فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 5, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/09/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari * Page 1
  • Mohammad Moradi-Joo, Sahar Mohabbat-Bahar, Saeed Heidari, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Sepideh Gareh Sheyklo, Mohammad-Esmaeil Akbari * Page 2
    Context: Metformin has been used for diabetic patients. This medicine might decrease the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of this article was to determine the breast cancer risk in diabetic patients and its association with metformin and sulfonylurea.
    Evidence Acquisition: In order to gather evidences, main databases [MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane library, Science Direct, Trip, Google Scholar, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), SCOPUS and EMBASE] as well as relevant websites have searched without time limitation up to June 2015. We have searched with appropriate keywords and strategies. After quality assessment of studies, consequences of risk and mortality for breast cancer have extracted. RevMan and comprehensive meta-analysis software has used, if needed, for meta-analysis.
    Results
    A total of 423 studies, 352 studies have entered firstly and 11 studies have selected after final review. According to the significance of heterogeneity (I2 = 94%) in these studies, meta-analysis have scrutinized by step by step removing the studies to investigate the reason of heterogeneity. So the relative risk of breast cancer was significant in favor of metformin (RR: 0.63, 95% CI (0.56 - 0.70), Pv
    Conclusions
    In this study, we have concluded that the incidence of breast cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who have used metformin might be less than who have used sulfonylurea. However, this finding should consider carefully and needed to be confirmed with further studies.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Diabetes, Metformin, Sulfonylurea, Systematic Review, Meta, Analysis
  • Nasim Khorshidian, Mojtaba Yousefi Asli, Hedayat Hosseini, Mahdi Shadnoush *, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian Page 3
    Context: Nowadays, it has been proved that there is a relation between dietary habits and incidence of different types of cancers. Consumption of processed foods exposes human to a wide range of toxicants such as heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, acrylamide and nitrosamines that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on body and especially induce colon cancer. Under such circumstances, search for antimutagenic agents and helpful strategies have gained interest.
    Evidence Acquisition: We performed a computerized search of Scopus, Pubmed and google scholar databases with keywords: cancer, food toxicants, lactic acid bacteria, and probiotics.
    Results
    Natural dietary compounds like lactic acid bacteria and probiotics can be beneficial in decline of detrimental effects associated with toxicants formed during food processing. It has been stated that binding ability of lactic acid bacteria and probiotics via their cell wall have prominent roles in detoxifying these toxicants. Also, this capability is influenced by various factors.
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that probiotics can play a vital role in prevention of colon cancer that is induced by food toxicants and their incorporation into food can be helpful in this respect.
    Keywords: Anticarcinogenic, Cancer, Food Toxicants, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Probiotics
  • Morteza Hashemian, Mohammadreza Aflatoonian, Behnaz Aflatoonian, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Atieh Akbari * Page 4
    Background
    Normally, surgery is the first choice of treatment for breast cancer which brings about side effects as chronic pain. Post mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is one of the most prevalent side effects in breast cancer survivors as a chronic neuropathic pain lasting more than three months. The precise mechanisms and risk factors connected to chronic pain after breast surgery are not identified.
    Objectives
    This study is aimed at identifying the effects of fertility on PMPS after breast surgery in breast cancer patients.
    Methods
    In this case-control study, a total number of 111 women were studied. Of these, 56 women were diagnosed with positive PMPS and place in the case group, and 55 patients without pain were selected as the control group. The patients’ demographic and clinical information were collected by means of a questionaire and their medical files. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, chi-square, Mann-whitney U, Regression Logisitic (Backward), were used to analyze the data in SPSS 22 software.
    Results
    According to the acquired results, the mean age of the study population was 49.77 ± 10.94, the mean weight was 69.5 ± 11.45 kg, the mean height was 160 ± 8.14 centimeter and mean BMI was 27.4 ± 5.4. All in all, the results showed that fertile women were more likely not to suffer from PMPS compared to nulipar women, and there was not a correlation between psychological disorders or other diseases, and PMPS.
    Conclusions
    Fertility is not only a decrescent factor of breast cancer, but also reduces PMPS in breast cancer patients. Encouraging timely fertility, and pregnancy and lactation cares must be the major part of reproductive health education programs.
    Keywords: Fertility, Breast Cancer, PMPS, Women
  • Marzieh Badinloo, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani * Page 5
    PI3K/Akt/mTOR would be an important intracellular signal pathway which has found to be over-activated in neoplasia. Here, the combination effect of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and rapamycine (mTOR inhibitor) has evaluated in different human lung cancer cell lines.
    MTT assay has used to assess the viability of Calu-6, SK-MES-1 and A549 cancer cells. The levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis (activated caspase-3) and cell proliferation (c-Myc and cyclin D1) have evaluated by immunoblotting.
    The data has shown that blockade of PI3K/Akt cascade with LY294002 (0.1-100 µM) resulted in growth inhibition with IC50 ranging from 7 to 35 µM. LY294002 plus rapamycin (10 nM) significantly enhanced the growth inhibition rate and elevated cleaved caspase-3 in A549 and SK-MES-1 cells. Moreover, such combination therapy had a potent decreasing effect on c-Myc and cyclin D1 protein levels.
    Taken together, combined inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has represented a promising treatment strategy for lung cancer but the effectiveness of such combination therapy has been depending on the cancer cell types.
    Keywords: Lung Cancer, PI3K, mTOR, LY294002, Rapamycin, Apoptosis
  • Fatemeh Mezginejad*, Fatemeh Haghighi, Mahmoodreza Behravan, Bita Bijari Page 6
    Introduction
    Cancer is ranked as the third leading cause of death in Iran. Today, more than 20 million people worldwide suffer from this disease. By the year 2030, this number is predicted to reach 75 million. Regarding the importance of cancer and its outbreak and different age patterns for cancer outbreak and also the occurrence of cancer in different geographic regions, the current study aimed at studying the occurrence of this disease during 3 past years in order to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of the cases among patients visiting educational hospitals in Birjand, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, patients visiting educational hospitals affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS) from December 22, 2011 to December 22, 2013 were assessed. The required data was collected from medical records of patients. Demographic data such as age, gender, types of cancer, and the total number of pathological cases were collected and recorded. The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS (V;15. using χ2 and ANOVA test).
    Results
    The results show that 458 out of 2631 of biopsy samples referred to the pathology wards in the educational hospitals of BUMS suffered from cancer, among whom 257 (56.1%) were male and 201 (43.9%) were female. The most common cancers were those of the brain and the spinal cord (15.1%), skin (14.8%), and the breast (14%). The mean age of the patients was 60.35 ± 17.15 years. The most common cancer in men was stomach cancer (17.1%), and the most common cancer in women was breast cancer (31.8%). There could be found a significant relation between the type of cancer and gender (P = 0.001).
    Conclusions
    Considering the importance of cancer and the possibility of prevention and treatment in the early stages of most cancers, and carrying out research projects to find risk factors related to common cancers in the area, one can use mass media for further awareness of the public and their education; and also help patients who pass away as a result of lack of awareness.
    Keywords: Cancer, Epidemiology, Age, Gender, Birjand
  • Mokhtar Soheylizad, Salman Khazaei, Somayeh Khazaei, Shahab Rezaeian* Page 7
    This study aimed to identify the role of HDI in the incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer (LC) worldwide. Data about the incidence and mortality rate of LC for the year 2012 was obtained from the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data about the HDI and other indices were obtained for 169 countries from the United Nations development programme database. In 2012, LC was estimated to have affected a total of 1,824,701 individuals (crude rate: 25.9 per 100,000 individuals), and caused 1,589,925 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 22.5 per 100,000 individuals). LC accounts for 13% of total cancers incidence. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and LC incidence (R = 0.79, P
    Keywords: Lung Cancer, Human Development Index, Incidence, Ecological Study
  • Ali Taghizadeh Kermani, Rosita Vakili, Samaneh Dadkhah, Amir Hossein Jafarian, Reza Bagheri * Page 8
    Background
    HER-2/neu overexpression has been reported in various human cancers and identified as a significant predictor of poor survival. In this study HER-2/neu overexpression and its associations with clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed on 64 patients with histological diagnosis of primary ESCC who underwent surgery for curative treatment. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess expression of HER-2/neu receptor in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks.
    Results
    The mean age of patients was 60.1 ± 1.28 years. The overall HER2 expression was observed in 51.5% of ESCC patients without considering IHC scores. HER2/neu overexpression (6%) was significantly associated with the tumor differentiation (P
    Conclusions
    No significant correlations were found between HER2/neu overexpression and gender, age, tumor invasion, location of tumor, TNM stages and stage of tumor in patients with ESCC.
    Keywords: HER, 2, neu, Overexpression, ESCC, Differentiation
  • Sayede Mahboobeh Hosseini, Mir Taher Mousavi, Hassan Rafiee, Salah Eddin Karimi * Page 9
    Background
    Nowadays, research about quality of life in breast cancer patients is so important, because of progress in treatment procedure in health science. Brest cancer influences quality of life aspects and disrupts social relationships. This creates recluse lifestyle and speeds up disease trend.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect(s) of social capital on quality of life, treatment compliance, and pain in patients with breast cancer.
    Materials And Methods
    In a clinical trial, 29 patients with breast cancer (who referred to Kashany hospital in Shahrekord during 2010 - 2012) through non-probability (available) sampling were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group received some interventions to promote social capital and the non-intervention group took routine treatment.
    Results
    Before the intervention, both groups were similar in terms of the study variables. But after the intervention, in the intervention group social capital, Qol and treatment compliance increased and in the non-intervention group, these variables decreased. Pain in both groups was reduced, but this reduction was more noticeable in the intervention group.
    Conclusions
    Increasing the social capital results in promoting Qol, health behaviors, treatment compliance and pain relief. Then methods of promoting social capital can be used as a way to improve Qol and treatment compliance and relieve pain.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Pain, Quality of Life, Social Capital, Treatment Compliance
  • Naimeh Seyedfatemi, Marjan Mardani Hamooleh*, Leili Borimnejad, Mamak Tahmasebi Page 10
    Background
    Palliative care is an important part of effective cancer care
    Objectives
    The purpose of our study was to explore the lived experiences of nurses providing psychological palliative care for cancer patients in Iran.
    Methods
    A hermeneutic phenomenological study was performed. We interviewed 11 oncology nurses to understand their lived experiences in cancer wards about psychological palliative care. We employed a seven-stage process of data analysis.
    Results
    One constitutive pattern ‘palliative care as the driving force for providing psychological comfort to patients with cancer’ and three associated themes, namely ‘stress management’, ‘empathetic behavior’, and ‘all-embracing outlook’, were identified.
    Conclusions
    The findings present better understanding of the lived experiences of oncology nurses in Iran regarding the phenomena under study.
    Keywords: Cancer, Hermeneutic, Lived Experience, Palliative Care, Phenomenology
  • Ali Ghanbariasad, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi Page 11
    Background
    Suicide gene therapy is one of the modern methods of cancer treatment. However, transmission for tumor cells is one of the main challenges to overcome. Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors that lead to changes in tumors microenvironment. Hypoxia-responsive element sequences are regulatory sequences that lead to activation of their upstream and downstream genes in hypoxic time. Bax is a strong proapoptotic gene that causes apoptosis in the time of over expression in cells.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study is to use this sequence in order to specify suicide gene therapy by the help of a gene producing Bax protein under control of CMV promoter.
    Methods
    The gene of BAX, BAX3HRE and 3HRE were cloned into interested vectors. In the next step, the function of HRE sequence on over expression of upstream gene under hypoxic condition was evaluated through western blot, MTT assay and real time PCR.
    Results
    The results of this study indicate that cells transected by pcDNA3.1/BAX 3HRE. The rate of apoptosis in them significantly increased in comparison with pcDNA3.1/BAX in hypoxic conditions.
    Conclusions
    Regarding the role of HREs in increasing the expression of its upstream genes, it can be used to specify suicide gene therapy in treatment of solid tumors.
    Keywords: Bax Protein, Gene Therapy, Tumor
  • Rkspartacus, * Rajanpaliwal, Rohitashwadana, Shwethamutha, Prashantbhatt, Andanees Page 12
    Introduction
    Anorectalmelanomaisarareandaggressivemalignancy. Patientscommonlypresentwithadvancedormetastatic disease.
    CasePresentation: Wereportthecaseof a60-year oldmanwhopresentedwithconstipationandperrectalbleeding. Abdominal CT scan showed metastasis in liver and spleen along with disease spread in inguinal, iliac and abdominal lymph nodes. He was treatedwithsingleagentDacarbazineandultimatelysuccumbedtothedisease.
    Conclusions
    Anorectal melanoma remains a disease with dismal prognosis especially when the patient presents with distant metastasis.
    Keywords: AnorectalMelanoma, Metastasis, Rare, Aggressive
  • Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi, Fatemeh Owlia, Mohammad, Hassan Akhavan Karbassi, Ali, Reza Navab Azam Page 13
    Introduction
    Eosinophilic Granuloma (EG) is one of the subsets of langerhans cell histiocytosis Oral presentation may comprise multiple alveolar lesions accompanied by bleeding, gingival inflammation and teeth mobility ,which may encourage patients to seek a dentist.
    Case Presentation
    In this report, a case of an 18 year old male patient with multifocal lesions of EG in both jaws is presented.
    Conclusions
    Although LCH remains an enigma for clinicians to date because of its ambiguous presentations, but timelydiagnosis could be critical for prognosis. And dentists could have an important role in diagnosis of rare disorders like EG.
    Keywords: Eosinophilic granuloma, Oral Manifestation, Maxilla, Mandible