فایده مصرف ماهی موثر است؟ فرضیه اساسی این بوده است که ارزیابی فایده مصرف (ماهی) تحت اثر انفرادی و تعاملی عقاید کنترلی و عقاید هنجاری مصرف است، ارزیابی فایده غذاهای جای گزین ماهی، اجزای اصلی عقاید کنترلی مصرف ماهی هستند، فشار هنجاری و پاداش اجتماعی مصرف نیز از اجزای سازنده عقاید هنجاری مصرف ماهی اند». نتایج وارسی فرضیه ارزیابی مصرف در یک نمونه 1229 خانواری نشان می دهد که اول، بر حسب ملاک های علاقه، صرفه اقتصادی، سلامتی، سهولت آماده سازی و طبخ، تنوع پخت، سهولت نگهداری ومزه؛ ارزیابی فایده مصرف ماهی در مقایسه با غذاهای جای گزین پایین است و تنها بر حسب ملاک فایده سلامتی، اولویت پیدا می کند. دوم، 63.6 درصد از تغییرات ارزیابی فایده مصرف ماهی تحت تاثیر پنج متغیر ارزیابی فایده مصرف مرغ، ارزیابی فایده مصرف جای گزین گوشت، ارزیابی فایده مصرف گوشت قرمز، فشار هنجاری، پاداش اجتماعی مصرف و اثر تعاملی آن هاست. سوم، از بین عوامل موثر بر ارزیابی فایده مصرف ماهی، اثر فشار هنجاری و پاداش اجتماعی مثبت و اثر ارزیابی فایده غذاهای جای گزین مصرف ماهی منفی بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی فایده، مصرف ماهی، فشار هنجاری، پاداش اجتماعی مصرف
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  • Esmaeel Balali, Soleiman Pakseresht, Farhad Rashidi Pages 1-25
    Introduction
    Group dynamics study has been one of sociologist's and social psychologists’ old concerns. Unfortunately most studies which have been done, are social psychological or educational and sociologists have neglected this issue because of concern for macro structures. Another problem is related to the lack of empirical studies related to this issue. Studies about group dynamics should be of importance to Iranian sociological studies. This study has been designed meeting this aim and tries to study conflicts within university departments’ members and its relation with group structure.
    Theoretical Framework: Based on some theoretical view points such as incongruence theory, similarity –attraction paradigm, trust theory, information processing perspective, dual goal concern theory, self-categorization theory and coalition theory, a theoretical model was created. Based on incongruence theory, if incongruence between members increases then probability of smooth and steadily co-working between individuals decreases. Also, based on Moreland and Levine, the number and the type of individuals in a group may impact on the events in the group. According to similarity –attraction paradigm individuals which have common values may interpret the events in the same manner which itself can decrease intra-group conflicts. Trust theory presupposes that high levels of trust, probably is concomitant with low levels of dysfunctional conflict. Meanwhile, low levels of trust will probably be concomitant with high levels of conflict. The main claim of information processing perspective is that dysfunctional conflict appears among groups and teams which cognitive disagreement has been interpreted as criticism. Group members avoid information sharing, have low levels of decision making quality and the members who are not committed to group decisions, have no tendency to see the decisions practical. Dual goal concern theory assumes that conflict behavior has been determined by two stimuli: intention to individual or the to the others’ goals. Conflict is seen as win/loss situation, intimidation to gain conformity with personal views. In self-categorization theory, the more the individual belongs to the group, the more is their relations intimate and so the less conflict will exist. Coalition theory claims that individuals by forming coalitions mobilize group members against each other and impel neutral members to support one side. Independent variables based on these theories include: Multiplicity of band and subgroups, increase of disciplines, weakness of trust among members (intra and inter group trust), generational contrasts, group size, higher education courses’ number and background differences. Intra group conflict was a dependent variable and other variables were independent ones.
    Methodology
    The method was survey and data gathered using a questionnaire designed by the researcher. Nearly most of questions were in Likert scale but some of other questions have also been enclosed.
    The population of study included department members of Bu Ali Sina and Kurdistan universities. All members who were willing to fill our questionnaire were questioned. Of 495 members, 357 people were questioned. The hypotheses are the following:• There is a relationship between multiplicity of bands and subgroups and intragroup conflict.
    • Increase of disciplines inside group increases intragroup conflict.
    • Weakness of trust (intra and inter) is related with intragroup conflict.
    • Contrast between generations in the group has a significant relationship with intragroup conflict.
    • The more the group sizes the more intragroup conflict.
    • Number of higher education courses is related with intragroup conflict.
    • The more background differences the more intragroup conflict.
    Results
    Descriptive results show that Bu Ali Sina University has higher intragroup conflicts (mean of 6.5 in contrast to 5.1 of Kurdistan). Inter and intra group trust among Bu Ali Sina University members is higher than that of Kurdistan University.
    Hypothesis testing shows that multiplicity of bands and subgroups has not an impact on intragroup conflicts. Increasing disciplines within group increases the conflict. Regression analysis shows that this variable explains 7 percent of conflicts variance. Pearson Correlation testing of relationship between trust among members and intragroup conflicts shows a a positive relation (r=.44). Generation contrasts among members can also explain 14 percent of the dependent variable. Their relation is positive and in moderate level.
    Group size has a positive effect on intragroup conflicts. But the number of higher education courses has no effect on the dependent variable. Age structure, ethnic and sex composition have also no effect on intragroup conflicts.
    Conclusion
    The study of intra group conflicts in Bu Ali Sina and Kurdistan universities shows that Bu Ali university has higher mean of conflicts than Kurdistan university. From trust view point, Bu Ali Sina University has also lower trust than Kurdistan. But the two universities have no significant differences about member's contrasts. So, Bu Ali Sina University managers need more effort to repair this low trust and consequently more conflicts. Encouraging members to do joint work and publishing joint papers can be one of factors which can reduce conflicts and increasing trust.
    Results showed that diversity of disciplines within group increases conflicts. So, for those groups which have discipline diversity, it is better to distinguish these disciplines to sub-groups. Approximating members’ value structures and providing common knowledge sources which are close to each other so that situations are not win/loss but win/win ones can be solutions to reduce conflicts.
    Keywords: Department, Intra, group conflict, Trust, Structure, University
  • Hossein Serajzadeh, Maryam Jamehshoorany, Farshad Mohamady Pages 27-48
    Introduction
    The current survey has been conducted with the aim to examine the relation between religiosity and happiness. For this purpose the relation between the extent of religiosity and happiness has been studied and examined.
    In this study religiosity (extent and type) is an independent variable. The extent of religiosity has been measured using Glock and Stark's model and in 4 aspects of faith, experience, result and rituals. Social support, life meaningfulness, and adaptation with frustration and deprivation have been used as intermediate variables, each of which were measured using 7, 11 and 11 phrases, respectively. Happiness is a dependent variable which is measured using Oxford's standard measures and in 29 phrases.
    Theoretical Framework: In order to explain the relationship between religiosity and happiness three sets of theoretical studies were used. 1. The views of functionalist sociologists of religion, like Webber, Yinger, Girtz, Luckman, Berger and Odie. 2. Some theorists and thinkers in the scope of happiness, like Cheloby and VinHoven, consider a series of variable which are influential in the increase of happiness levels, and religiosity through its connection with these variables can cause happiness levels to rise. 3. Furthermore, some thinkers and researchers have directly examined and explained the relation between these two (religiosity and happiness) in various researches and reached conclusions; like the theoretical studies of Lim and Putnam, Headey, Kozaryan, etc; which are reviewed thoroughly in the theoretical section of the study.
    By examining the theories it was identified that religiosity strengthened people’s happiness by increasing social support, giving meaning to the individual’s life, and strengthening mental and social readiness for facing frustration and deprivation. Based on this model, the hypotheses of the study are: 1- More religious people have higher social support. 2. People with higher social support are happier. 3. More religious people have more meaning in their life. 4. People with meaningful lives are happier. 5. More religious people adapt to frustrations and deprivations better. 6. People who adapt to frustrations and deprivation better are happier. 7. More religious people are happier.
    Method
    The study was conducted as a survey and the data was gathered from questionnaires. The population of the study were the students of Kharazmi University’s Karaj campus from which a sample of 371 students were selected using Cocran’s sampling formula and proportional stratified method.
    Results
    The description of the studies variables are presented based on the mean of each variable. In this way that the scope of the scores for each variable are converted to 1 to 3 and then the mean score of each variable is reported. According to the descriptive results of the study, the mean of the variables are as follows: religiosity 2.43; social support 2.74; life meaningfulness 2.38; adaptation to frustration and deprivation 2.01; happiness 1.88.
    For examining and testing the relations of the study's variables Pearson’s correlation test, cross tables, two variable regression multi variable regression and path analysis were used. The results of Pearson’s correlation test show that a significant positive correlation exists between religiosity and the studies intermediate variables (social support, meaningfulness of life, and adaptation to frustration and deprivation) and dependent variable (happiness). Also the results of the multi variable regression show that independent variables (extent of religiosity, social support life meaningfulness, adaptation to frustration and deprivation) approximately describe 50.5% of the total changes in the dependent variable (happiness). Furthermore, the effect of religiosity on happiness was significantly negative (in contrast with the results of Pearson’s correlation). The results of path technique show that religiosity can have a positive effect on happiness through the intermediate variables of social support, meaningfulness of life, and adaptation to frustration and deprivation and can have a negative effect on happiness and practically decrease people’s happiness levels by creating a series of variables that were not considered in this study.
    Conclusion
    It can be stated that religiosity can have a significant positive effect on people’s happiness by providing mechanisms like bringing meaning to people’s lives, creating a network of social relationships, providing social support, providing justifications for frustrations and deprivation that might occur in the individuals life and adapting him to these frustrations and deprivations. Otherwise without considering the role of the intermediate variables, i.e. meaningfulness of life, social support and adaptation to frustrations and deprivation it can even have a relatively weak effect on people’s happiness. In fact, religiosity can have a negative effect on happiness and practically decrease people’s happiness level by developing a series of variables including creating a kind of obsession and fear of sin and its punishments, creating world aversion in the individual and creating dependency and lower levels of self-flourishing, inflexibility, dogmatism and tyranny.
    It can be stated that religion still plays an unmatched role in people’s lives (giving meaning to life) which other institutions like family, government and etc. are incapable of therefore they cannot replace religion and until religion plays this incomparable role it will still exist.
    Keywords: Religiosity, Social support, Life meaningfulness, Adaptation with frustration, deprivation, Happiness
  • Samad Adlipour, Seyed Ahmad Mirmohamadtabar, Simin Afshar, Maryam Sohrabi Pages 49-71
    Introduction
    With the expansion of modern information and communication technologies such as satellite channels and networks, individuals and ethnic groups use these media differently for creating and establishing their ethnic identity. The number of these satellite channels which are active based on ethnicity and their audiences are increasing day by day. This issue may face the role of the government and natural media with challenges in terms of communication and information. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the most important reasons and grounds of tendency of the youth of Tabriz City towards satellite channels of the two countries of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Turkey and the effects of these networks on the ethnic identity of this group of individuals in Tabriz.
    Theoretical Framework : Regarding the effect of media, there are different theories and ideas among which, the Cultivation Theory and the uses and gratifications theory were selected as the theoretical framework of the study. The Cultivation Theory emphasizes the interactions between media and those audiences using the media and how media influence their audiences. The main hypothesis of this theory is that there is direct relationship between the degree of encountering and using media and realism in contents and programs of those media in such a way that long hours of exposure to specific media cause the changes in attitudes and ideas in favor of media content. In fact, the Cultivation Theory studies the degree of the effect of these media by determining the degree and type of programs used by the media in order to achieve the mechanism and the way of influencing.
    The uses and gratifications theory in addition to considering audiences active, emphasizes their needs and motivations in using media and believes that values, interests, and social roles of audiences are important, and people select what they want to see and hear based on these factors.
    In general, with relying on the theoretical framework, this hypothesis can be presented that there is a significant relationship of the duration of using these channels, the degree of use of them, the type and aims of audiences (purposive and non-purposive), and trusts in contents of Turkish-speaking satellite channels with audiences’ ethnic identity.
    Methodology
    The present study was conducted using the descriptive mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative approaches). In addition, to collect data, the study uses a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. To do this research in the quantitative part, copies of the questionnaire were distributed among the sample in Tabriz suing quota random sampling method using easy convenience (with considering that the population size of the research was not exactly identified). The population included all the youth using Turkish-speaking satellite programs. The sample size consisted of 388 participants. The data were analyzed using software programs and multivariate regression. In addition, the variable of ethnic identity included 21 questions among which 10 questions were related to cultural and linguistic dimensions, 4 questions were related to social and political dimensions, and 3 questions were related to ethnocentrism. To investigate the relationship of variables in the qualitative part, the data obtained via semi-structured interviews with 20 participants using the purposive sampling method and, were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis technique in order that the most reasons and grounds of tendencies of the youth towards Turkish-speaking satellite channels can be obtained.
    Results
    The results indicate that about two third of the participants used these satellite programs for two hours or more per day. In the variable ethnic identity, 61.3% of the participants considered their ethnic identity at the high level, 32.5% of them at the moderate level, and 6.2% of them at the low level.
    Findings of the study indicated that there is a direct and significant correlation between the duration of using these programs, purposive uses, and trust in contents of these Turkish-speaking satellite channels with their users’ ethnic identity. Moreover, findings of the research show that dissatisfaction with provincial network programs of East Azerbaijan Radio and TV Organization and weaknesses in cultural representations or inappropriate representations of Turks in programs of the national media are considered as the most important reasons and grounds of tendencies of the youth of Tabriz towards Turkish-speaking satellite channels.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    In general, tendencies of the youth towards Turkish-speaking satellite channels refers to deficits in provincial network programs and weaknesses in cultural representations or inappropriate representations of culture, history, literature, language, and music of ethnic groups. Provincial network programs of East Azerbaijan Radio and TV Organization and even the national media allocate little time for representing music, dance, rituals, history, traditions of Turkish people and other ethnic groups. Therefore, audiences cannot realize their cultural and ethnic needs as much as possible and consequently, they tend to Turkish-speaking satellite channels of the two countries of Republic of Azerbaijan and Turkey in order to re-identify their ethnic identity. The theoretical basis of this claim is that in the globalization era, not only cultural-ethnic interests are not weakened, but tendencies to reconstructing their elements increase. In this arena, communication media have the main roles, and people tend to refer to their own cultural and ethnic identity and they tend to each medium representing their culture and ethnicity; there is no difference for the audience that what are the logos of the channels they are watching, or whether they are foreign or domestic. When a medium becomes the interest and preference of people, they see their cultural and identity images in it.
    Keywords: Turkish, speaking satellite channels, Identity, Ethnic identity, The youth of Tabriz City
  • Asadollah Babaiefard Pages 73-108
    Introduction
    Today, Globalization in many different areas of science is discussed and there are different tendencies towards this phenomenon. The basic assumption of this research is that the impact of Globalization depends on the sociocultural contexts of each society. This study, based on some theoretical arguments, as well as, the results of interviews with students at Tehran University, shows that Globalization does not mean Westernization. In this study, the Internet has been considered as an important tool of Globalization, in particular Cultural Globalization. The basic assumption of this research is that the Internet, according to the social and cultural contexts of individuals, groups and societies, can have different consequences for their Cultural Identity. To test this assumption, the Classical and Modern Literature about Globalization and the Internet have been investigated and then the results of empirical findings of this research are presented.
    Theoretical Framework: In this study, the views of some experts in Globalization, in particular, Stuart Hall's views about Identity and Culture in the age of Globalization and Anthony Godden's views about the Formation of Identity in Modern Era, has been selected as theoretical framework. The complexity of reading and interpreting media messages and the complexity of the phenomenon of Globalization, according to the various contexts and the social factors, according to Hall's approach, and the formation of Identity in Modern Era, the Interconnectedness of Global Human-Social phenomena, and the role of Human Agency in developing them, in particular, Globalization, according to Godden's approach, are the theoretical basis of this research. In such approaches, the complexity of Globalization, the process of using the Internet and their impact on Cultural Identity of individuals and communities are emphasized.
    Research and
    Method
    This research was conducted through a Case Study method. In Case Study method, the Theoretical or Targeted sampling is used. In this study, the researcher tried to choose students that are an example of professional Internet Users in Academia for interviews. Thereby, 30 students from 14 faculties of Tehran University at different educational levels were randomly selected and interviewed.
    Conclusion
    In all the interviews conducted with students, it was observed that, in different areas of student's life, Family, Religion, Nationality, Ethnic Identity and Culture, National Identity and Culture, National Personalities and Figures, have a very important position. In their view, belonging to an Ethnicity and Nationality does not contradict Globalization. They are fiercely opposed to the rejection of their own Culture and Cultural Alienation. Also, they believe that keeping alive the name and memory of National Personalities and Figures, because of its functions for society, is essential. Most of them believe that not only the Internet disrupts their Social Relations, but also they could have used significantly the various data of Internet in Scientific, Social and Cultural subjects. And finally, they consider Cross-Cultural Exchange and Global Communications necessary for the dynamism, progress and development of society.
    Suggestions: Generally, my strategies to Conscious Confrontation with the Phenomenon of Globalization include: 1. Criticism of Nostalgic attitudes towards the Past; 2. Criticism of negative attitudes towards Globalization and, instead, take advantage of its positive aspects; 3. Conscious and Non-Ideological confrontation with the phenomenon of Globalization; 4. Providing the requirements for Cultural Pluralism; 5. Rebuilding and strengthening internal Intellectual and Cultural Foundations; 6. Access to Communication and Cultural Authority, through the use of Global Cultural Goods. In general, the fact that Social Problems can be rooted in several factors and a variety of fields, hence, all of these factors and the areas should be identified by Social and Cultural Agents, and by removing existing constraints and problems, provide the necessary conditions for rational choice of Transboundary Intellectual and Cultural Elements. If we provide the necessary conditions for people's thinking and living and believe in their ability to choose the right way of thinking and living, and in addition to gaining their trust and establishing Unity and Social Cohesion, we can play an important role in building and strengthening their Self-Confidence, Self-Control and Intellectual and Cultural Maturity in the complex, changing, uncertain and uncontrollable life in today's Globalized World and Society, and in this way, help the progress and development of society in all aspects, especially in Intellectual and Cultural aspects.
    Keywords: Ethnic identity, National identity, Family identity making, Globalization, Cultural pluralism
  • Majid Kousheshi, Mohammad Mirzaei, Abolghasem Pourreza, Gholamreza Hasani Damiyan Pages 109-129
    Introduction
    Aging of population is a process in which the elderly constitute a great proportion of the society. This phenomenon is one of the most important consequences of demography and age distribution in the twenty-first century which continues to exist and will definitely remain. (Kalantari, Mehdi, 2007)
    In Iran, in the last two decades, the aging of population will dramatically increase due to the reduction in fertility and mortality level in infants and increase in the life expectancy. (Abbas Shavazi & Mohammad Jalal, 2001; Ahmadi, Vakil, Beheshti, Seyad Muhammad, 2007; Kusheshi, 1994)
    On the other hand, there is evidence in other countries that show the link between the health condition and social capital. Social capital is considered a determining factor in health condition and quality. (Qafari, Gholam Reza & Naz Muhammad Ounagh, 2006; Majedi, Seyad Masoud & Lahsayi Zadeh, Abdul Ali, 2006).
    Other studies (Kavachi et al, 2000; Douglas et al, 2006; Soleimani, Tahereh & Jamali, Mojdeh 2008) analyzed the effect of social capital on mental and social health.
    Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of social capital on the physical and psychosocial health of the elderly with sixty or more years of age living in the city of Mashhad, the second metropolitan city in Iran, with the population of almost 2800000 people, and the elderly constituting 6.5 percent of its population (2011 Census).
    Theoretical Framework: According to Preston’s theory, one of the recent consequences of epidemiological transition in the developing countries has occurred due to the increasing age of the population. The epidemiological status of these countries reflects the diseases and health conditions of the elderly instead of the infants. In particular, endogenous and chronic diseases and injuries from the accidents are the main causes of their deaths, which altogether draw the attention towards the health condition in senility.
    On the other hand, identifying the social factors is crucial in showing that the elderly’s conditions need more attention in the general health policies and it can reduce the inequalities in health issues. (Iman, Muhammad Taghi et al, 2008)
    Social capital is a broad term which consists of different aspects such as sociability, membership in social networks, trust, mutual relationships and social activities. Moro (1999) states that the core issue behind this concept seems to be how much the social capital is provided within people and how it is seen in family relations, social networks, social identity and social attachment. (Sharifian Sani, Maryam, 2001)
    The theoretical grounds for social capital are different but we can find many of these definitions in the works of Pierre Bourdieu (1986), James Colman (1988) and Robert Putnam (1993).
    Meanwhile, little study has been conducted for demonstrating the relationship between the social capital and health conditions (Hombres et al, 2007) and this issue has not well depicted whether social capital is the result of good health or not. Is good health condition the result of social capital? (Kawachi, 2007). Another issue recently mentioned in the literature (Vinstra, 2000; Kandu et al 2007; Debrand & Sirwan, 2008) is the evaluation of this issue as whether or not social capital has a protective effect on the health condition of all classes in the population. Given that the elderly have more time to participate in social activities due to the free time in retirement (Christopher, 2005) or less family limitations (Bowlen et al, 2003), we can conclude that social capital has a determining effect on the health conditions in senility.
    Methodology
    The research type is survey and the sampling technique is stratified random. The sample size is 570 people and the assessment tool is the Standard Health Questionnaire SF36. To collect the statistical data, interview was used. The social capital construct is based on the theories of Putnum and Coleman. In assessing the validity of the constructs of the questionnaire, content validity and factor analysis were used. Moreover, confirming the internal reliability of the questionnaire was done by Cronbach’s Alpha. The analysis of the data was conducted by statistical methods (Single variable tests, multiple regression, structural equation and path analysis) with the use of SPSS and EQS softwares.
    Findings: The results of the research show that the health condition of the elderly in Mashhad is at the average level but the health condition of men is better than that of women. Higher education, having a spouse and a good economic condition all contribute to a better health condition. Increase in social isolation and age has negative relationship with health condition. Social capital, as the most effective factor, explained 20 percent of direct and indirect changes in health condition of the elderly and in general the variables of this study have illustrated 37 percent of such health changes. Also, the direct effect of demographical variables has been more than other variables.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    As a factor in the success of social welfare and social health, social capital has attracted the attention of Bourdieu (1986), James Coleman (1988) and Robert Putnum (1993); the current study demonstrates that social capital can explain 20 percent of the discrepancy in health condition of the elderly by means of direct social support, social contribution and development in the quality and quantity of relationships. Generally, it can be mentioned that social capital more than the economic capital explains the health condition of the elderly in this study.
    Also, according to the results of the present study, apart from the direct effect that social capital has on the health condition of the elderly, it can act as a mediating variable on the inequalities of health condition and that it confirms Campbell’s viewpoint that it can be a buffer against the social and economic misfortunes and reduces the effects of economic loss.
    Keywords: Health, Senility, The elderly, Social capital, Mashhad
  • Hossein Mirzaei, Tavakol Aghayari, Khatereh Hydarnejad, Laleh Fathi Pages 131-148
    Introduction
    Co-existence is a mental-behavioral state held in common with members of a society, within which others are accepted as legitimate and equal-right partners. Becoming a common practice, co-existence can increase the level of corporation and social participation and reconcile the senses of value conflicts in the society. Because of inter and intra-societal diversities and complexities of social relations, social co-existence (its creation or maintenance) has become one of the main issues or challenges in contemporary social studies. Co-existence, like any other behavior, is socially learned (or thought) by the agents of socialization from the infancy. Among others, some of social and familial factors could promote the sense and practice of co-existence among students. The present study aimed at studying the level of social co-existence and some of its related social factors among pre-university students of Tabriz city.
    Theoretical Framework : Existing theoretical and empirical literature emphasized on various factors as promoters of co-existence. Putnam, emphasized on social capital as a main determinant (cited in Colman, 1994), and Sharepour and et al (2009) in an empirical study found out that social capital is among the main determinants of co-existence. Ghaith (2002), Hastings (2004), and Khosh Konesh (2010) showed that social support has significant impact on social co-existence. Socialization, parental style and familial atmosphere are among influencing factors of co-existence, especially among youngsters. Rastgaran (2014) observed evident relationships between these variables and co-existence.
    According to the theoretical and empirical frameworks, three main hypotheses have been examined, including:• Increases in social capital can positively affect the level of co-existence among students;
    • Social support can positively impact the level of co-existence among students;
    • And, the quality of familial relationships can affect the level of co-existence among students.
    Methodology
    The present study is an applied research and has been done utilizing the survey method. The study utilizes first-hand data gathered by the use of questionnaire. The sample, 360 students, are chosen from all pre-university female students of Tabriz city in the studying year 2013-14 (around 5866) by the use of Chochran's sampling formula and multi-stage stratified sampling technique.
    Findings: Reviewing descriptive statistics and taking student's majors into account, around 30.2 percent of them were studying mathematics, and 24.7, 39.7, and 5.5 percent were studying humanities, medicine and arts, respectively. Mean grade point average for the students was 16.58 (SE= 2.13). Mean score for social co-existence is 67.78 (Min 8.75; Max 96.25), indicating a relatively high score by itself.
    Results for testing the three mentioned hypotheses, show that all three independent variables; namely social support (r= 0.359), social capital (r= 0.305), and quality of familial relationship (r= 0.134) are positively and significantly related to the level of co-existence. Therefore, it could be concluded that those student who experience more social support, have higher levels of social capital, and have qualified familial relationships, have got higher scores of co-existence, too.
    Summary and
    Conclusion
    Findings of the study show that, those students with higher levels of social support, compared to others have got higher scores on co-existence index. Creation and promotion of this sense, in one sense, will depend on awareness of the parents and school administrators of this effect.
    Further efforts to promote the sense of co-existence among students will be improvement of social capital. As students develop extensive and trusted social ties with their peers, family members, and acquaintances, they will experience higher levels of the sense of co-existence at school, as well.
    Another promoting factor with respect to social co-existence among students is the quality of their familial relationships. Findings show that quality of the relationship between students and their parents, can affect their experienced level of co-existence. Higher levels of co-existence are seen among students who have their parental relationships based on mutual understanding, while students with non-corporative parental relationships, and have shown lower levels of co-existence at school.
    Findings clearly indicated that family and familial experiences have a crucial role in formation of the social co-existence. Those students who are given rationalized support; and are given proper love and care; and are given the sense of self-worth by their parents, can count on their family and parents in all stages and matters of their lives and foster the sense of companionship and learn to abandon some of their personal desires in favor of others. Children via having these mentioned characteristics in their relationships (which are first, fostered by the family), will be able to motivate the higher levels of the sense of social co-existence, when entering into the social life. Therefore, to foster the sense of co-existence among students, parents used to be informed and even educated, with respect to the role of parental relationships on children's social and academic experiences.
    On the other hand, school's administrators can encourage the sense of empathy among students by fostering interactional friendship, mutual respect, and corporation in educational affairs. This will pave the road for promotion of the sense of social co-existence among students, via instructing them to establish good social relationships; strengthening the sense of self control; increasing their awareness of rights and responsibilities; realizing their strengths and weaknesses; and understanding their similarities and differences from others. Furthermore, because of the personal differences among students in terms of intelligence, personality characteristics, family background, etc, schools and teachers can further increase the level of social co-existence among students by making use of participatory teaching methods. This will lead to enhancement of inter and intra-group relationships among students and promote the sense of tolerance and co-existence in a practical manner.
    Keywords: Social co, existence, Social support, Social capital, Parental relationship
  • Farnaz Sobhani, Hossein Behravan, Mohsen Noghani Pages 149-170
    Introduction
    With the spread of the Internet in different societies, marriage dating websites have been widely welcomed. As disclosed in a report from the deputy of Sport and Youth Ministry, 300 marriage dating websites are not active, none of which are approved by law enforcement and the government. He has mentioned that three years ago, the number of such websites was between 100 and 120, yet this number has grown threefold. They have managed to take the attention of many young people, yet they have no liability with respect to the infringements.
    Although this method of marriage dating websites could lead to the ease of marriage, it can have certain damages such as lack of training, low supervision, instability of relationships in the virtual world and the lack of consultation. Many of such websites are a place for making friends and seeking illicit relationships. Some make millions from selling and buying the private information of different people. In some cases, the account details were checked by court order, and the result indicated 11-digit sums of money being transferred. For example, daily transfer of one of such websites included 12 million Tomans . Despite many problems such websites have for their users, debates still remain on why they are so popular? This article aims to provide answer for this question and analyze the negative and positive attitudes toward such websites.
    Theoretical Framework: Positive individualism has a relationship with the freedom from social constraints and cruel conditions. Negative individualism leads to separation from others and the lack of responsibility toward partners (Wagner, 1986).
    According to rational decision theory, men are national and their reaction comes into play under certain circumstances according to an understanding of the most efficient instruments of goal fulfillment (Wallace & Wolf, 1999, p. 294).
    Louise Worth explains that spatial separations in urban environment have weakened the neighbor relationships (Tankis, 2011, p. 25). Egboneh (2001, p. 239) believes that empowerment is the more access of women on their lives and resources. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, after satisfying a level of needs, the needs of the other levels become important (Mendoza, 1995, p. 156).
    From Gidden's point of view, the need to trust is associated with the distance of time and space relationships (Ritzer, 1999, p. 768).
    Durkheim states that under stable social condition, human wishes become constrained and modified via norms. When norms are disestablished, anomie is born. Since big and wild wishes cannot be saturated, social discontent emerges as a result of negative social actions (RafiPoor, 1999, p. 18).
    Method
    Given the type and nature of the research question, qualitative content analysis was adopted with a comparative approach. The reason for such choosing was the existence of many viewpoints regarding the topic. However, this does not mean that our research was quantitative since the role of theory here was only to direct the process of studying in a more structured manner. By extracting relevant categories from theories and empirical backgrounds and providing operational definition for these categories, the notes of the users of two highly popular websites, "The Best Spouse" and "Two Confidant" , were encoded, and each note was put under the relevant category. The results of encoding were then analyzed.
    The research validity was checked with respect to form and theory. The results were in line with the theories. The reliability of the research was checked after repeating the encoding of the categories by the author and his two friends who were expert in content analysis. The encoding was repeated and compared, finally there was unity if their findings.
    Findings: The results showed that the most important factors associated with membership in marriage dating sites are gaining independence in spouse selection, lack of commitment and parental choice of spouse for their children, marriage greater advantages than traditional dating sites, limitation of people's relationships metropolises, violation of sexism, meeting individual needs, communication problems in the real world, being divorced, being physically disabled, aging, exogamy, discrimination and prejudice. On the other hand factors such as negative attitudes toward dating sites, lack of supervision, lack of trust in virtual space were important factors in the lack of interest in such websites.
    Conclusion and
    Discussion
    On the one hand, there are certain gaps in societies that make the grounds for migration of people to such websites, and on the other hand, as societies develop, the role of such websites become more important in finding a spouse. Therefore, there is an urgent need for proper management of this environment. Furthermore, the constant teaching of parents via public media and providing a proper economic means for marriage should be enforced. Designing training programs for explaining the experience of victims together with careful monitoring on the part of relevant centers and governmental organs are necessary in order to prevent violations.The designing of websites should be in line with Iranian-Islamic norms and culture and should not blindly follow the western traditions. Marriage dating websites should be viewed as an introductory phase in marriage, a stage that should be accompanied with parents and advisors. People's interests and independence should be taken into account in marriage, and forced marriages should not be the case anymore.
    Keywords: Marriage dating websites, Qualitative content analysis, Rational choice, Anonymity
  • Mohammad Abbaszadeh, Leila Alavi, Hosein Banifatemeh, Mohammadbagher Alizadehaghdam Pages 171-196
    Introduction
    Study about environmental behavior and its effective factors is the basic issue in environmental sociology. Most studies emphasize on attitudes, knowledge and awareness about environment ant its risks. Few of them have focused on other social and environmental factors such as direct environmental experience. It seems that we cannot predict the type of environmental behavior, just with awareness about type of environmental values accepted by the people, the level of environmental knowledge and environmental attitudes of them. Thus, other social and environmental factors should be considered in explaining the type of environmental behavior of citizens. Therefore, it is possible that the physical characteristics of natural environment in which people present in their daily lives and type of relationship between natural environment and individuals, effect on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between environmental attitude (EA), environmental experience (EE) and environmental behavior (EB). In addition, in this article the effect of EA as a mediating variable was studied. Therefore, the basic motivation of this study can raise the following question: Is environmental experience an effective factor on responsible environmental attitude and behavior?
    Theoretical Framework: This paper claims that new environmental paradigm and post materialism values approach follow the simplest model that explains environmental behavior (American model). In this model, linear sequence of environmental knowledge, environmental attitude and environmental behavior is assumed. This research puts aside that usual optimism in environmental sociology and looks for other factor besides environmental attitude in shaping the environmental behavior. Duerden, Witt and Kellert claims direct experience of natural environment impacts on individuals’ environmental attitude and behavior.
    Methodology
    Methodologically, this paper is an extensive study and in terms of time is a sectional one. The statistical population includes 15 to 75 year old citizens of Tabriz and the sample size is 442, which was selected by cluster sampling. Also, the type of this research is an applied one, method used in research is survey and the technique for gathering data is questionnaire. Validity of questionnaire was checked with factor analysis and reliability of that was checked whit cronbach’s alpha. All of cronbach’s alpha are higher than 0.6, so reliability of indices, dimensions and variables is confirmed. Environmental behavior was measured by Stern's questionnaire (2000) and Milfont and Duckitt's questionnaire (2010). This variable has two dimensions of environmental behavior in private and public spheres. The Environmental Attitude Inventory (EAI) by Milfont and Duckitt (2010) provides environmental attitude data. This variable has 5 indicators (Enjoyment of Nature, Environmental Threats, protection of the environment motivated by anthropocentric concern, Human non-dominance over nature belief and Human non-utilization of nature belief). Environmental direct experience has no standard scale and we created a scale for this construct. All the questions are in ordinal level and responses have been established in 6 degree Likert scale.
    Results
    Results show that environmental experience average score is about 50 percent. Average score of environmental behavior and environmental attitude are 74.5 and 75.83. Average of public environmental behavior as a dimension of environmental behavior is 80.66 percent that is higher than the average score of private environmental behavior (68.5 percent). Index of protection of environment motivated by anthropocentric concern has higher average (83 percent) between other indices of environmental attitude. Lower average belongs to human non-dominance over nature belief (64 percent). The correlation coefficient between environmental attitude and behavior is 0.398. This coefficient between environmental experience and behavior is 0.152. Both of coefficients are significant in 0.05. Also, the result of SEM shows that environmental attitude and environmental experience directly effect on environmental behavior and their path coefficients are 0.39 and 0.13. Also, mediating effect of environmental attitude in relationship of environmental experience and environmental behavior is confirmed. Important Goodness of fit indices such as RMSEA, GFI and AGFI confirm the structural model of this research.
    Conclusion
    Presence and relatedness with nature increases the emotional tendencies toward natural settings. Individuals with Natural Experience see themselves as part of nature and have less anthropocentric orientations and behaviors in dealing with nature. Environmental experience increases individuals understanding about interdependence of nature and human. This perception provides the basis for motivating people to care and protect the environment. Direct Experience of nature make a deep and creative protective attitude in human that is the basis of moral system. This respect for the natural world causes the emergence of exciting surprises in front of nature complexities and sense of moral responsibility. Many Protective and responsible behaviors are formed in this way. Decisions made about environmental risks by individual with more direct environmental experience, are serious and practical. People who experience water pollution and death of fishes in polluted rivers because of sewage spill in it, act responsibly about these risks and even spend money to save the environment from threats and risks.
    Keywords: Environmental behavior, Environmental attitude, Environmental experience, SEM, Tabriz
  • Zahra Ghafary, Mansour Haghighatiyan Pages 197-216
    Introduction
    Social mobility indicates the dynamic aspect of the society and indicates the efforts and activities of every individual, group and institution in changing their social status, generally from lower to upper levels in society. The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of objectified cultural capital on intergenerational social mobility in Gorgan city, Iran. The theoretical ground for this article is based on the cultural theory of Pierre Bourdieu. Bourdieu underscores the cultural roles such as cultural capital in the success and failure of the agents in work. According to the issues mentioned above, the questions of this study are as follows: 1) what kind of relationship is there between objectified cultural capital and social mobility level of the citizens in Gorgan? 2) What kind of effect does gender role have on social mobility level of citizens in Gorgan? 3) What is the status of horizontal, descending and ascending social mobility in Gorgan? In this article efforts and scientific studies were made to answer the questions raised above.
    Theoretical Framework: The transition of an individual from one social status to another is called “social mobility”. The transition of an individual from a social status to a similar one is called “horizontal mobility”. The transition from one stratum to another, whether it is toward the upper or lower level is “vertical mobility”. There are two approaches based on the classic and modern theories of social strata and mobility. 1) Those who evaluate the various strata within the framework of social strata by defining their occupations.Sociologists who think status cannot be transformed to a particular stratum do not regard occupation as the only index for strata. Bourdieu identifies three types of cultural capital in his book The Forms of Cultural Capital: 1) Embodied cultural capital such as memory, experiential, behavioral and acquired skills are considered as physical and individual capitals. 2) Objectified cultural capital includes cultural and media objects which in fact are parts of one’s properties as well as one’s objectified abilities such as works of art and writing. 3) Institutionalized cultural capital suggests educational degrees. Academic proficiency brings with it symbolic and economic benefits such as a high salary and a high profile job. Professional degrees are examples of institutional capital.
    Methodology
    This article is a survey study in terms of its method. In order to get the needed information, in-depth interview and questionnaire are used. To determine the content validity, content validity ratio (CVR) technique is used. After designing the questionnaire and pilot study among 30 participants, the reliability level of questions was calculated (82%) by Cronbach’s alpha. The unit of analysis is the respondent individual in this study. The statistical population includes all the men and women of 30 to 54 years of age in Gorgan, which according to the 2011 census was equal to 146238 people. The sample size was 384 people according to the Cochran’s sample size formula. To choose the samples, random multistage sampling was used.
    Results And Discussion
    Out of 384 participants in this study, 50.3 percent were men and 49.7 were women. In terms of group age, 20.3 percent were 30 to 34 years of age, 20.1 percent were 35 to 39 years of age, 19.8 percent were 45 to 49 years of age and 20.1 percent were 50 to 54 years of age and the average age was 42.3. The result of the Pearson Coefficient Correlation indicated that with 0.081 and with 0.119 level of significance, the research hypothesis 1 that there is a significant relationship between the objectified cultural capital and intergenerational social mobility of citizens in Gorgan is thus found: with 95 percent of confidence coefficient, the research hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis, that there is no relationship between the objectified cultural capital and intergenerational social mobility, is proved. According to the amount of the calculated t(2.638) and the level of significance (0.009), we can say that the research hypothesis (H1), that the gender of participants causes difference in the level of intergenerational social mobility,is proved with the confidence coefficient of more than 95 %; and the null hypothesis (H0), that the participants’ gender does not cause any difference in the level of intergenerational social mobility, is rejected.
    Conclusion and Suggestions for Further Research: The results of the research showed that there is no relationship between the objectified cultural capital and the social mobility in Gorgan. According to the calculated mean, the level of intergenerational social mobility of men being equal to 3.050 out of 5 and that of women being 2.268 out of 5, we can conclude that men’s level of intergenerational social mobility was more than that of women’s. Of the total participants’ social mobility level, 8.6 percent was made up by descending intergenerational social mobility, 24 percent was made up by the horizontal intergenerational social mobility and 67.4 percent was made up by the ascending intergenerational social mobility.
    Keywords: Cultural capital, Objectified cultural capital, Intergenerational social mobility, Gorgan
  • Aliakbar Majdi, Hosein Ramazani, Mozhgan Azimi Pages 217-238
    Introduction
    The children of martyrs face many challenges in their individual and social lives, among which are identity challenges. When encountering such challenges, the role of social networks is vital in providing different kinds of social support for them. Due to their special condition, these children get harmed very quickly as a result of ignorance and disregard. The process of identity formation is not a separate issue from the social environment; rather, identity is formed as a result of relations with society members. One of the factors which affects identity formation and has almost been neglected is social support.
    Theoretical Framework: Social support creates a secure and trustful relationship for each individual. Moreover, it is a bilateral aid which results in a positive perception of the self, acceptance of the self and a feeling of self-worth, all of which provide the opportunity for self-actualization. Social support has two main dimensions: the mental dimension of social support is the perceptions that the individual has about the influential individuals who have the potential to help him/her in times of insolvency and hopelessness. The actual or objective dimension of social support depends on the degree of help that the individual has actually received. Social support influences the identity style of individuals. However, the influence is different for each of the identity styles. In the current study, three identity styles are taken into consideration: Informational identity style: this identity style is characterized by encountering identity issues and decision-making situations through active processing and evaluating the information related to the self. Individuals with an informational identity style make use of the problem-based approach, they are responsible and goal-oriented and have trust in the information related to themselves. Therefore, they do not delay their tasks and duties.
    Normative identity style: individuals with this type of identity are responsible and goal-oriented, but also very structured. They are not open to information that may be in conflict with their personal values and beliefs. Individuals who use the normative identity style are more defensive and less open to feedback about some of the aspects of themselves such as personal values.
    Diffusive-avoidant identity style: individuals with this identity style use the diffusive-avoidant identity processing style. They try to avoid encountering identity issues and conflicts as much as possible. When they are forced to make a decision, they act based on a situational-emotional style and are easily influenced by the immediate outcomes of that decision. Diffusive-avoidant individuals always try to avoid encountering personal issues, conflicts and decision-making situations.
    Methodology
    This descriptive-analytical study has a functional aim and has been conducted through field studies and survey. The population of this study consisted of 3938 children of martyrs, veterans with 50% and higher degrees of injury and the freedmen of Neyshabur, Iran. Overall, 350 children were selected randomly and systematically from the population.
    Results
    The descriptive findings of the current study indicated that normative identity style is stronger than the other identity styles with a mean of 3.18. Moreover, social support was at an average level and the perceived social support by the respondents was more than the actual support they had received.
    The results of the regression test for investigating the correlation between the degree of social support and its dimensions (perceived and received) and the informational identity style showed a significant correlation between the two variables (df= 0.000). The correlation between the dimensions of social support (perceived and received) and the normative identity style was not significant. The results indicated a significant inverse correlation between the degree of social support and its dimensions and the diffusive-avoidant identity style. The degree of social support was higher for female respondents as compared to the male participants. Moreover, there was a significant difference between male and female respondents regarding identity styles.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results of the current study indicated that received social support has more effect on the identity styles of participants. Identity commitment had a positive correlation with social support and informational and normative identity styles. There was also a negative correlation between social support and the diffusive-avoidant identity style.
    Quantitative studies have directly investigated the relation between social support and identity styles. However, some points could be mentioned regarding the influences of social support: there is a strong relationship between perceiving higher social support from friends and family and a predictable, structured, controllable, and optimistic providence with strong commitments in the fields of identity.
    Behavioral characteristics of the family such as support, collaboration and kindness are strong predictors of the growth of adolescents’ identity. Moreover, there is a strong relationship between the growth of an appropriate identity and the atmosphere of the family. Higher social support by the family and a high level of self-expression are related to a high level of professional job identity.
    Adolescents who were at a higher level of classified identity exploration came from families who had more opportunities for self-expression in a supportive environment. It can be concluded that individuals who have good social relations in the society and are supported by their family and other social institutions mostly use the normative and informational identity styles and those who have weak social relations and do not receive significant social support mostly make use of the diffusive-avoidant identity style.
    Keywords: Perceived social support, Received social support, Berzonsky's identity styles
  • Ali Yousofi, Mohammad Ghorbani, Somayeh Varshoe Pages 239-260
    Introduction
    Under the condition that aquatics plays an important role in supplying the animal protein and in contrast to protein resources, aquatics has higher food value. The amount of aquatics and fishery consumption is very low in contrast to other kinds of meat among Iranian families. The article attempts to investigate fish consumption among the city dwellers in three the provinces of Iran, including Khorasan Razavi, Southern, and Northern Khorasan. The main question of this study deals with the evaluation of the relative advantage of fish consumption and also the factors that are important in the advantages of fish consumption.
    Theoretical framework: The Programmed Behavior Theory is one of the most complete patterns in behavior prediction in comparison to other behavioral theories, and it is also an important model in food selection. Ayzen (2002) believes that this theory is one of the influential theories in determining consumption behavior and the interaction among human beings. The Programmed Behavior Theory is based on intellectual interaction hypothesis. According to this theory, it is enough to identify intellectual elements to determine interaction. According to Conscious Will Theory, the main criterion for comparing the advantages and disadvantages of actions is their usefulness. One of the determining factors in each behavior is the intention to do the behavior. These beliefs are categorized in 3 aspects; behavioral, orthodox, and control beliefs. In addition to this theory, The Theory of Transfer is used. Therefore, social behavior is a kind of reinforcing or damaging reward. Therefore, basic social behaviour can be determined according to reward or damage. Inspiring and damaging rewards can act as hindering behavior.
    Methodology
    The population of the study includes city residents in the three provinces of Khorasan in 1390 that were selected based on categorized two-level and random sampling. Overall, 1229 families were selected and the house wife in each family was interviewed based on the same questionnaire.
    Results
    The evaluation of the highest relative benefit was carried out based on criteria such as interest, economical issues, and the preparation with chicken meat. The highest benefit in terms of the health of meat belongs to fish meat. The highest benefit concerning the nutritional varieties and taste in relation to red meat. In addition, the highest perceived benefit in terms of the criteria for the ease of maintenance belongs to plant foods as an alternative for meat. The priorities of families for consumption are chicken meat, mutton, and the food that is substituted for mutton and fish respectively.
    The results of covariance analysis also show that the simultaneous impact of influential factors on the evaluation of fish benefits on the amount of the evaluation of fish consumption benefits is quite significant (.000). 63.6 percent of the variances in evaluation of fish consumption benefits in all three Provinces of Khorasan Razavi, Northern and Southern Khorasan are explained by the variables included in the model and the hybrid forms (interactive). Individual impact of five variables as the evaluation of chicken consumption benefit, evaluation of meat substitute benefit, evaluation of the red meat consumption benefit, pressure of norms and social rewards to evaluate the benefit of fish consumption is quite significant. Moreover, the combined effect of the evaluation of fish consumption benefit, evaluation of meat substitute consumption benefit, evaluation of red meat consumption benefit to the assessment of fish consumption is significant.
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    Despite the many advantages, the evaluation of fish consumption benefits on factors such as interest, economical issues, safety, easy preparation and cooking, cooking variety, ease of maintenance and taste, is low in comparison with other types of meat. So, the evaluation of fish consumption benefit is placed after other kinds of meats and meat substitute foods. On the other hand, among the criteria mentioned, only the highest evaluation in terms of health benefits is related to fish meat. On the other hand, the lowest average consumption of fish is related to food diversity priority. Among the most important variables that affect the evaluation of fish consumption benefits are the fish-substitute foods (meat and vegetable dishes) that influence the assessment of fish consumption benefits.
    The assessment of meat and vegetables benefits that substitute fish are presented as control factors that are a yardstick for the comprehension of fish consumption control. That is, the factors that affect individuals’ behavior in that in similar conditions that person will make the most rational decision. In other words, according to the Conscious Will Theory, when the consumer is considered as a wise person, in a determined information framework, selects a kind of food that substitute fish and other kinds of meat or vegetable foods. Likewise, as in the influential factors affecting fish benefits, the greatest prediction index is related to the assessment of red meat consumption benefits that has a negative influence on the evaluation of fish consumption benefits. This means that by selecting the red meat as a food that has the most mental benefit, the evaluation of fish benefit is reduced. The evaluation of meat substitute and chicken meat benefits has the highest predictability index on the evaluation of fish consumption benefits. A person that selects chicken meat and meat substitute food that fitted the most benefit according to the desired criteria can control his/her behaviour to consumption and the avoidance of fish consumption and buying intention.
    In explaining the obtained results, it can be said that, the provinces of Khorasan, have rational interaction to consciousness and intellectual calculation in a way that in fish consumption, the best practices for using fish is chosen. This is also in accordance with Rational Choice Theory, on the basis of its benefits. Advantage by itself is related to a variance of advantage and the value of each advantage is determined by the subject. The results of the study showed that the individual impact factor of mental norms variables of fish consumption (orthodox pressure and social reward) has also a significant impact on the assessment of fish consumption benefits.
    Keywords: Evaluation of benefit, Fish consumption, orthodox strain, social reward consumption