فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue:2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/11/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Mohammad Bagher Rezaee*, Kamkar Jaimand, Mahmood Naderi Page 79
    The genus Tanacetum is one of the most important medicinal plant that contains 26 species in Iran, 12 of them are endemic. This paper reports the essential oil (EO) composition of Tanacetum polycephalum subsp. polycephalum growing wild in Iran. Flowers and leaves were collected from different location of Azerbaijan province (Marand, Mianeh and Tabriz), hydro-distilled to produce the oils and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yields of leaves and flowers oils were in the range of 0.04 -1.0% (V/W). Main components of leaves EO from Marand, Mianeh and Tabriz were 1,8-cineole (63.5%) and chrysanthenone (5.5%), while for flowers were chrysanthenone (39.5%) and 1,8-cineole (18.9%). For Mianeh sample, principal components of leaves were 1,8-cineole (34.8%) and chrysanthenone (16.1%) and for flowers were dihydro-eudesmol (12.0%) and nootkatin (9.6%). Camphor (29%) and 1,8-cineole (14.3%) were identified as the main constituents of plant leaves from Tabriz and for flowers were trans-sabinene hydrate (56.7%), and 1,8-cineole (10.7%).
    Keywords: Tanacetum polycephalum subsp. polycephalum, Essential oil, hydrodistillation, 1, 8, cineole, chrysanthenone, Azerbaijan, GC, MS
  • Abbas Khani*, Farzaneh Basavand Page 83
    Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) was tested in vitro for volatile toxicity against two stored-product insects (Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus). The chemical composition of the plant oil was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major oil components were α-pinene (10.4%), α- Terpineol (10.1%), linalool (9.0%), 1, 8-cineole (7.6%), Geranyl butyrate (6.3%), Geraniol (6.2%), Caryophyllene oxide (5.3%) and Neryl acetate (5.0%). In the fumigant toxicity test, significant differences in mortality of insects to essential oil vapor were observed in different concentrations after an exposure time of 24 hours. C. maculatus (LC50=9.5 μl/l air) was more susceptible to the plant oil than T. confusum (LC50=260.7 μl/l air). The results suggested that essential oil of M. communis L. could be used as a potential biocontrol agent for stored-product insects.
    Keywords: Fumigant toxicity, GC, MS, Myrtus communis L., Stored, products, Essential oil
  • Seyyed Gholamreza Moosavi*, Mohamad Javad Seghatoleslami, Mojtaba Khosravi, Zeynolabedin Joyban Page 91
    In order to study the effect of irrigation interval, N fertilization and plant density on yield and yield components of fenugreek, a split-split-plot experiment was conducted in Darmian, Iran in spring 2010. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots were subjected to different irrigation intervals of 5 and 10 days. The sub-plots were treated with N fertilization at three different rates of 0, 75 and 150 kg N ha-1 from urea source and the sub-sub-plots were assigned with three varied plant density levels of 22, 33 and 66 plants m-2 respectively. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation interval on all measured traits was not significant. Also application of 150 kg N ha-1 had 33.9 and 66.1% higher pod number per plant, 37.5 and 68.1% higher pod number per m2, 31.7 and 67.1% higher seed yield, 31.7 and 65.9% higher single-plant seed yield, 31.1 and 68.9% higher single-plant biomass yield and 30.6 and 67.8% higher biological yield than the application of 75 and 0 kg N ha-1, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that increase in population from 22 to 33 plants m-2 decreased single-plant seed and biomass yields by 32.1 and 33.6%, respectively. Conclusively, considering the results of the present study and the importance of water saving, it is recommended to use an irrigation interval of 10 days with the application of 150 kg N ha-1 and a population of 66 plants m-2 for the cultivation of fenugreek in Darmian, Iran.
    Keywords: Trigonella foenum, gracum L., Irrigation interval, Population, Yield
  • Alireza Dadkhah Page 101
    In order to investigate the influence of bio- and chemical fertilizers on growth parameters and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller.), an experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with five treatments and three replications was carried out. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (strain Sebacina vermifera) and phosphate dissolving bacteria (genera Peseudomonas) were applied as bio-fertilizers. Five treatments including T1 as a control (100% recommended dosage of NP without inoculation), T2 (50% recommended NP without inoculation), T3 (Sebacina vermifera 50% NP) T4 (Peseudomonas 50%), T5 (Sebacina vermifera Peseudomonas 50% NP) were used. The results showed that inoculation of bio-fertilizers applied with 50% recommended dosage of NP, increased vegetative growth (plant height, number of umbel per plant, plant dry weight) of fennel plants compared to chemical fertilizer treatments only. Plants treated with combined of bio-fertilizers (arbuscular mycorrhizal strain Sebacina vermifera and phosphate dissolving bacteria genera Peseudomonas) had the highest plant height (72.6 cm), number of umbels per plant (45.5), dry weight (36.2 g) and fruit yield per plant (7.7 g). Application of bio-fertilizers also increased the amount of N, P and K in plant tissues compared to non-inoculated plants. Plants treated with combined bio-fertilizers had the highest amount of N (14.1 mg g-1), P (8.2 mg g-1) and K (9.2 mg g-1) in their tissues, while the least amount of N (8.9 mg g-1), P (4.7 mg g-1) and K (5.9 mg g-1) occurred in plant tissues treated with 50% NP fertilizers. The highest essential oil yield was also observed in combined bio-fertilizers 50% NP. However, the least amount of essential oil yield was obtained in plants treated with half dose of chemical fertilizer.
    Keywords: Bio, fertilizer, Essential oil, Foeniculum vulgare Miller., Funnel, Plant growth
  • Masoomeh Alipoor, Sasan Mohsenzadeh* Page 107
    Nickel and cadmium are heavy metals with some hazards for plant metabolism. The impacts of nickel chloride (0, 400 and 800 μM) in the presence of vitamin B complex (0, 30 and 60 ml from pharmacy commercial stock) and the impacts of cadmium chloride (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 μl from 100 μM stock) in pot and cadmium nitrate (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 μl from 100 μM stock) in pot on fresh weight, photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll and carotenoid, total protein and free proline content of Aloe vera L. seedlings were investigated. The inhibitory effects of nickel and cadmium on seedling growth resulted in decrease of chlorophyll and total protein contents. Free proline increased, while the fresh weight of the seedling was not affected by the treatments. The results indicate that vitamin B complex alleviated the inhibitory effects of nickel on A. vera L. seedlings by increasing chlorophyll, fresh weight and total protein contents.
    Keywords: Aloe vera L., Vitamin B complex, Heavy metals, Medicinal plants, Physiological response
  • Fatemeh Sefidkon*, Atefeh Bahmanzadegan, Zahra Abravesh, Seyed Ashrafeddin Gooshegir Page 117
    The seeds of three Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae) (Origin: Australia), including:, Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth., Eucalyptus microtheca F.Muell. and Eucalyptus largiflorens F.Muell. were cultivated in 1993-1994 at two research stations (Shushtar and Dezful) in Khuzistan province (western south region of Iran) and a research station (Kashan) in Isfahan province (Central region of Iran). These species have good adaptability to climatic condition of this area (dry warm). The leaves of these species were collected in middle of the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) at two consecutive years, in order to find out the best harvesting time with the highest oil yield and 1,8-cineole percentage. After drying the plant materials in shade, their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS devises. The results showed that the harvesting time had significant effects on oil yield and 1,8-cineole content of the Eucalyptus species. The main components of the harvested oils consisted of 1,8-cineole and -pinene. The highest oil yields of E. loxophleba Benth. in all localities were obtained from the samples collected in autumn and winter. The highest percentage of 1,8-cineole for Dezful site was extracted from the winter (70.2%) and autumn (63.2%) samples, For Kashan sits, was extracted from the winter (55.5%) and spring (58.1%) samples and for Shushtar site, was extracted from the summer samples (53.6 and 49.6%). The highest oil yield of E. microtheca F.Muell. was obtained in spring from Dezful and Shushtar localities and in autumn from Kashan locality. For both Shushtar and Dezful sites, the highest percentage of 1,8-cineole was obtained in winter and summer samples whereas for Kashan site, was obtained in summer samples. The highest oil yield of E. largiflorens F.Muell. was obtained in autumn and winter for Dezful and Shushtar samples and summer for Kashan samples. The highest percentage of 1,8-cineole was extracted in summer and winter for Shushtar samples, in spring and winter for Dezful samples and winter for Kashan samples.
    Keywords: Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth., Eucalyptus microtheca F.Muell., Eucalyptus largiflorens F.Muell., season
  • Zohreh Jafari*, Maryam Dehghan Page 133
    Urtica dioica L. is an Iranian native pharmacological plant for which little attention has been paid to the anatomical structure. Medical applications of this plant include diabetes therapy, digestive improvement, anemia and kidney disease therapy. Because climatic conditions can affect the anatomical structure which in turn affects pharmacological compositions, research on the anatomy of this plant is needed. In this research, plant samples were collected from populations near the cities of Brojerd, Mashad, Ghazvin, and Ramsar. Cross sections, were made from stem, leaf, and petiole at the second internodes, and stained using double staining methods. Differences between stem, leaf, and petiole tissues confirmed that climatic factors produced differences among the populations in anatomical structure of aerial organs. Noted differences included: 1- Number and diameter of vascular bundles with five vascular bundles in Ghazvin population, five to seven vascular bundles in the Brojerd population, and four vascular bundles in populations in Mashad and Ramsar. The Mashad and Ramsar populations differed in diameter. 2- Protective tissue and thickness of the cuticle of plants from Ghazvin had more tissues because of lower thermal mean and mountain region. 3- Differences in petiole diameter with the largest petiole diameter in the Mashad population and the smallest petiole diameter in the Ramsar population. These observed differences in anatomy confirmed the effect of climate on differentiation in anatomical structure in Urtica dioica L.
    Keywords: Urtica dioica L., Anatomical structure, Climatic stem, Leaf, Petiole
  • Toktam Shahriari*, Gholamreza Nabi Bidhendi, Naser Mehrdadi, Ali Torabian Page 139
    In recent decades, enormous use of chromium in different industries as well as water and soil pollution by those industries caused serious concern. Toxic impact of chromium on the growth of plants includes changes in the process of germination and root, stem and leaves’ growth. Chromium also has harmful impact on the plants’ physiological processes such as photosynthesis. On the other hand, iron is one of the essential elements for the growth of plants without which enough chlorophyll would not exist in the cells, consequently; making leaves pale. Melissa officinalis L. is an herb with 30 to 120 cm long. This plant is sensitive to iron deficiency. Electrocoagulation is a method to remove heavy metals. One of the advantages of this method is low consumption of power and high efficiency in removing pollutants. In this study chromium removal with 500 mg/l concentration from artificial wastewater containing chromium (III) was examined and removal efficiency of 97% was achieved. Here also the impact of pH on efficiency of chromium removal and amount of produced iron was tested and voltage parameter was examined to achieve optimal condition. In regard to efficiency of chromium removal, the optimal pH of tests was 6 and the amount of iron was 8.14 mg/l.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Chromium, Electrocoagulation, Iron, Melissa officinalis L
  • Samirasadat Mirfendereski, Mehrnaz Keyhanfar*, Khosro Piri Page 145
    The medicinal plants have been used since ancient times and are still utilized by the majority of the population. Hence, it is essential to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of these plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of fennel seeds decoctions, traditionally used in Iran as an herbal remedy. The cytotoxicity was tested in vitro using Allium cepa L. roots and human cells and genotoxicity were evaluated using A. cepa L. roots. The seeds decoctions were prepared in the traditional method and in two concentrations, commonly used in Iran (CC) and 10 times concentration (10C). The A. cepa L. root tips were treated with the decoctions and the mitotic index (MI) and chromosome aberrations were assessed. Human lymphocytes and human bone marrow endothelial cell line (HBMEC) were also treated with the extracts and the cell viabilities were measured using trypan blue and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, respectively. Although both of the extracts decreased MI in the A. cepa L. root tip cells, only the 10C extract significantly increased chromosomal aberrations. In addition, dilutions 1:30, 1:62.5, 1:125 and 1:250 from the 10C extract were 100% cytotoxic to the human lymphocyte cells, however for the CC extract, only dilution 1:30 showed cytotoxic effects. The 1:30 dilution of the 10C extract caused 65% toxicity in HBMEC and none of the CC extract dilutions were toxic to these cells. The tested decoctions showed some cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and the safe dosage of the traditional decoctions needs to be precisely evaluated.
    Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare Miller., Allium cepa L., Cytotoxic, Genotoxic
  • Masoumeh Mazandarani*, Koushan Sineh Sepehr, Behzad Baradaran, Vahid Khuri Page 151
    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is one of the most important medicinal plants had been used in traditional medicine in North of Iran as anti parasite, anti inflammatiom, anti tumor and anti infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate of ecological factors , ethno pharmacology and record of the relationship between secondary metabolites content and their antioxidant activity in seeds extract of plant. Ecological factors and ethnopharmacological data were obtained in many field observation. The seeds were collected in Tash Mountainous region (2750m) in August 2011, dried and were extracted by ethanol solvent. Total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) content were determined by spectrophotometry method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay (RP) methods were applied to measure antioxidant activity. Field observation showed that Peganum harmala is a perennial plant which can grow 30 to 70 cm tall, somewhere with annual average rainfall about 197mm , in sandy clay loam soil . Flowers appeared in mid to late of May and fruit maturation occurred in June to July. The results demonstrated that the TP was 61.55±0.84 mg GAE g -1 and TF content 42.21±0.66 mg QUE g-1. IC50 was measured 53.64±0.5 mg/ml in DPPH 17.34±0.71 in TAC and 84.75±0.89 in RP method. Analyses of results showed a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the most important secondary metabolites, which explains and confirmed the application of plant in traditional medicine as an antiseptic, anti-tumor and disinfectant agent.
    Keywords: Peganum harmala L., Aut ecology, Secondary metabolites, Antioxidant activity, Ethnopharmacology, Iran
  • Behzad Babazadeh Darjazi*, Behrouz Golein Page 157
    The effects of mandarin scions on peel components and juice quality parameters were investigated in this study. Peel flavor components were extracted by using cold-press and eluted by using n-hexane. Then all analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Total soluble solids, total acids, pH value, ascorbic acid as well as density and ash were determined in juice obtained from mandarin scions. Twenty-seven, Twenty-seven, thirty-five and forty peel components in Unshiu, Clementine, Minneola tangelo and Lee varieties respectively including: aldehydes, alcohols, esters, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other components were identified and quantified. The major flavor components were linalool, limonene, γ-terpinene, (E) β-ocimene, β-myrcene, α-pinene. Among the four scions examined, Lee showed the highest content of aldehydes and Clementine showed the highest content of TSS/TA. Since the aldehyde and TSS/TA content of citrus are considered as two of the more important indicators of high quality, variety apparently has a profound influence on citrus quality.
    Keywords: Flavor components, Juice quality, Peel oil, Mandarin scions, Citrus spp
  • Mitra Noori*, Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri, Masomeh Ghorbani Page 171
    Reseda (Tourn.) et L. is a genus in Resedaceae family with 153 species and subspecies in the world and 14 species in Iran. Some flavonoid compounds have been reported from the Reseda genus. Flavonoids are as one set of the polyphenolic compounds among secondary metabolites in different organs of plants that are used in plant chemotaxonomy. They have basic role in pollination and life cycle of anthmophyllus plants and also their spreading abroad and survival. Phytochemical studies on 10 collected Reseda populations of 3 species (R. lutea L., R. bungei Boiss. and R. buhseana Mull-Arg.) from different parts of Markazi Province, Iran area were done using 2-dimentional paper chromatography (2-DPC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Voucher specimens of each population were prepared for reference as herbarium vouchers. Results showed all of populations contain flavonoid sulphates and flavone C and C-/O-glycosides. All of studied R. lutea populations had kaempferol and quercetin. While both myricetin and luteolin were found in R. buhseana and R. bungei species, where as R. lutea lack.
    Keywords: Reseda, Resedaceae, Flavonoids, Chromatography
  • Mona Ansarifar*, Ghorban Noormohamadi, Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi, Gholamhosein Riazi Page 177
    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic nutrients on the yield and oil content of chamomile. The experiment was conducted in the spring of 2010. The treatment groups consisted of vermicompost (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 tons/ha) and the Aminol Forte sprays (no spraying or control, at the flowering stage and at budding stage). The experimental design was a factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The present results showed that the highest flower head diameter, flower yield and essential oil content were obtained when 20 ton/ha vermicompost was used. Effects of Aminol Forte were similar to those seen in vermicompost treatment and all measured traits were seen to be significant after the Aminol Forte spray at flowering stage.
    Keywords: Vermicompost, Amino acids, Aminol Forte, Matricaria chamomilla L., Yield