فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Research Forum - Volume:7 Issue:4, 2017
  • Volume:7 Issue:4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Reza Youssefi, Parviz Tajik *, Mansoureh Movahedin, Vahid Akbarinejad Pages 275-280
    Enrichment of cell suspension with germ cells prior to injection into recipient seminiferous tubules is of importance in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) transplantation. Knock-out serum replacement (KSR) has been reported to enhance the proliferation of murine SSCs and human embryonic stem cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of KSR versus fetal bovine serum (FBS) and their interaction on colonization of bovine SSCs in vitro. When FBS (10%) was replaced with KSR (10%), a significant increase in the colonization of SSCs and the expression of Thy1, as marker for enrichment of SSCs, was observed. It was revealed that the lesser proliferative effect of FBS as well as the greater proliferative impact of KSR on SSCs colonization were not irreversible as cells having been cultured with FBS (10%) for three days with low colonization showed high rate of colonization in response to KSR (10%) and cells having been cultured with KSR (10%) with high colonization experienced low rate of colonization in response to FBS (10%). Further, it was shown that FBS did not contain factors inhibiting SSCs colonization and it simply lacked factors essential for SSCs proliferation because the combination of FBS (5%) and KSR (5%) resulted in even greater rate of colonization than did KSR (10%). In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of KSR to culture medium would significantly increase SSCs proliferation.
    Keywords: Bovine, Colonization, Fetal bovine serum, Knock, out serum replacement, Spermatogonial stem cell
  • Labrini Vasileiou Athanasiou*, Zoe Polizopoulou, Maria Rafaela Kalafati, George Ntararas, Vasileios Kontos Pages 281-285
    To assess the effects of pre-analytical handling (storage time and temperature) on selected hematological parameters, whole blood samples were collected in EDTA coated tubes from each of 30 clinically normal male adult beagle dogs. Each sample was separated in 2 aliquots, of which one was stored in ambient temperature (25 ˚C) and the other one was refrigerated (2 to 4 ˚C). Complete blood counts were performed in 1, 2.5, 5, 12, 24, 36 and 60 hr post-sampling for each aliquot of every sample using a flow cytometer. Packed cell volume values remained stable in the samples kept in room temperature (RT), whereas a significant increase was noted in the refrigerated ones 24 hr post-sampling. Statistically significant increases in red blood cell counts were noted after 24hr in the samples stored in 2 to 4 ˚C and after 12 hr in those kept in RT. No significant changes were observed in haemoglobin concentration. A significant decrease was evident only 60 hr post-sampling for the white blood cells kept in RT, but not for those kept in 2 to 4 ˚C. Platelet counts significantly decreased after 24 hr in the refrigerated aliquots and after 5 hr in those kept in RT. The results of this study indicate that storage of blood samples for up to 24 hr in 2 to 4 ˚C is associated with the least artifactual changes.
    Keywords: Complete blood count, Dog, Hematology, Stability, Temperature
  • Mohammad Farouq Sharifpour, Karim Mardani *, Abdulghaffar Ownagh Pages 287-294
    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis were used for molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Apis mellifera. Eighteen honeybee workers were collected from three different apiaries in West Azerbaijan. LABs from the gut of honeybees were isolated and cultured using routine biochemical procedures. Genomic DNA was extracted from LABs and a fragment of 1540 bp in size of 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested using HinfI endonuclease and digested products with different RFLP patterns were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp. are were the most abundant LABs in honeybee gut. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were closely clustered with high similarity percentage with the same bacteria isolated from honeybees’ gut elsewhere. It was concluded that LABs isolated from honeybees had low sequence divergence in comparison with LABs isolated from other sources such as dairy products.
    Keywords: Apis mellifera, Honeybee, Lactic acid bacteria, Molecular identification, Phylogenetic analysis
  • Siavash Maktabi, Mehdi Zarei, Milad Chadorbaf Pages 295-300
    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using food additives from natural sources to improve taste and also extend the shelf-life of semi-preserved foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to examine the chemical and microbiological changes promoted by a local marinating process in rainbow trout fillets during chilled storage. Fish fillets were immersed in marinades and stored at 4 ˚C for 10 days and were analyzed for total volatile basic nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbitoric acid (TBA), water holding capacity (WHC), pH, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial count every two days. Variations in TBA and WHC were not statistically significant between marinated and control groups. The values of TVN, pH, total psychrophilic bacteria count (TPC) and total mesophilic bacteria count (TMC) in marinated samples were significantly lower than controls. The most obvious finding of this study was that traditional marinated rainbow trout fillet stored in 4 ˚C had no undesirable changes at least for eight days.
    Keywords: Chemical changes, Marinating, microbial load, Rainbow trout, Refrigerator
  • Baharak Akhtardanesh *, Reza Ghanbarpour, Sadaf Ganjalikhani, Parisa Gazanfari Pages 301-308
    The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance genes, phylogenetic groups and anti-microbial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy pet cats in Kerman city. Ninety E. coli isolates were recovered from obtained rectal swabs. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates against seven selected antibiotic was determined using disc diffusion method. Phylogenetic background of the isolates was determined according to the presence of the chuA, yjaA and TspE4C2 markers. Theisolates were examined to determine a selection of antibiotic resistance genes including tetA, tetB, aadA, sulI and dhfrV by polymerase chain reaction. Forty two isolates (46.6%) were positive at least for one of the examined genes. Phylotyping revealed that the isolates are segregated in phylogenetic groups A (66.7%), B1 (1.2%), B2 (13.4%) and D (18.9%). Among 90 isolates, 26.6% were positive for tetB gene, 10.0% for cqnrS gene, 12.3% for sulI and aadA genes, 8.9% for tetA and 2.2% for dhfrVgene. None of the E. coli isolates were positive for qnrA and qnrB genes. Sixteen combination patterns of antibiotic resistance genes were identified which belonged to four phylogroups. Maximum and minimum resistant isolates were recorded against to tetracycline (82.3%) and gentamycin (1.2%), respectively. Fifteen antibiotic resistance patterns were determined in different phylo-genetic groups. In conclusion, feces of healthy pet cat in Kerman could be a source of antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates, whereas these isolates were distributed all over the main phylogroups.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance genes, Cat, Escherichia coli, Phylogenetic group
  • Abolfazl Hajibemani, Abdolah Mirzaei *, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh Pages 309-315
    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin streptomycin (pen strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen strep and Z. multiflora, respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen strep and Z. multiflora, respectively (p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups (p
    Keywords: Clinical endometritis, Dairy cow, Penicillin, Streptomycin, Zataria multiflora
  • Waleed Seger, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi *, Vahid Karimi, Omid Madadgar, Mehdi Vasfi Marandi, Masoud Hashemzadeh Pages 317-321
    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by a gammacoronavirus, is an OIE-listed (List B) disease and characterized by respiratory and renal involvements, causing high mortality, and economic loss in both layers and broilers. In comparison with other diagnostic methods, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR are potent, more sensitive and faster techniques for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) detection. This research was conducted to detect IBV using specific primers of IB in three governorates (Basra, Thi-Qar and Muthana) in the south of Iraq. Tracheal specimens were collected from 46 IB suspected commercial broiler flocks. XCE2 and XCE2- Primers, which amplify all IBV serotypes, were used. Primers MCE1, BCE1 and DCE1 were used to amplify the specific nucleotide sequences of Massachusetts, 793/B and D274 genotypes, respectively. The results of real-time RT-PCR of this study showed that 34 (74.00%) out of 46 infected flocks were positive to IBV. The results of nested PCR showed that 50.00% and 5.89% of positive samples were belonged to genotypes 793/B and Massachusetts, respectively, and the remaining positive (44.11%) were unknown. The results indicate presence of Massachusetts and 793/B IBV strains in commercial broilers in southern Iraq.
    Keywords: Avian infectious bronchitis, Broiler, Iraq, Real, time RT, PCR
  • Parisa Cheraghi, Seyyed Ali Mard *, Tahereh Nagi Pages 323-328
    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to protect the gastric mucosa through several protective mechanisms but till now its effect on mRNA expression of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBC1), trefoil factor1 (TFF1) and trefoil factor2 (TFF2) was not investigated. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of H2S on mRNA expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2 in rat gastric mucosa in response to gastric distention. Thirty two rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups. They were control (C), distention (D), propargylglycine (PAG)-, and NaHS-treated groups. To evaluate the effect of exogenous and endogenous H2S on gene expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2, two groups of rats were received H2S donor, intra-peritoneal NaHS (80 µg Kg-1), and PAG (50 mg kg-1), accompanied to stimulate the gastric acid secretion, respectively. Under general anesthesia and laparotomy, a catheter was inserted into the stomach through duodenum for instillation of isotonic saline for gastric distention. Ninety min after beginning the experiment, animals were sacrificed and the gastric mucosa was collected to determine total acid content of gastric effluents and to quantify the mRNA expression of studied genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results showed that A) gastric distention increased the level of mRNA expressions of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2; B) these levels in NaHS-treated rats were significantly higher than those in Distention group; and C) PAG decreased the expression levels of NBC1 and TFF1. The Findings showed H2S upregulated gene expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2 in gastric mucosa.
    Keywords: NaHS, Propargylglycine, Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1, Trefoil factor1, Trefoil factor2
  • Zabiholah Zarei, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Zahra Heidari, Fattaneh Mikaeili, Mehdi Mohebali, Meysam Sharifdini * Pages 329-334
    Dirofilaria immitis is an important filarial nematode in dogs. In this study, age and sex distribution of this zoonotic nematode among dogs were investigated in northwest of Iran in Meshkin-Shahr city. Molecular characteristics of the isolates, based on cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene were compared to the isolates from other areas of the world.Blood samples were collected from 91 dogs which were selected by simple classified accidental sampling. Thin and thick blood smear examinations were used to find out infectivity with D. immitis. DNA extraction was performed from adult D. immitis recovered from heart of infected dogs. The COX1 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using sequences obtained in this study along with relevant sequences deposited in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence variation was performed using MEGA software in comparison with those COX1 sequences deposited in GenBank. Out of 91 dogs, 19 (20.87%) were found positive for infection with D. immitis. There was no statistically significant difference between males and females of dogs in terms of D. immitis infection. However, the rate of infection in dogs more than 2 years old was significantly higher than those with lower age. Both sequences analyzed in this study showed 100% homology to each other. Intra-species variation of these isolates with those from other areas of the world amounted to 0 to 0.50%. Phylogenetic analysis of the COX1 gene suggested that it is conserved, and can be used for study on genetic diversity and classification of filarial nematodes.
    Keywords: Dirofilaria immitis, Dog, Meshkin, Shahr, Molecular analysis
  • Mostafa Golabi, Soraya Naem *, Mehdi Imani, Nowruz Dalirezh Pages 335-339
    Toxocara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae) is an intestinal nematode parasite of dogs, which can also cause disease in humans. Transmission to humans usually occurs because of direct contact with T. canis eggs present in soil contaminated with the feces of infected dogs. This nematode has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in different tissues of vertebrates, and develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive host. Survival of parasitic nematodes within a host requires immune evasion using complicated pathways. Morphine-like substance, as well as opioids, which are known as down regulating agents, can modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, and let the parasite survives in their hosts. In the present study, we aimed to find evidences of morphine-like substance and µ-opiate receptor expression in T. canis, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that T. canis produced morphine-like substances at the level of 2.31± 0.26 ng g-1 wet weight, and expressed µ-opiate receptor as in expected size of 441 bp. According to our findings, it was concluded that T. canis, benefits using morphine-like substance to modulate host immunity.
    Keywords: HPLC, Immune modulation, Morphine, like substance, RT, PCR, Toxacara canis
  • Mansour Mayahi, Darioush Gharibi *, Rahim Ghadimipour, Forough Talazadeh Pages 341-346
    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, decreased egg production and mortality in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study was isolation, identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of ORT bacterium in slaughtered broilers chicken flocks based on cultural and molecular tests in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. A total of 210 tracheal swab samples were collected from 21 broiler flocks slaughtered in abattoirs of the province. The results of cultural and biochemical tests showed that 23 (10.95%) isolates from tracheal swabs of 4 flocks (19.04%) were identified as ORT, but according to molecular characterization, 18 (8.57%) ORT isolates were positive in PCR assay and produced the predicted 784 bp amplification product. Finally, using the disk diffusion method, the drug resistance patterns of ORT isolates were determined against a panel of commonly used antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all isolates (100%) were sensitive to tetracycline, florfenicol and cephalexin. The highest antimicrobial resistance (89.00%) was seen for fosfomycin, sultrim and gentamicin. The results of present research showed that there was significant difference between the isolation rates of ORT from various areas of the province. As well, our findings indicated that the simultaneous use of both cultural and molecular techniques results in more comprehensive outcomes in the isolation and identification of the organismfrom understudy hosts.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial sensitivity, Broiler chicken, Iran, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Behrokh Marzban Abbasabadi *, Mina Tadjalli Pages 347-351
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soy milk on serum 17- β estradiol level and number of neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus as well as determination of the ratio of neurons in cortical and hippocampal regions in neonatal ovariectomized rats. Thirty female rats (one day old) were divided into six groups of five. At day 7, ovariectomy surgery was performed in four groups and two other groups were assumed as sham and control groups. Three groups of ovareictomaized rats were fed with soy milk at the doses of 0.75, 1.50 and 3.00 mL kg-1 per day since they were 14. At day 60, the blood samples were collected to measure the17- β estradiol concentration, and then the brain of rats were prepared for histological studies. The serum 17- β estradiol level significantly increased in ovariectomized rats fed with soy milk compared to ovariectomized rats with no soy milk supplementation. In addition, the results showed that soy milk significantly increased the number of neurons in CA1, CA2 and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus and granular layer of cerebral cortex in ovariectomized rats, whereas there was no significant change in number of neurons in CA3 zone of hippocampus and molecular, pyramidal and multiform layers of cerebral cortex in ovariectomized rats fed with soy milk. The ratio of cerebral cortex neurons to hippocampal neurons had no significant changes among the experimental groups.
    Keywords: 17, ? estradiol, hippocampus, Neuron, Rat, Soy milk
  • Alireza Talebi *, Jafar Taifebagherlu, Arian Sharifi, Fatemeh Delkhosh, Kasmaie Pages 353-355
    Spondylitis is a reemerging epidemic spinal infection in male broiler chickens (5 to 7 weeks of age) as well as broiler breeder roosters (15 to 18 weeks of age). Among various causative agents, Enterococcus species and in particular E. cecorum, a gram-positive bacterium as a gastrointestinal flora of birds, have mostly been isolated. On late September 2015, a number of 10 weeks old roosters with characteristic clinical signs of lameness and hock-sitting posture were autopsied. During thorough general routine post-mortem examinations, abnormalities like nodular masses correlated well with the hock-sitting posture and posterior paresis/paralysis were observed in joint spaces on the caudal thoracic vertebral column (T6-T7) immediately anterior to the kidneys in all affected birds. At histopathological examinations, osteomyelitis with limited pathological lesions including mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and edema in spinal cord were seen and the infection was diagnosed as an acute spondylosis.
    Keywords: Broiler breeder, Iran, Kinky back, Spondylitis, West, Azerbaijan
  • Masoud Rajabioun *, Hossein Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Samaneh Ghasemi Pages 357-359
    Hemimelia as a congenital anomaly is a failure of development of extremities formation in embryonic period. This anomaly is defined as complete absence of the part of extremities and different forms were explained for hemimelia. Adactyly is an alternative name for transverse hemimelia and is a rare disorder in the most of animal species. A two months old male lamb with normal vital signs was referred to clinic due to both hind limbs shortness and absence of hooves from the birth day. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed and partial hemimelia was confirmed radiographically in both hind limbs. In left hind limb, total absence of the toe indicated presence of adactyly in this limb. No other congenital deformities were diagnosed in skeletal system based on clinical and radiological examinations. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of such rare conditions in a lamb. Clinical findings and radiological signs of this rare anomaly in a lamb were described in this report.
    Keywords: Adactyly, Bilateral, Hemimelia, Hind limbs, Lamb