فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Nikoo Yamani, Masoumeh Rahimi* Pages 50-54
    Background
    The current challenges that confront the medical education field have necessitated the need for transformation and revisions in curriculum design practices. In this regard, core curriculum development and integration are examples of such changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concepts of core curriculum and integration in the realm of medical education and to explore the relationship between these two concepts.
    Methods
    This study is a narrative review article. In this study, databases such as Science Direct, Ovid, PubMed, SID, Magiran and Google Scholar were searched using keywords such as core curriculum, integration, medical education, curriculum design and curriculum.
    Results
    The importance of meaningful learning, organized knowledge and practical knowledge for students of medical sciences requires planning of integrated curricula. This is more accentuated based on the increasing volume of knowledge, educational content, continuous changes in community needs, responsibility to meet those needs and the need for medical students to gain clinical competencies in their profession.
    Conclusion
    The concepts of core curriculum and integration are very closely linked, with some of the experts in the field of curriculum planning considering integration as one of the forms of designing core curriculum. Indeed, both concepts were developed in response to the overload of knowledge, the need to teach and learn basic and clinical sciences together and the need to create meaningful learning.
    Keywords: Core Curriculum, Integration, Medical Education, Curriculum Design, Curriculum
  • Mina Jasour, Sadegh Maleki Avarsin* Pages 55-61
    Background
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between attributional style and spiritual intelligence (SI) with job performance of employees of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2015.
    Methods
    The study population consisted of the employees of 8 faculties of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (n = 647), of which 243 staff members were selected using a stratified sampling method. Data collection was performed using standard Amram Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire, Paterson Job Performance Questionnaire and Rotter Locus of Control Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions using SPSS.
    Results
    Based on Pearson correlation coefficient, SI was significantly correlated with job performance among the employees. In addition, there was a significant correlation between internal locus of control and job performance; however, external locus of control did not exhibit any correlation with job performance. Furthermore, the results showed a significant relationship between SI components and job performance (P = 0.000). The results of the regression analysis revealed that all the components of SI were predictors of variables for job performance (R2 = 0.26).
    Conclusion
    Considering the tests, it was revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relation between the internal control of attributional style and the elements of the SI with personnel job performance. However, based on the result of the regression with the fixed amount of 26 percent, it seems necessary to pay attention to other effective elements on the performance of personnel, except internal control and elements of SI.
    Keywords: Attributional Style, Spiritual Intelligence, Job Performance, Internal Locus of Control, External Locus of Control, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
  • Seema Daud*, Abdul Majeed Chaudhry, Syeda Kauser Ali Pages 62-68
    Background
    The present study was designed to compare the knowledge gain of students in lectures and peer assisted learning (PAL) via end of course test scores. The purpose of this comparison was to assess the ability of PAL in enhancing academic achievement and to consider its addition within the traditional medical syllabus.
    Methods
    A randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted at Department of Community Medicine, Lahore Medical and Dental College in 2014. Convenience sampling was used and out of 125 fourth year MBBS students, those who agreed to take part in the study (N = 99),were randomly allocated to PAL (n = 49) and lecture (n = 50) groups. Community Health& Nutrition was the course chosen for the study. Both lecture and the PAL sessions were conducted simultaneously and the duration and content covered in each session were the same for both groups. Knowledge gained was assessed through a pre- and post-test. Chi-square test, independent t test, paired t test and analysis of co variance (ANCOVA) were used for data analysis.
    Results
    The study participants demonstrated a significant difference in the pre-test and post-tests cores in both the study groups (P ≤ 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference was found in the post-test scores between the Lecture and PAL groups, F (1, 95) = 0.584, P = 0.447.Gender and high school qualifications had no bearing on test scores in both learning groups.
    Conclusion
    The present study concludes that in terms of academic achievements, PAL was equally effective to lectures. Therefore, PAL can be incorporated as a supplement to lectures in medical school curricula.
    Keywords: Peer Assisted Learning, Lectures, Effectiveness, Academic Achievement, Test Scores
  • Shahram Yazdani, Maryam Akbarilakeh* Pages 69-73
    Background
    After the Islamic revolution in Iran, university admission multiplied greatly in a short time. In addition to considering the policy that guides the action plan to expand higher education (HE), we need to design strategic planning in this area for sustainable development.The main objective of this study was to create a model for how to develop HE in different geographic places in our country.
    Methods
    According to the policy of HE development, we designed this study in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) to find out how to foster the development of HE in different geographic places in our country. For developing a HE geographic expansion model (HEGEM) appropriate to our country, Hugh McKenna’s qualitative concept analysis was designed and performed over 2 years. First, the problems were detected, and then conceptually clarified and analyzed. After that, we compared our primary model components, which were obtained at the end of the analysis, with the experiences of different countries, and then revised our model. Then, in order for the extracted preliminary policy draft of HEGEM to be applicable in the country, an expert panels’ group discussions and policy survey were implemented by 8 experts in policy making and HE program administrations. Lincoln and Guba eligibility criteria were considered.
    Results
    Eight themes were extracted that greatly affected HEGEM in health systems and medical education in Iran including massification of HE, capacity for self-actualization in HE,types of division in HE, the appropriate number of HE institutions, size of HE centers, access to elite universities and avoidance of migration within the country, decentralization of HE and development of spatial planning for the public health network. The policy operational model of HEGEM was finalized and presented as a practical package for implementation in the whole country.
    Conclusion
    For promotion of community health and improvement of the national and international position of Iran’s medical universities and HE centers, policymakers should consider the diverse factors that influence HE expansion in our developed model.
    Keywords: Geographic Expansion, Higher Education, Strategic Model
  • Mohammad Bakhtazmay Bonab*, Bahram Jalilzadeh Amin, Masood Faghih Dinevari Pages 74-78
    Background
    Culture plays an important role in social changes; cultural development is essential for social development. The main objective of this research was to determine the current status and optimal state of cultural development and propose a better paradigm at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. For doing so, eight cultural development components were examined using Georges’ theory.
    Methods
    The statistical population consisted of all 270 employees and managers of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The participants of the present descriptive study consisted of 160 employees and managers (104 managers and 56 employees) of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was chosen via cluster random sampling method calculated by Morgan table. A questionnaire assessing participants’ current and optimal status was completed. The questionnaire’s reliability was confirmed by Cronbach alpha with a coefficient of 90. The content validity of the questionnaire was measured by employees’ opinions. SPSS 16 was used for the statistical analysis.
    Results
    Assessing the effective factors on cultural development indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between current and optimal status (p
    Conclusion
    The results of the research show that cultural education in its optimal state is of higher rank than other indicators. Thus it seems necessary to pay more attention to cultural development and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Cultural Development, Paradigm, George's Theory, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
  • Nayyereh Aminisani, Seyed Morteza Shamshirgaran*, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Houmayoun Sadeghi, Bazargani, Aboulghasem Amini, Leili Abedi, Safieh Kanani Pages 79-84
    Background
    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors during young adulthood can have negative impacts on health for the rest of a person’s life. University students are in a transition stage to adulthood and face considerable changes in their life during their time at university. Therefore, the evaluation of their lifestyle and its changes over time using a valid and reliable tool is very important. This study aimed at assessing reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students (HLSUS).
    Methods
    The HLSUS was developed by Wong et al., based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model, and was translated into Persian using forward/backward translation methods. Content validity of the scale was assessed by a panel of eleven experts. Moreover, Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated to examine internal consistency. The construct validity was assessed via detecting the factor structure of measurements on a sample of 400 students from different faculties of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Scale-item correlations and known group analyses were used to evaluate. convergent and discriminant validity.
    Results
    The HLSUS demonstrated good content validity (content validity index [CVI] values 0.80-1.00 and content validity ratio [CVR] values 0.71-1.00), internal consistency (α = 0.87) and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.89). Based on exploratory factor analysis, it was determined that the eight factor solution was optimal for distinguishing the underlying factors.
    Conclusion
    The Persian version of the HLSUS demonstrated initial reliability and validity.
    Keywords: Reliability, Validity, Lifestyle, Health Promotion, University, Students
  • Seyedeh Negar Assadi* Pages 85-88
    Background
    Learning about fitness for work and return to work is an important subject for students in the medical sciences, but the educational method is important too. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an important method that should be examined in occupational health studies. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of three educational methods for learning about fitness for work and return to work for students in the medical sciences.
    Methods
    This study was a quasi-experimental study using the curriculum of the Ministry of Health for 150 occupational health students in the School of Health at Mashhad University; fitness for work and return to work was taught with attention to various educational methods. Group A (n = 50) received presentations and lectures; group B (n = 50) received additional Clinical practice observations; and group C (n = 50) received PBL. Pre- and post-assessments were used to determine change in knowledge and the results were compared among the three groups of participants; then results of exams were analyzed with SPSS 16, using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (with post hoc Tukey), and statistical significance of P
    Results
    The total grade (20) of fitness for work and return to work for group A was 13.22 ± 0.64, for group B, 14.27 ± 1.01 and for group C, 16.28 ± 0.01. The between-groups comparisons showed significant differences among all three groups (P
    Conclusion
    According to the results, PBL was the best method for learning of fitness for work and return to work in students studying medical sciences.
    Keywords: Problem, Based Learning, Fitness for Work, Return to Work
  • Arsalan Salari, Ideh Dadgaran, Leila Rouhi Balasi*, Fatemeh Moaddab, Hossein Khoshrang, Azam Nourisaeed Pages 89-92
    Background
    One of the main tasks of the faculty of medical sciences is clinical training. Given the importance of clinical teaching for medical students, the study aim was to determine the clinical teaching status from the perspective of students and faculty members.
    Methods
    The population of this cross-sectional study was all medical interns and final-year students of nursing and midwifery and faculty members of Guilan University of Medical Sciences in the 2015. The sampling was conducted by census method after obtaining the consent of the participants. The scale was a questionnaire consisting of 4 parts, including demographic data,phrases related to clinical teaching principles by faculty members, phrases related to the use of material and educational media by clinical faculty members and phrases related to educational activities by clinical faculty members. Data analysis was done by descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test).
    Results
    Based on the results, the mean score of clinical teaching status from the perspective of the faculty members was 62.88 ± 5.76 out of a score of 66, and the mean score was 52.11 ± 1.1 from the students’ perspective. Mann-Whitney U test results also showed a significant difference between faculty members’ and students’ perspective scores about clinical teaching status(P
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of this study, to improve the quality of clinical education,implementation strategies will be necessary. One of the most important parts of teaching in the field of medical science is clinical education as it is the first real experience students have with their future work environment and it has a significant impact on their occupational success.
    Keywords: Clinical Teaching, Students, Faculty Members, Educational Media, Materials
  • Habibeh Ahmadipour*, Farideh Hajmohammadi Pages 93-96
    Background
    Integrated curriculum is a strategy in educational planning. Recently, this strategy has been introduced to medical universities in Iran. The strategy is running at a different level in some of the universities including Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS). In this study,students’ viewpoints toward the horizontal integration of basic sciences were assessed.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was carried out on 144 fourth- and fifth-year medical students at KUMS. They were selected using the census method. Data was collected using a questionnaire that contained demographic data, 26 questions about different aspects of the horizontal integration program in basic sciences and 2 questions about students’ satisfaction with the program. The range of viewpoint and satisfaction scores were 0 to 104 and 0 to 10,respectively. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19.
    Results
    The majority of participants 83 (57.6%) were female. The means of their viewpoint and satisfaction scores were 58.44 ± 10.61 and 5.48 ± 2.11, respectively. These scores had no statistically significant difference according to age, gender, entrance year and grade point average (GPA) (P > 0.05). Only students’ satisfaction score had a significant direct correlation with GPA (r= 0.3, P = 0.006).
    Conclusion
    Although our study revealed a positive viewpoint toward the new educational method, this reaction is the first step of evaluation and the next stages of evaluation must be conducted to determine existing problems.
    Keywords: Kerman, Horizental Integration, Basic Sciences, Medicine, Education
  • Roxanne Nagurka*, Sangeeta Lamba, Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont, Sandra R. Scott Pages 97-100
    Background
    Emergency clinicians perform many routine procedures that may add to the pain burden of patients. Many factors influence the level of patient satisfaction with procedure related pain management in the emergency department (ED). This paper aimed at comparing patient satisfaction with the ED procedure-related pain management based on the training level and gender of the provider.
    Methods
    This study was based on a prospective cross-sectional survey performed between June and November 2009 at an urban level-1 trauma center. Researchers interviewed a convenience sample of English speaking non-psychiatric adult patients who received ED procedures such as suturing and incision and drainage. Patients completed a confidential, post-procedure survey that collected information on demographics and satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 4 (1 = completely dissatisfied, 4= completely satisfied). Researchers recorded the training level and gender of providers. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics and comparative analyses were performed with one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests where appropriate.
    Results
    Overall, 75 patients participated. The average age was 39 years (60.8% male and 60.8% African-American). Procedures included sutures (57.3%), lumbar punctures (12.0%),central line placement (4.0%), incision and drainage (20.0%) and closed reduction (6.7%).Procedures were performed by advanced practice nurses (14.7%), medical students (14.7%),attending physicians (6.6%) and residents (64.0%). Females comprised 53.3% of the providers.The median pain rating before procedures was 7 out of 10. Mean satisfaction scores with pain management did not differ (P = 0.639) between nurse practitioners (3.64), students (3.60),attending physicians (3.60) and residents (3.33), nor between male and female providers (3.40 vs 3.49; P = 0.688).
    Conclusion
    Provider training level and gender did not impact patient satisfaction with pain management for ED procedures in this study.
    Keywords: Emergency Department, Patient Satisfaction, Provider Type
  • Haydeh Heidari*, Marjan Mardani Hamooleh Pages 101-104
    Background
    The nursing process is a method used by students involving a systematic study of clinical decisions, but the students are faced with numerous challenges in application of nursing procedures. Therefore, the researchers sought to do a qualitative study with the purpose of examining nursing students’ experiences regarding the nursing process.
    Methods
    This was a qualitative study done in Hajar hospital in Shahrekord. The participants were 9 nursing students studying in their sixth semester who were selected through the purposive sampling method. Students’ experiences were analyzed through the qualitative content analysis method. Data saturation occurred after interviewing 9 participants.
    Results
    Based on data analysis obtained from students’ experiences, 3 major categories were specified: decrease of performance, decreased critical thinking and students’ dissatisfaction.
    Conclusion
    Employing the nursing process has decreased critical thinking and increased students’ dissatisfaction. It is necessary for nursing instructors and professors to use alternative methods that increase critical thinking for the nursing process.
    Keywords: Nursing Process, Student, Clinical Trianing