فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/09/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
  • Hosna Hajati*, Ahmad Hassanabadi, Frahang Ahmadian Page 1
    Application of most antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been banned in a lot of countries due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues. Therefore, scientists are searching for alternatives to antibiotics nowadays. Medicinal plant extracts are one of the alternatives that have anti microbial and growth promoting effect on poultry. In this paper, the benefits of using of medicinal plants such as Garlic (Allium sativum L.), Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.), Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia L.), Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees), Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, Clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry], Yucca Schidigera, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.), Common mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Emil J. Imbach], Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed, Goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch.), Mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.), and Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. ex Murray) on poultry production are discussed.
    Keywords: Feed additive, Medicinal plant, Growth promotion, Poultry
  • Yield and Antioxidant Activity of Artichoke Leaves (Cynara scolymus L.) Affected by some Agronomical Factors in Golestan Province of Iran
    Azim Ghasemnezhad*, Khodayar Hemati, Abotaleb Hezarjeribi, Habib Baroze Page 4
    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L) belongs to Asteraceae. A factorial experiment based on the randomized complete block design with three replications was carried using depths of root available water (RAW) and sowing time (ST) as treatments. Leaf length and width, number of leaves per plant and the biomass yield were recorded before laboratory analysis. In laboratory total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity and the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acids of leaf extracts were measured. The contents of caffeic and chlorogenic acid and the antioxidant activity varied based on the sowing times. A significant interaction effect of the treatments was observed on the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid as well as on the antioxidant activity (IC50) of the leaf extract. Plants which were grown at minimum RAW (33%) produced 189 mg/g more chlorogenic acid than the plants grown at maximum RAW (100%). It seems that under the conditions of the province Golestan, a delay in planting time led to a decrease of leaf yield both quantitatively and qualitatively. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that under moderate water stress, the highest metabolite accumulation could be expected.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, artichoke, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, root available water
  • Seyed Saeid Modarres Najafabadi Page 13
    A comparative study was made between the acaricidal activities of some essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), lavandula (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and ziziphora (Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.) on the important mite pest, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval, the carmine spider mite, on cut roses during 2010-2012. The sublethal concentrations of ziziphora oil (0.125%), thyme oil (0.5%), rosemary oil (0.25%) and lavandula oil (0.125%) were used. Biological tests were carried out for a susceptible laboratory carmine spider mite strain reared under controlled conditions of 27±2 °C; 60% R.H. and 16L:8D photoperiod on rose leaves in greenhouse. The results showed that thyme oil causes the highest significant reduction in the fecundity and fertility as compared to the other tested oils. Thyme and ziziphora oil greatly affected the number of larvae and nymphs (for thyme oil 70.7±2.8 and 7.3±0.3, for ziziphora oil 109.1±4.7 and 17.7±1.8, respectively) that reached next biological stages. Results were tabulated, analyzed, discussed and prepared to be fit in any IPM program for combating these pest animals.
    Keywords: Tetranychus cinnabarinus, Acaricidal activities, Essential oils, Roses
  • Masoumeh Mazandarani*, Gelare Borhani, Fatemeh Fathiazad Page 21
    Natural antioxidants have an important role against damage by ROS. This research had been carried out about ecological characters, phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Capparis spinosa L. in Semnan and Golestan province. So in much field observation, different parts of C.spinosa were collected from two natural habitats in Golestan (200 m) and Semnan province (2100 m) during August to September 2011. Methanolic extracts were obtained by maceration, TP (total phenol) and TF (Total flavonoid) were determined by spectro photometrically method and the antioxidant capacity were obtained by TAC, RP and DPPH methods. Results showed that Capparis spinosa L. (Kabar) is an edible plant which was growing wild in clay loam to sandy clay loam soils. In both regions TF and TP content in buds and flowers extracts were highest, especially in 2100 m. Antioxidant activity of buds and flower extracts (IC50) were the highest (1.27±0.1, 4.66±0.42 μg/ml) in 2100 m, especially in DPPH method and the lowest content belongs to fruit extract in 200m. These data will be confirmed the traditional uses of C. spinosa as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory to treat of many current ailments.
    Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Capparis spinosa L., Ecological requirements, Golestan, Semnan Provinces, Phytochemical (TF, TP)
  • Masoumeh Khalili, Tahereh Hasanloo*, Yaghoub Safdari Page 35
    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Ag as an elicitor on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, content of H2O2, accumulation of total tocopherol and antioxidant activity in hairy root cultures of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. The hairy roots were treated with 2 mM Ag. The treated and non-treated hairy roots were harvested in the same time and data on H2O2 content, DPPH, tocopherol content and enzyme activity were measured. Ag elicitation resulted in enhanced H2O2 content after 24, 72 and 96 h. Peroxidase activity increased 24 h after elicitation, whereas the antioxidant activity decreased upon treatment. The overall trend of IC50 changes was very similar to that of the control treatments. Tocopherol content decreased 24 and 48 h after elicitation. The results demonstrated a possible role of hydrogen peroxide as a secondary messenger for production of silymarin in Ag elicited Silybum marianum hairy roots cultures.
    Keywords: Silybum marianum, Ag+, Antioxidant enzymes, DPPH, Tocopherol
  • Amin Baghizadeh*, Adele Balouchi, Reza Haghi, Habibolah Nazem Page 41
    Chamomile is a medicinal plant with high economic value. In this research, 20 chamomile ecotypes collected from different regions of Iran were evaluated for genetic and chemical diversity. DNA was extracted by CTAB and polymerase chain reaction was performed using 13 RAPD markers. Essential oils extraction was performed by water distillation using Clevenger system. Components of the essential oils were detected by Gas Chromatography at 62 retention times. The results showed matching relation between chemical composition and geographical diversity. It is important to note that in this study, Pseudo chamomile ecotypes were placed next to German chamomile ecotypes in both molecular and chemical analyses. In order to identify essential oil compositions, the essential oils of 5 ecotypes were analysed using GC/MS method. The major components in the oil were, α-bisabolon oxide A, α-bisabolol oxide A , and (Z )- β-Farnesene. Regarding percentage of three important medicinal compositions of chamomile, Esphandegheh ecotype was chosen as the best one.
    Keywords: Matricaria chamomilla, Essential oil composition, Genetic diversity, GC, MS
  • Naser Hosseini, Hossein Salehi Arjmand, Mansour Ghorbanpour* Page 47
    The experiment was aimed to study the chemical constituents of essential oils from two Pimpinella L. species including P. deverroides - Boiss, and P. tragium Vill. growing wild in Iran. To do this, the essential oil of fruits of two P. tragium populations (Sefidkhani and Hesar, Markazi province, Iran) and one population of P. deverroides (Kerend, Kermanshah province) were extracted by a Clevenger-type apparatus and subjected to GC and GC/MS analyses. Based on the dry weight, the oil content of P. deverroides fruits was calculated as 0.43% and the oil yield of the fruits of P. tragium was ranged from 1.19% (Sefidkhani) to 2.23 (Hesar). In total, 42 compounds, constituting about 87.69-95.86% of studied essential oils, were identified. γ elemene (12.1%), cismuurol- 5-en-4α-ol (11.2%) and geijerene (10.1%) were the major components of P. deverroides essential oil. Geijerene (33.5%) and γ-elemene (19.4%) were identified as the major components of the essential oil from P. tragium fruits collected from Sefidkhani and geijerene (80.1%) constituted the major portion of the essential oil from P. tragium fruits collected from Hesar. There were significant differences in the phytochemical composition of examined populations, which, considering constituents of an essential oil determine its flavor and biological activities, enabled selection of favored populations for breeding program and for using in different industries.
    Keywords: Pimpinella deverroides Boiss, Pimpinella tragium Vill., Essential oil, γ, Elemene, cis, muurol, 5, en, 4α, ol, geijerene
  • Iesa Hekmatsorush, Nasim Milani Kalkhorani*, Mohammad Bagher Rezaee, Fateme Heroabadi, Morteza Hamisi Page 53
    Tanacetum parthenium L. known as feverfew is a medicinal herb which is found in many old gardens. It has been used in folk medicine for reducing fever. Feverfew is a member of the daisy family; it is used primarily to prevent migraine headaches and to treat rheumatoid arthritis.It hasa colorless essential oil that contains one or more of the sesquiterpene lactones as active principle. Tanasetum parthenium cultivated in Iran, were extracted with hydro-distillation and steam distillation and their chemical essential oils compositionwere investigated by GC/MS. Major components obtained in hydro-distilled method were camphor (36.2%), isoborneol (20.3%), bornyl acetate (14.3%), champhene (8.1%),p-cymene(5.1%) and in steam distilled method were camphor (20.9%), bornyl acetate (14.24%), isobornyl isovalerate (7.1%), bornyl 2-methylbutyrate (5.9%),p-allylanisole (6.3%). The yield of essential oil with hydro-distillation was 0.05% and for steam distillation were 0.12%.
    Keywords: Essential oils, Tanacetum parthenium L, Hydro, distillation, Steam distillation
  • Faeqeh Saliqehdar, Shahram Sedaqathoor, Jamal, Ali Olfati* Page 59
    One of the main constraints in Aloe vera production is poor information about optimum nutrients that are helpful for growth and production. The objective of this study was to optimize nutrient solution for Aloe vera cultivation in soilless culture. Therefore, to determine the best nutrients the experiment was conducted in a greenhouse during 2011 in the Agricultural Faculty, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran (37 °16 ′N). Experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications and each replication contained ten pots. Aloe (A. vera L.) sprouts were irrigated with nutrient solution containing different level of NO3, NH4 and potassium starting from March and harvesting took place during September. The research indicated that nutrient solution with the highest level of nitrogen increased Aloe vegetative growth without any negative effect on qualitative indices including Aloin, total phenol, total antioxidative activity and element contents; it was possible to produce the highest level of vegetative growth in Aloe vera.
    Keywords: Soilless culture, Phenol, Antioxidant, Protected cultivation
  • Saeideh Maleki Farahani*, Zahra Hajibarat, Zohreh Hajibarat Page 63
    In order to find the most effective method to overcome seed dormancy in Teucrium chamaedrys L. medicinal plant species the effect of some chemical and physical breaking methods including: cold stratification (5 °C), scarification with sandpaper, stratification with needle, concentrated sulfuric acid, gibberellic acid and combination of these methods were investigated. Treated seeds along with control were sown in the germinator at 25±2 °C for 45 days according to a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that all seed treatments increased seed dormancy, however, the highest germination percentage and lowest mean germination time obtained when seeds were treated with sulfuric acid followed by chilling and gibberellic acid, respectively. Sulfuric acid increased the permeability of the seed coat and the effect of gibberellic acid was enhanced by cold treatment. Results showed that T. chamaedrys seeds have both physical and physiological dormancy.
    Keywords: Germination, MGT, Seed dormancy, Teucrium chamaedrys
  • Peyman Aghaei, Bahman Bahramnejad*, Ali Akbar Mozafari Page 69
    In order to optimize callus induction in Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. kurdica Rech. f., the effect of different plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations were studied. Inflorescence axis explants were cultured on WPM medium supplemented with 1, 2 and 3 mg/L of TDZ or 1, 2 and 3 mg/L of BA, in combination with 1mg/l different auxins: 2, 4-D, NAA and IBA . Callus initiation was observed in all media evaluated and the highest percentage (100%) was observed in medium containing 1 mg/L BA or TDZ and 1 mg/L NAA. Additionally, anthocyanin, total phenolic compound of callus and immature fruits were measured. Anthocyanin content of callus and immature fruits were 79.42 ± 4.63 and 61.71 ± 3.81 mg cyanidin-3 glucoside/g fresh weights, respectively. Total phenolic content of callus and fruits were 4.91 ± 0.492 and 5.1 ± 0.780 mg gallic acid/g fresh weights. GC-MS analysis of essential oil constituents of P. atlantica subsp. kurdica callus and leaves showed 8 kinds of substances in callus and 13 in leaves. Main composition of callus extract were alpha pinene (89.19%), camphene (1.09%) and Bicyclo[3.1.1] heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene (3.40%) and it was alpha Pinene (15.63%), gamma elemene (33.84%) and caryophyllene (9.26%) in leaves.
    Keywords: Callus, Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. kurdica Rech. f., GC, MS, Anthocyanin, Phenolic compound
  • Toktam Shahriari* Page 79
    Industrial development and extensive use of heavy metals have led to the problem of environmental pollution. Nickel compounds are toxic to plants and have detrimental effects on their growth. Valerian is a plant used in herbal medicine. Considering the hazards of nickel, various methods have been developed to remove this contaminant from herbs irrigation wastewater, including the common chemical precipitation and the novel electrocoagulation methods. An advantage of electrocoagulation is its high efficiency in removal of contaminants. In this study, nickel at a concentration of 500 mg/L in a synthetic wastewater was removed by chemical precipitation with Sodium hydroxide, lime, and sodium sulfide, as well as by electrocoagulation; the removal efficacy was 80.66%, 78.92%, 86.02 and 99.96, respectively. The pilot used for electrocoagulation was made of plexiglass with 10 metallic electrodes of 11×7×0.2 cm. Comparison of the results showed high efficiency of electrocoagulation. In these experiments, pH was considered about 6.
    Keywords: Chemical precipitation, Electrocoagulation, Heavy metals, Nickel, Valerian
  • Hadis Mirrabi*, Bohloul Abbaszadeh, Mehrdad Akbarzadeh Page 85
    To study the effect of chemical and biological fertilizers on growth and essential oil content of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), the present work was conducted in 2012-2013 at the experimental field of Alborz Research Station of the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Karaj, Iran. The experiment was conducted in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and two treatments: chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in four levels (N0P0, N0P150, 300P0, and N300P150) and biological fertilizers in four levels (non inoculated control, double inoculation with Glomus mosseae G. intraradices, inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and triple inoculation of G. mosseae G. intraradices P. fluorescens). Results indicated that chemical and biological fertilizer significantly affected flower yield, flower essential oil content, flower essential oil yield and flower leaf essential oil yield (P≤0.01). The interaction of the two factors had also a significant effect on flower yield, flower essential oil content (percentage), flower essential oil yield and flower leaf essential oil yield (P≤0.01). Mean comparison showed that flower yield was the highest in N0P150 × the triple inoculation (3932.5 kg/ha). The highest flower essential oil yield was achieved in N0P150 × the double inoculation with mycorrhiza fungi (114.27 kg/ha). The total essential oil yield of flower leaf was the highest in N0P150 × the double inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi (144.6 kg/ha) and N0P150 × P. fluorescens (134.73 kg/ha). Generally, results indicatedthat the triple inoculation of G. mosseae G. intraradices P. fluorescens gave the best results of essential oil.
    Keywords: Mycorrhiza, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Pseudomonas
  • Ahmad Rahmani*, Seyed Reza Tabaei, Aghdaei Page 89
    The essential oil of Rosa damascena Mill. is one of the most valuable and important base material in the flavor and fragrance industry. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different rates of cow manure on the essential oil of the rose petals. For this a field experiment was conducted on a clay loam soil at the research farm of Alborz research station, Karaj, Iran. Experimental design was randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included 15, 30, 40 ton/ha Cow manure and control without any manure. Flower oil content was determined by distilling a representative petal sample per replication in Clevenger’s apparatus. Analysis of variance indicated the significant effect of treatment on percent of essential oil and yield oil in third years. The highest oil content was found on 30 t/ha (0.067%) as compared to other treatments. The essential oil yield (1102.44 g/ha) were the highest in 15 t/ha manure. . The essential oil in the third year of flowering has increased 71 percent in treatment of 15 t/ha, compared with the control. Increase of more than 30 tons of manure had a negative effect on the oil yield and essential oil of rose and not advisable.
    Keywords: Rosa damascena Mill., Fertilizers, Essential oils, Organic manure