فهرست مطالب

Health Promotion Perspectives - Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Bontha V. Babu*, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma Pages 1-3
  • Brian Martin, Vinayak K. Nahar*, Amanda K. Hutcheson, Javier F. Boyas, Manoj Sharma Pages 4-6
  • Mohammad Aminian, Iman Dianat*, Anvar Miri, Mohammad Asghari, Jafarabadi Pages 7-13
    Background
    The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties.
    Methods
    A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect.
    Results
    The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect.
    Conclusion
    The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population.
    Keywords: Psychometric, Feasibility, Reliability, Validity, Iran
  • Towhid Babazadeh, Behrouz Fathi, Abdolreza Shaghaghi, Hamid Allahverdipour* Pages 14-21
    Background
    Health promoting schools (HPS) project is currently being used in Iran but many challenges still lie ahead. The present study aimed, to test feasibility of implementing a comprehensive advocacy program (CAP) to overcome the obstacles and problems associated with the consummation of school health programs based on the HPS framework.
    Methods
    This quasi-experimental study was performed through recruiting all schools that were enrolled in the national HPS program and located in Jolfa as the intervention group and all of the schools situated in the East Azerbaijan province as control. In order to collect data, Iranian Ministry of Health’s checklists and external audit guidelines for HPS were utilized. In addition, to plan a CAP required data for coordinating fund raising activities including current rules and regulations regarding implementation of local health promotion interventions were collected.
    Results
    Findings of the study revealed that the implemented CAP had improved all HPS dimensions’ mean score in the intervention group. The observed change in the pre- and post-test score in the intervention group was significant (P
    Conclusion
    Commencing changes in the recruited schools’ structure through coordinated multi-level activities is feasible and this must be considered as a priority where contextual determinants exist to motivate progress towards providing healthier educational settings for school aged children in Iran.
    Keywords: Advocacy, Health promoting schools, School health
  • Meghan K. Edwards, Paul D. Loprinzi* Pages 22-27
    Background
    Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL).
    Methods
    Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20 years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles.
    Results
    Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05).
    Conclusion
    All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.
    Keywords: Aging, Chronic disease, Epidemiology, Exercise
  • Jennifer Mongiovi*, Grace Clarke Hillyer, Corey H. Basch, Danna Ethan, Rodney Hammond Pages 28-33
    Background
    Although prescriptions are dispensed at discretion of medical professionals, many pharmaceutical companies use direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising to increase sales. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are similarly marketed.
    Methods
    We examined the content of advertisements in 38 issues of 9 popular US women’s fashion magazines. We evaluated target audience, health condition, product availability, message appeal, target to females, and mention of potential side effects and benefits.
    Results
    Sixty total medication advertisements were identified, 58.3% (95% CI: 45.8, 70.8) for prescription products. In magazines targeted to non-Hispanic Whites, >65% of advertisements were for OTC medications whereas 80% (95% CI: 66.7, 94.5) of advertisements found in Black/Latina magazines were for prescription medications. The rational appeal was used most commonly in non-Hispanic White magazines (75.9%; 95% CI: 60.3, 91.5). Emotional appeal was featured more often in prescription advertisements magazines (60.0; 95% CI:43.8, 76.2) compared to OTC (8.0; 95% CI: -2.6, 18.6).
    Conclusion
    Although emotional appeal may be effective for selling medication to women, it often does not completely inform consumers of potential risks.
    Keywords: Advertisements, Direct, to, consumer advertising, Health communication, Magazines, Over, the, counter drugs, Women's health
  • Mohsen Saffari, Amir H. Pakpour*, Hui Chen Pages 34-41
    Background
    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers.
    Methods
    A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF.
    Results
    Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P
    Conclusion
    The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.
    Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Mothers, Theory of planned behavior
  • Allison Nooe, Meghan K. Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, Paul D. Loprinzi* Pages 42-46
    Background
    The potential convergent validity of the pooled cohort risk (PCR) equations in predicting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has yet to be evaluated, which was this study’s purpose.
    Methods
    Data from the 2001-2011 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 8978 adults, 40-79 years, free of cardiovascular disease at baseline). Calculation of an individual’s 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event was determined via the PCR equation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HRQOL measure was assessed utilizing 4 questions regarding participants’ perceived mental and physical health status from the past 30 days.
    Results
    When adjusting for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), obesity, age, gender and race-ethnicity, an ASCVD score of >20% (vs.
    Conclusion
    The observed association between PCR-determined ASCVD-risk scores and HRQOL provides evidence for the convergent validity of the PCR algorithms, indicating that individuals with a higher risk for a first time ASCVD-event may also have an overall worse HRQOL. As such, employing ASCVD risk reduction efforts may be an important strategy in improving an individual’s HRQOL.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, NHANES, Pooled cohort equations, Quality of Life
  • Corey H. Basch*, Aleksandar Kecojevic, Valerie Cadorett, Charles E. Basch Pages 47-49
    Background
    The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements of children’s entertainment products in a popular magazine, Parents, and to determine if they illustrated behavior that was physically active or sedentary.
    Methods
    The sample was comprised of Parents magazines (January 2010 to December 2015). Coding involved determining if the advertisement was promoting sedentary or active behavior.
    Results
    Nearly all of the 169 advertisements in the sample (n = 166; 97.6%) were for products that depicted sedentary behavior. The most common types of entertainment products advertised were DVDs (n = 72), plastic stacking products (n = 18), books (n=14), and electronic devices (n = 13). The most popular theme that appeared in the advertisements was the entertainment product would enhance intelligence (n = 85; 50.3%, 95% CI: 0.43-0.58). The overwhelming majority (n = 136; 80.5%. 95% CI: 0.76-0.87) of the advertisements involved the presence of a character.
    Conclusion
    This type of advertising does not contribute to the nation’s goals of increasing physical activity among youth.
    Keywords: Children, Sedentary, Entertainment products, Advertisements