فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/12/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Vahideh Samadiyan, Sarbangholi, Bohloul Abbaszadeh*, Mohammad, Hoseyn Lebaschy, Seyed Reza Tabaie, Aghdaie, Masoumeh Layegh, Haghighi Page 93
    Nutrition as an environmental factor has a special place in the growth, main and sub branches number of Rosa damascena Mill. and these morphological traits affected yield and flower number of the plant. So, this experiment was conducted in the Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Karaj, Iran, to evaluate the effect of macro- and micronutrients on the plant growth. A split plot design was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor was combination of fertilizer in 5 levels: 1) N0, P0 & K0 kg/ha馩 0 ton/ha, 2) N40, P40 & K0kg/ha馩 15 ton/ha, 3) N40, 40 & K40kg/ha manure 15ton/ha, 4) N80, P80 & K40 kg/ha manure 30ton/ha & 5) N120, P120 & K8 kg/ha馩 40ton/ha. The sub factor was micro nutrients intake of iron chelate in 3 levels (0,8 and 12 g). The analysis of variance showed that the main and sub factor effect were significantly different for all of measured traits (α≤0.01). Results indicated that the highest main branch (66.35cm) and sub branch (15.96 cm) growth belonged to treatment 2 and micronutrients intake of 0 g, respectively. Treatment 4×8g showed the highest main branches number (49.66 n/plant). The highest sub branch number with average value of 26.66n/plant was obtained in treatment 4×0g. According to positive correlation between bush height with yield and flower number per bush, treatment 2×12g could be used for increasing quality and quantity flower yield in R. damascena.
    Keywords: Rosa damascena, Morphological traits, Iron chelate, NPK
  • Mohammadjavad Seghatoleslami*, Gholamreza Mousavi, Hamidreza Nassiri Page 97
    In order to study the effects of irrigation and planting date on selected traits of ajowan (Carum copticum BENTH. & HOOK.F.) an experiment was conducted in two successive conducive seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 in Birjand. The experimental design was a split plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. In the present study, two irrigation treatments (irrigation termination with flowering onset and complete irrigation) and six planting dates (Dec 6th, Dec 21st, Jan 5th, Feb 29th, Mar 3 th and Apr 30th) were considered as main plot and subplot, respectively. As results indicated, the drought stress significantly reduced seed and essential oil yield, but had a non significant effect on the germination percent. Moreover, there was a nil effect on the morphological characteristics of the plants. It was interesting to note that the late planting date caused seed yield, number of umbels per plant, number of umbellules per inflorescence, plant height, number of branches per plant, essential oil percentage and the length of the vegetative growth period to decrease, but there was nil effect on the essential oil yield and the germination percent. In fine, the results indicated that water stress not only caused the essential oil percent and plant performance to decrease, but also influenced early plantings to have more seed yield and essential oil percent.
    Keywords: Seed yield, Plant height, Umbel number, Essential oil, Seed germination
  • Rozita Kabiri*, Ali Hatami, Mehdi Naghizadeh Page 107
    Environmental stress, particularly drought stress can play an important role in reducing plant growth especially during the germination stage in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. For cultivation of medicinal plants in arid and semi-arid areas, the assessment of their tolerance is very important. In this research, in order to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid pretreatment on enhancement of seed germination and early seedling growth of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under drought stress, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was employed. The factors were the combination of five levels of drought stress induced by poly ethylene glycol (0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa) and five concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mM) with three replicates. The results indicated that an increase in drought stress reduced germination components such as germination percentage and rate, total biomass, seed vigor index, root length, root fresh and dry weight, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight and relative water content and increased electrolyte leakage and proline content. Salicylic acid improved germination; therefore, the average time necessary for germination decreased under drought conditions. The seeds treated by salicylic acid, produced a higher root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, total biomass and seed vigor index. Salicylic acid ameliorated the negative effects of drought stress on fennel germination and seedling's growth. Higher concentrations of salicylic acid were more effective than the lower ones. It seems that salicylic acid can enhance the tolerant ability of the seeds to germination under drought stress.
    Keywords: Electrolyte leakage, Drought stress, Germination, Proline, Salicylic acid
  • Narges Ghasemi Siani, Seyfollah Fallah*, Ali Tadayyon Page 117
    In order to evaluate the response of major nutrients concentration, uptake and their efficiencies of isabgol (Plantago ovata) to N fertilizer combinations and irrigation regimes, a field experiment was conducted at the agricultural research farm of Shahrekord University, 2009. The experiment was arranged as split-plot, in randomized complete block design with three replications. The irrigation regimes (irrigation after 7, 14 and 21 days interval) were arranged as main plots and combination of different N fertilizers included control, urea fertilizer (UF), broiler litter (BL), UF (3:1), UF (1:1), UF (1:3) as subplots. Results showed that the highest shoot dry weight and N uptake were achieved with 7 and 14 days irrigation regimes, respectively. There was no significant difference between 7 and 14 days irrigation regimes for shoot dry weight and N uptake. The greatest NAE, PAE and PPE were obtained with 14 days irrigation regimes. The highest shoot dry weight, N uptake, NAE, ANR and PAE were observed with UF (1:1) as well as. UF treatment led to increase NAE, ANR, PAE greater than solitary application of them. In conclusion, increase in N and P efficiency and dry matter associated with combined treatment (UF, 1:1) would help to minimize the use of synthetic mineral fertilizers and represents an environmentally and agronomically sound management strategy.
    Keywords: Broiler litter, Irrigation, Isabgol, Nutrient, Urea fertilizer
  • Abohassan Farhang Sardrodi, Azizollah Kheyri*, Ali Soleymani, Ramin Zibaseresht Page 127
    Yarrow (Achillea spp.) belonging to the family of Asteraceae with useful properties, such as anti-diaphoretic, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammation, anti-biotic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, Carminative and anti-oxidant effects. The present investigation assessed the morphological diversity of Achillea aucheri, which is indigenous plant from Damavand mountain of Iran. The samples were collected from five heights of Damavand and the morphological traits were studied. For estimating the percentage of essential oil, aerial parts were collected and oil was isolated by hydro distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus. The results of present study demonstrated that the highest plant height, internodes, biomass and number of leaves per node obtained at lowest altitude (3900 meters from sea level). In addition, fresh weight and dry weight of plant had the highest amount in altitude of 3900 meter from sea level. But essential oil content increased from low altitude to high altitude from 0.681% to 0.954%. Also high altitude had high significantly differences on the essential oil content. It revealed that plants in lower altitudes produce more biomass than higher altitudes, but essential oil content of plants was more in higher altitudes. It seems that a part of photosynthetic energy of plants in higher altitudes expend to produce secondary metabolites especially essential oils to overcome stress and survival in inappropriate conditions.
    Keywords: Achillea aucheri, Morphology, Essential oil content, Altitude, Medicinal Plant
  • Zeinab Safaei*, Majid Azizi, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Hossein Aroiee Page 133
    In a sustainable agriculture system, application of the fertilizers which are nature friendly and suitable for plants is essential. This becomes more important when dealing with medicinal plants. Therefore, a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was set up in the 2012 2013 on Nigella sativa L. Treatments were nanofertilizer (Pharmks®) (at 2 levels 0, 1 ml/l) and humic acid (at 4 levels zero, 1, 3, 6 ml/l) which were applied at three time of plant growth. Results showed that different levels of humic acid imposed a significant effect on number of capsule per plant, number of seeds per capsule, seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. But there were no significant effects on number of seeds per plant and weight of 1000 seed. The highest yield to levels 3, 6 ml/l humic acid treatments respectively. Nanofertilizer (Pharmks®) application significantly increased the yield and yield components of N. sativa. Combined treatment at various levels had significant effect on seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index respectively but had no significant effect on other traits. The lowest yield was detected at 1 ml/l humic acid and control treatments respectively. Generally, it seems that application of nanofertilizer (Pharmks®) and humic acid due to having nutritional ingredients and different physiological effects improves N. sativa performance and reduces environmental pollution and it could be used as a natural material to increase and stabilize field crop production.
    Keywords: Humic acid, Nigella sativa, Yield, yield components, Nano fertilizer (Pharmks®)
  • Abbaszadeh*, Fatemeh Sefidkon, Masoumeh Layegh Haghighi, Elaheh Karegar Hajiabadi Page 141
    This experiment was conducted, to study the effect of planting time and planting density on savory (Satureja sahendica Bornm.) in 2012 in Alborz Research Station, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Karaj, Iran. The experiment was carried out in split plot in time in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main plots were planting times in two levels (including fall and spring planting) and the sub plots were planting density in four levels (including 20×20, 40×40, 60×60 and 8 ×80 cm). The results indicated that planting time significantly affected the number of lateral branches on the main stem, the number of flowering branches, flowering shoot yield and essential oil yield, the number of tillers, plant height, single plant shoot yield and essential oil percentage. The effect of planting density had also significant differencein all measured traits except the plant height. Mean comparison of planting time showed that in all planting densities, fall planting was better than spring plantingin all traits. Mean comparison of planting densities indicated that the highest number of tillers (7.67), the number of flowering stems (6.5), single plant shoot yield (22.98 g/plant) and essential oil percentage (2.01%) were achieved in the lowest planting density (80×80 cm). However, the highest number of lateral branches (5.67), flowering shoot yield (1587.5 kg/ha) and essential oil yield (14.53 kg/ha) were achieved in the highest planting density (20×20 cm). The interaction of planting time × planting density significantly affected all measured traits except for the number of tillers and the number of flowering branches. The results of this experiment indicated that selection of suitable planting time and planting density is important to obtain high essential oil yield; fall planting × the highest density (20×20 cm) could produced an acceptable yield in Karaj climatic conditions.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Planting density, Planting time, Satureja sahendica, Yield
  • Zahra Aslani*, Abbas Hassani, Mirhassan Rasouli, Sadaghiani, Behrooz Esmailpour, Zohre Rohi Page 147
    Study the effects of inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Gm (Glomus mosseae T.H. Nicolson & Gerd.)Gerd & Trappe) and Gi (Glomus intraradices N.C. Schenck & G.S. Sm.) on the herb yield, essential oil (EO) content and nutrient acquisition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under drought stress conditions,The experiment conducted with 9 treatments and 4 replications. Drought stress treatments were applied by increasing the irrigation intervals from 4 days to 8 and 12 days. The root colonization, dry matter yield, oil content, oil yield and nutrients uptake decreased as the irrigation intervals increased. The AM fungi inoculation significantly increased the dry matter yield, oil content, oil yield and uptake of N, K, Zn, Fe and Cu as compared to Nm (non-mycorrhizal) plants in both well-watered and drought stressed condition. Analysis of essential oil by GC and GC/MS showed that Linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, eugenol and (Z, E) farnesol, main components of oil, had no significant variation by drought stress or AM fungi inoculation. The effect of AM fungi inoculation on herb yield, oil content, oil yield and nutrient acquisition was more significant with G. mosseae than G. intraradices. Results suggest that inoculation of AM fungi could be a feasible procedure to increase growth, yield and essential oil production under water deficit conditions.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Ocimum basilicum, Root colonization, Essential oil
  • Zahra Shakeran, Mehrnaz Keyhanfar*, Gholamreza Asghari Page 155
    Plants are the important sources of drugs. Secondary metabolites are responsible for therapeutic propertiesin plants. Three compounds including (-)-hyoscyamine, its racemate atropine, and scopolamine (hyoscine) are the most famous tropane alkaloids in the Solanaceae familly. Nowadays, attempts to developthese alkaloids in biotechnological procedures which are principally based on the hairy root cultures using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. In the present study, we showed the percent of induced hairy roots percent in the leaf and root explants of four plants from the Solanaceae family (Atropa belladonna L., Hyoscyamus niger L., Datura stramonium L. and Datura metel L.), that infected with the six strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, A7, Ar15834, Ar9534, Ar9402, and Ar318). Hairy roots were appeared from the leaf and roots explants on ½MS medium culture. The presence of T-DNA in the supposedly transformal lines was shown by PCR. The highest transformation yield of 93% was accomplished using leaf explants of D. metel infected by AR15834 and A4 strains. One fastest growing clone of transforming D. metel roots line (induced by A 15834)was selected and the biomass of hairy and natural roots were measured and compared after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. The results showed that, the fresh and dry weight of hairy roots was 4.44 and 4.92 times higher than the weights of nontransformed roots respectively after 8- 10 days. These roots are hormone-autotrophic and have the great lateral branches. Therefore, the hairy roots of D. metel and D. stramonium can be used to increase tropane alkaloids production yield in the pharmaceutical industry.
    Keywords: Hairy root, Agrobacterium rhizogene, Solanaceae, Tropane alkaloids
  • Aminallah Bagherifard*, Azim Ghasemnezhad Page 161
    Plants for optimal growth requires absorb water and nutrients absorption from the soil. Magnetic Water downward movement of minerals and makes it easy for plants to absorb nutrients and water. This study was designed to investigate the effect of magnetic salt water on some quantity and quality characteristics of artichoke leaves. The experiment was factorial based on completely randomized design with four levels of magnetic field [0, 3000, 6000 and 10000 gauss] and four levels of salinity [0 , 3, 6 and 12 ds/m sodium chloride]. Results showed that the magnified water affected plant growth parameters. Fresh and dry weight of leaves and roots of plants increased as irrigated by magnified water. A significant interaction of salinity and magnetism was observed on mentioned parameters.Salinity and electromagnetic had significant effects on the most measured biochemical parameters. The highest amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in the plants treated with magnified and saline water at medium level. The maximum antioxidant activity was observed in plant grown under 6 ds/m salinity. The highest and lowest amount s of chlorogenic acid was observed in plants irrigated with 6 ds/m saline water in which magnified fewer than 3000 gauss. The highest amount of caffeic acid [0/0044 mg/g] was recorded under 6 ds/m salinity and 3000 gauss electromagnetic conditions. Based on the results, it can be stated that the magnification increases efficiency of salty water and improve the performance and quality of the artichoke leaves.
    Keywords: Artichokes, Gauss, Electromagnetic field, Magnified water
  • Fatemeh Heroabadi, Nasim Milani Kalkhorani*, Mohammad Bagher Rezaee Page 171
    The genus Ocimum L. belonging to family of Lamiaceae is widely distributed in Iran, Ocimum sanctum L. is described in many medicinal properties and a wide therapeutic range. It is used specially in the management of cough, ashtma, fever and common cold. In this research, samples were collected from Shahr-e-Rey, on August 2013, then essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation and steam distillation methods, and their chemical composition were investigated by GC/MS. Main components obtained from hydro distillation were methyl chavicol (26.86%) , linalool (17.76%), epi- α-cadinol (13.12%) in flowers and methyl chavicol (27.64%) , epi- α-cadinol (11.5%) in leaves, and also main components obtained from steam distillation were methyl chavicol (25.2%) , linalool (17.65%), germacrene D (6.87%) in flowers and methyl chavicol 38.96%), linalool (12.13%) in leaves, respectively. Methyl chavicol was the main constituent in all essential oils.
    Keywords: Essential oils, Ocimum sanctum L., Steam distillation, Hydro, distillation
  • Milad Zangiabadi, Mohammad Ali Sahari*, Mohsen Barzegar Page 177
    We studied the antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZEO) and Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch (BEO) in mixed form on linseed oil using (DPPH•), (ABTS•), H2O2 scavenging, and reducing power assays. After calculation of IC50 for ZEO and BEO separately, interactions of the essential oils were investigated at the form of mixture and the results were given in isobologram. The interactions between antioxidant effects of ZEO, BEO, TBHQ, and α-tocopherol; and isobologram results showed synergistic effect for DPPH• except for BEO with TBHQ and α-tocopherol (1:1) and for ABTS• in ZEO with TBHQ (1:1). However, we could not find any synergistic effect for H2O2 scavenging and reducing power assays in any of the interactions. Statistical results showed that the best antioxidant levels of reductive oxidation were 600 ppm for ZEO and BEO, and 20 ppm for TBHQ in mixed form in linseed oil.
    Keywords: Bunium persicum essential oil, Isobologram, Linseed oil, Synergism, Zataria multiflora essential oil
  • Sayyed Mostafa Goldansaz*, Mohammad, Bagher Rezaee, Kamkar Jaimand, Ali Mirhoseini Page 187
    In order to investigate the medicinal species from montain of ShirKooh (Up village), in Yazd provience, Iran on three species by scientific names were Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., C.A.Mey. & Avé-Lall.; Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. and Nepeta asterotricha Rech.f. were collected on June, July and August 2011. Then all samples essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation method (clavenger types). Then were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil yield was H. persicum (2.5%); Z. clinopodioides (1.5%) and N. asterotricha (1.8%), respectively. Major component identificated in H. persicum were; trans-carveol 38.7%, α-terpineol 23.8% and isobornyl formate 9.2%, Z. clinopodioides were carvacrol 52.7%, linalool 15.9% and menthol 14% and N. asterotricha were terpinolene 21.2% , n-dodecanol 18.6% and n-undecane 12%, respectively. In H. persicum with trans-carveol (38.7%), which can use as stimulates central nervous system, allergenic, and in Z. clinopodioides with major compound carvacrol (52.7%), which can use as a Anesthetic, kills and expels worms, may help prevent alzheimer's disease, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplaque, antiseptic, bactericide, relieves flatulence, relaxes intestines, expectorant, prostaglandin-inhibitor, relaxes trachea. Can cause spasms, and also in N. asterotricha with major compound of terpinolene (21.2%), which can use as a Deodorant.
    Keywords: Essential oils, Heracleum persicum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Nepeta asterotricha, Chromatograms, GC, GC, MS
  • Kamkar Jaimand*, Sedigheh Kolbady Nejad, Azam Monfared, Mohammad Akbarzadeh Page 193
    The composition of the essential oils of Teucrium chamaedrys L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae, It is growing wild in the margin of mountainous roads of arid and cold climate of north Iran. In this research, essential oils of T. chamaedrys, extracted and measured at the different location by different methods of distillation and then were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Investigation and comparison on essential oil constituents of herbs were collected from three localities (Chalus, Galoogah and Gadook). The essential oil yield at the different location from Chalus by water distillation (Clevenger) were (0.06%), and by water & steam distillation (Kyzer & Long) were (0.28%), and by steam distillation were (0.04%), the essential oil yield at the different location from Galoogah by water distillation (Clevenger) were (0.06%), and by water & steam distillation (Kyzer & Long) were (0.05%), and by steam distillation were (0.09%), the essential oil yield at the different location from Gadook by water distillation (Clevenger) were (0.2%), and by water & steam distillation (Kyzer & Long) were (0.16%), and by steam distillation were (0.08%), respectively. Major component identificated in sample from Chalus by water distillation (Clevenger) were α- cadinene (15.4%), Z- β-farnesene 9.6%),1-eicosene (8.2%), and by water & steam distillation (Kyzer & Long) were 1-eicosene (12.8%), α- cadinene 6.3%), benzyl salicylate (5.9%), and by steam distillation were cis-3-hexenyl benzoate (10.9%), (E,Z) farnesol (10.3%), benzyl salicylate (8.3%). Major component identificated in sample from Galoogah by water distillation (Clevenger) were E- α-farnesene (22.9%), α- calacorene (20.2%), α- murrolene (8.0%), and by water & steam distillation (Kyzer & Long) were α- cadinene (30%), E-β- caryophyllene (23.5%), E- α-farnesene 7.2%), and by steam distillation were E- α-farnesene (18.4%), 1-eicosene (15.2%), benzyl salicylate 10%).Major component identificated in sample from Gadook by water distillation (Clevenger) were α- murrolene 12%), cis-3-hexenyl benzoate (11.3%), methyl decanoate (8.9%), and by water & steam distillation (Kyzer & Long) were α- murrolene (8.7%), n- heptadecane (7.9%), cis-3-hexenyl benzoate (7.2%), and by steam distillation were α- murrolene (14.4%), cis-3-hexenyl benzoate (11.3%), E- α-farnesene (9.6%), respectively.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Teucrium chamaedrys L., Flowering stage, vegetative stage, GC, GC, MS
  • Tahereh Hasanloo*, Maryam Jafarkhani Kermani, Mahsa Malmir Chegini, Roshanak Sepehrifar, Sepehr Mohajeri Naraghi, Seyyed Mehdy Miri Page 199
    In order to optimize the micropropagation of Qare-Qat (Vaccinium arctostaphylus J.J.Sm), samples were collected from two regions of Iran (Asalem and Kelardasht). Anderson (AN) media containing different concentrations of zeatin (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1) and different levels of pH (4.5, 5 and 5.5) were compared. The in vitro shoots were transferred on AN media supplemented with zeatin (1 and 2 mg L-1) alone or in combination with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.2 and 0.4 mg L-1). To optimize the rooting stage, elongated shoots (1.5- 2cm) were cultured on half strength semi- solid media containing activated charcoal (0 and 7 g L- 1),or half strength liquid AN medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA 0, 0.5, 2 and 3 mg L-1) and NAA (0 and 0.5 mg L-1). The results indicated that at the establishment stage AN media supplemented with 4 mg L-1 zeatin (pH= 5.5) and 1 mg L-1 zeatin (pH= 5) were the best treatment for Asalem and Kelardasht explants, respectively. For the Asalem explants, the highest number of proliferated shoots (4) was observed on AN media consisting of 2 mg L-1 zeatin and 0.4 mg L-1 IBA. Whereas for the Kelardash explants the highest number of proliferated shoots (3) was observed on AN media consisting of 2 mg L-1 zeatin and 0.2 mg L-1 IBA. The highest percent of root formation (86 and 66%) were observed in half strength AN medium containing of 7 g L-1 activated charcoal and 3 mg L-1 IBA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA in Asalem and Kelardasht explants, respectively. The plantlets were successfully transferred to soil and the survival rate was 85%.
    Keywords: Medicinal plants, Micropropagation, In vitro, Growth regulators, Vaccinium arctostaphylus
  • Virendra S. Rana* Page 207
    The essential oil from the seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. was isolated by hydrodistillation method and the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of the oil was found to be 3.0% (on dry weight basis). A total of twenty six components, representing 96.7% of the oil were identified. Cuminaldehyde (49.4%), p-cymene (17.4%), β-pinene (6.3%), α terpinen-7-al (6.8%), γ- terpinene (6.1%), p-cymen-7-ol (4.6%) and thymol (2.8%) were the major components in the oil.
    Keywords: Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae, Spice, Essential oil, Cuminaldehyde
  • Ali Jafari, Mofidabadi Page 211
    Embryo culture were used to produce inter specific walnut hybrid plants between Juglans nigra L. and J. regia L. Developed ovaries were collected from J. rejia female flowers which were pollinated with J. nigra pollen grain by high dusting on a mature tree. In order to isolate embryos, exocarps were aseptically removed. Isolated embryos from ovules at different developmental stages were transferred to the different kind of growthregulators hormone free media (MS, Half-MS, MS and Half-MS supplemented with 1 mg/l BA .1 mg/l NAA) for embryo development and germination. There was a significant difference between media for embryo germination α= 0.05 level. Highest percentage of embryo germination was observed in MS hormone free medium (13.7%). Because of long period required for embryo development, isolation of embryo less than 45 days old embryos were impractical. There were a highly significant difference between age of embryos for embryo germination α= 0.01 level. Embryo with more than 45 days old germinated and produced plants on all applied media. Highest germination rate were observed on cross-pollinated embryos which was isolated from 90 old ovaries. Before being transferred to the potting soil and green-house, plantlets sub cultured in the same medium within jars. Thirteen successful acclimatized plantlets were transferred to the field.
    Keywords: Juglans nigra, Juglans regia, In vitro hybridization, Embryo rescue, Embryo maturation
  • Javad Mottaghipisheh*, Malek Taher Maghsoudlou, Jafar Valizadeh, Rouhallah Arjomandi Page 215
    Ducrosia anethifolia (DC.) Boiss. is belongs to the Apiaceae family. It is one of the three species of Iranian Ducrosia Boiss. species growing wild in several areas of the country. In this research, we extracted the essential oil and it analyzed by GC/MS. The analysis of essential oil from leaves of D. anethifolia about 19 constituents was identifed and percentage composition was determined (94.9%). The major constituents identified by this method were α-pinene (70.3%), β-myrcene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.3%), limonene 4.9%). So, extracts of this species extracted by maceration method and antioxidant activity evaluated by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). Results showed that antioxidant activity of D. anethifolia in ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts are less than Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a synthetic antioxidant which used for positive control. Although, antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract is more than ethyl acetate extract, but inhibitory power of this extracts is low.
    Keywords: Ducrosia anethifolia (DC.) Boiss., Essential oil, Antioxidant activity, DPPH, GC, MS, α-pinene