فهرست مطالب

محیط شناسی - پیاپی 79 (پاییز 1395)
  • پیاپی 79 (پاییز 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • علیرضا احسان زاده*، فرهاد نژادکورکی، علی طالبی صفحات 455-473
    شاخص کیفیت هوا ابزار کلیدی جهت آگاهی از کیفیت هوا، نحوه اثر آلودگی هوا بر سلامت و روش های محافظتی در برابر آلودگی هوا است. هدف اصلی این تحقیق مدل سازی و برآورد شاخص کیفیت هوا از طریق شبکه عصبی مصنوعی، درخت تصمیم، رگرسیون خطی چندگانه و رگرسیون مولفه های اصلی است. جهت محاسبه شاخص کیفیت هوا از داده های هواشناسی و آلودگی هوای ثبت شده در ایستگاه تجریش و قلهک شهر تهران در دوره زمانی 1385 تا 1390 استفاده شد. به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد مدل های برآوردگر از شاخص های آماری خطا، همبستگی و صحت استفاده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که مدل شبکه عصبی در هر دو ایستگاه از عملکرد بهتری نسبت به سایر مدل ها برخوردار است، به نحوی که در ایستگاه قلهک 006/0RMSE=، 004/0MAE=، 99/0 IA=و در ایستگاه تجریش 004/0 RMSE=، 002/0 MAE=، 1 IA=بود. مدل درخت تصمیم بعد از مدل شبکه عصبی عملکرد مطلوبی از خود نشان داد و مدل رگرسیون خطی چندگانه بعد از مدل شبکه عصبی و درخت تصمیم عملکرد بهتری نسبت به مدل رگرسیون مبتنی بر تحلیل مولفه های اصلی ارائه نمود. روش تحلیل مولفه های اصلی علی رغم آنکه توانست همبستگی بین داده های ورودی و تعداد پارامترهای ورودی به مدل را کاهش دهد باعث بهبود عملکرد مدل رگرسیون نشد.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص کیفیت هوا، مدلسازی، شبکه عصبی مصنوعی، درخت تصمیم، رگرسیون مولفه های اصلی
  • حسین ملکوتی *، امیر محمدیها، مسعود فیضی نژاد صفحات 475-487
    شبکه های مشاهداتی رادیونوکلوئیدی به منظور ارزیابی الگوی پخش و آهنگ نشر دوز گاما توسط منابع طبیعی و مصنوعی طراحی و راه اندازی می شوند. محدوده 100 کیلومتر شعاعی اطراف نیروگاه اتمی بوشهر به عنوان منطقه مورد مطالعه در برآورد الگوی پراکندگی بلند مدت رادیونوکلوئیدی و طراحی شبکه مشاهداتی در نظر گرفته شد. کد پخشی گاوسی دوگانه ADIM1.0 به منظور برآورد الگوی پخش بلند مدت در خلال سال2011 بکارگرفته شد. الگوی پخش بدست آمده، بترتیب حداکثر، حداقل و مقدار متوسط 10-10×2/384، 10-10×6/4 و10-10×1/15 Bq/m3 را ارائه داده بود. یک الگوریتم جایابی بر اساس روش های درون یابی (کریجینگ) و عملکرد تقریب از تابع اصلی برای طراحی شبکه بهینه سازی در این مطالعه توسعه داده شد. نتایج تکرار الگوریتم جایابی نشان داده بود که میزان کاهش قدر مطلق تراز خطای نسبی حدود Bq/m310-10×283 بین اولین تا پنجمین تکرار و حدود Bq/m3 10-10×5 بین پانزدهمین تا بیستمین تکرار می باشد و سپس ارتقای تراز خطا تقریبا در همان سطح باقی مانده است. به منظور بهینه سازی هزینه راه اندازی و نگهداری شبکه، تعداد مطلوب ایستگاه های شبکه،20 ایستگاه برای منطقه مذکور پیشنهاد و مشاهده شد که این جانمایی، قادراست الگوی مناسبی از پراکندگی ذرات رادیونوکلوئید از نیروگاه هسته ای بوشهر را ارائه نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: شبکه پایش، طراحی بهینه، پخش جوی رادیونوکلوئید، مدل ADIM1.0، الگوریتم جانمایی
  • کبری جعفری*، ناصر حافظی مقدس، علیرضا مظلومی، اعظم قزی صفحات 489-506
    محل‏های دفن پسماندهای شهری می‏توانند با انتشار آلاینده های ناشی از نفوذ شیرابه به خاک‏ها و آب‏های سطحی و زیرزمینی محیط پیرامون همراه باشند. روزانه 300 تن زباله های شهری بدون هیچ محافظی برای انتشار آلودگی در محل دفن شهر اردبیل رها می‏شوند. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی آلایندگی فلزات سنگین در پایین‏دست محل دفن زباله های شهری اردبیل است. برای بررسی آلودگی خاک‏های منطقه یک نمونه شاهد خاک از بالادست و 11 نمونه در امتداد آبراهه از پایین‏دست برداشت شد. برای بررسی آلودگی آب، یک نمونه آب از بالادست و چهار نمونه از چاه های پایین‏دست انتخاب شد. نتایج آنالیز عناصر در خاک با استاندارد خاک‏های ایران مقایسه شد که نشان داد غلظت روی بالاتر از حد استاندارد است. مقایسه میانگین داده ها در نمونه های پایین‏دست نسبت به نمونه شاهد با استفاده از آزمون T-Test نشان‏دهنده تاثیر محل دفن بر آلودگی خاک‏های پایین‏دست است. محاسبه فاکتور غنی‏شدگی و شاخص زمین‏انباشتگی غلظت بالای سرب، روی و کادمیوم را نشان داد. روند تغییرات غلظت عناصر در نمونه های آب بیانگر آلودگی آب در چاه های نمونه‏برداری شده نبود. محل دفن در مکان سنگی به‏شدت درزه‏دار، با شیب زیاد و خاک‏های شنی و کم‏عمق واقع شده لذا انتشار شیرابه باعث آلودگی گسترده‏ی خاک‏ها و آب‏های منطقه خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: اردبیل، محل دفن، فلز سنگین، آلودگی خاک، آلودگی آب
  • محسن احمدپور*، علیرضا پورخباز، سیدمحمود قاسمپوری صفحات 505-516
    در این مطالعه سطوح جیوه در کبد، کلیه و عضله سینه دو گونه پرنده آبزی، چنگر (Fulica atra) و خوتکا معمولی (Anas Crecca) با توجه به سن و جنسیت تعیین شده است. نمونه های چنگر به تعداد 16 عدد و خوتکا معمولی 15 عدد در پاییز 1390 از تالاب بین المللی فریدونکنار جمع آوری شدند. نتایج نشان داد غلظت جیوه در کبد، کلیه و عضله سینه چنگر به ترتیب 16/0 ± 34/0، 08/0 ± 22/0 و 11/0 ± 19/0 میکروگرم/گرم، وزن تر و در خوتکا معمولی به ترتیب 11/0 ± 28/0، 13/0 ± 25/0 و 11/0 ± 19/0 بود. غلظت جیوه بین اندام های مختلف چنگر دارای اختلاف معنی دار آماری بود (01/0 p <). این اختلاف در اندام های مختلف خوتکا معمولی مشاهده نشد. بین دو گونه اختلاف معنی داری در غلظت جیوه موجود در اندام های آنها مشاهده نشد. جنسیت و سن تاثیری در میزان غلظت جیوه در هر دو گونه نداشت. همچنین، بین کبد چنگر و طول کل بدن آن ارتباط معنی دار وجود داشت (05/0 > p). در این مطالعه، غلظت جیوه در اندام های مختلف چنگر و خوتکا پایین تر از حد آستانه ای بود که موجب اختلال در تولید مثل و مرگ موجود شود.
    کلیدواژگان: جیوه، چنگر، خوتکا معمولی، تالاب بین المللی فریدونکنار
  • محمدرضا جلیلی قاضی زاده *، ضیاالدین ایدی صفحات 517-529
    برای ارزیابی تاثیر تغییر فشار بر میزان نشت شبکه، معمولا از رابطه فاواد(FAVAD) استفاده می شود که در این رابطه، مقدار توان ترم فشار(N) می بایست تعیین گردد. برای محاسبه N یا می بایست اطلاعاتی از منافذ نشت لوله ها را داشت و یا همراه با تغییرات فشار، مقدار نشت شبکه تعیین شود که اندازه گیری آن، مشکل است. همچنین، مطالعات انجام شده برای تعیین اثر تغییرات فشار بر مصارف و نشت آب نیز کافی به نظر نمی رسد. در مطالعه حاضر روش تحلیلی جدیدی برای برآورد N بدون نیاز به اندازه گیری مستقیم مقدار نشت، ارائه شده است. جهت بکارگیری روش پیشنهادی و همچنین جهت بررسی اثرات فشار بر مصرف و تلفات آب، شبکه یکی از مناطق شهر تهران بعنوان پایلوت مطالعاتی انتخاب و ایزوله شد. در این پایلوت با اعمال الگوهای متفاوت فشار برای خروجی شیر فشارشکن نصب شده در بالادست پایلوت، تغییرات حداقل جریان شبانه، جریان ورودی به شبکه و مصرف مشترکین اندازه گیری شد که اجرای مدیریت فشار در این پروژه توانست میزان آنها را به ترتیب تا 50، 21 و 30 درصد کاهش دهد. در ادامه با استفاده از داده های اندازه گیری، روابطی برای تخمین اثرات کاهش فشار بر میزان کاهش جریان شبانه، دبی ورودی به شبکه و همچنین مصرف مشترکین ارائه شد.
    کلیدواژگان: شبکه های توزیع آب، مدیریت فشار، نشت، رابطه فشار، نشت، توان N
  • حسین کلهر، حسین گنجی دوست *، بیتا آیتی صفحات 531-550
    در این تحقیق عملکرد دو گیاه وتیور و نخل مرداب در حذف همزمان شوری و بار آلی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. این گیاهان با پنج کیفیت مختلف با شوری به ترتیب 0، 5/2، 5، 5/7 و 10 dS/m و COD به ترتیب 300، 225، 150، 75 و 0 mg/L و آب خالص (به عنوان شاهد) آبیاری شدند. هر دو گیاه در راکتورهایی با شوری کمتر عملکرد بهتری در حذف شوری و بار آلی نشان دادند. نشانه های مسمومیت شوری شامل سوختگی و پلاسیدگی در برگ ها در وتیور و نخل مرداب به ترتیب در هدایت الکتریکی بالاتر از 5/7 و 5 دسی زیمنس بر متر مشاهده شد. برای وتیور میزان کاهش بار آلی در تیمارهای مختلف متفاوت از 60 الی 12 درصد متغیر بود و میزان کاهش شوری نیز در تیمارهای گوناگون از 53 الی 4 درصد مشاهده شد. برای نخل مرداب میزان کاهش بار آلی در تیمارهای مختلف متفاوت و از 49 الی 5 درصد متغیر بود و میزان کاهش شوری نیز در تیمارهای گوناگون از 29 الی 1 درصد مشاهده شد. طبق نتایج برازش رگرسیون تعمیم یافته، وجود بار آلی روی مشخصات مورفولوژیکی گیاهان تاثیر قابل توجهی نداشت و تنها میزان شوری فاضلاب کنترل کننده مشخصات رشدی گیاهان بود.
    کلیدواژگان: گیاه پالایی، فاضلاب شور، وتیور، نخل مرداب
  • کیومرث سفیدی *، فریبا اسفندیاری درآباد، معراج شرری صفحات 551-563
    با توجه به نقش خشکه دارها در اکوسیستم های جنگلی، آگاهی از زمان پوسیدن خشکه دارها، نقش مهمی در تدوین برنامه های حفاظتی دارد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی پویایی پوسیدگی در خشکهدارها در جنگل های راش اسالم انجام گرفت. تعداد 90 نمونه برش به طور تصادفی انتخاب برای هر نمونه نوع گونه، قطر کنده و درجه پوسیدگی ثبت شد. نتایج نشان داد مدت زمان لازم برای پوسیدگی 95% و 50 % از جرم خشکه دار راش به ترتیب 49 و 22 سال است. بر این اساس، نرخ پوسیدگی این گونه در دامنه 01/0 تا 07/0 در هر سال قرار دارد. مجموع مدت زمان استقرار خشکه دار در چهار مرحله پوسیدگی به ترتیب 2، 17، 12و 6 سال و در مجموع 36 سال برآورد شد نتایج نشان داد که دانسیته چوب راش در نمونه های سال مختلف به شکل معنی داری متفاوت است و منحنی تغییرات دانسیته با گذشت زمان و در کلاسه های پوسیدگی از یک تابع نمایی کاهنده پیروی می کند. رابطه معنی داری بین مواد استخراجی چوب و نرخ پوسیدگی در سال های مختلف به دست نیامد. در نگهداری خشکه دارهای راش در جنگل ها، بایستی پویایی حجم و دانسیته خشکه دارها با گذشت زمان مد نظر قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: خشکه دار، زمان پوسیدگی، درجه پوسیدگی، راش شرقی، یکپارچگی اکوسیستم
  • لیلا رحیمی بلوچی*، ساره قربانی، اسماعیل صالحی صفحات 565-582
    مناطق حفاظت شده دریایی از رویکردهای اصلی حفظ تنوع زیستی و حفاظت از محیط زیست دریایی و مدیریت شیلات می باشد، اما همچنان محیط زیست های دریایی و ساحلی با عوامل تهدیدکننده بی شماری روبرو هستند. لذا ارزیابی جامع از ریسک های چندگانه که مناطق حفاظت شده دریایی با آن ها روبرو هستند، بسیار مهم است و باید ابعاد اجتماعی-اقتصادی نیز در تحقیقات اکولوژیکی برای مدیریت مناطق حفاظت شده دریایی ادغام شود. همچنین چارچوب فشار-وضعیت-پاسخ برای مفهوم سازی آنالیز ریسک و مدیریت ریسک مسائل اکوسیستم دریایی نقش محوری دارد. بنابراین، در این تحقیق چارچوبی یکپارچه از ارزیابی و مدیریت ریسک محیط زیستی برای مناطق حفاظت شده دریایی از طریق ادغام مدل DPSIR چندلایه با رویکرد معمول ارزیابی ریسک اکولوژیکی استفاده شده، که در چهار گام اصلی شناسایی تهدیدهای بالقوه، جمع آوری داده ها، طبقه بندی داده ها در قالب شاخص ها و رتبه بندی آن ها انجام شده است. بر طبق نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه شاخص هایی که دارای درجه ریسک بالا بودند شامل اسکله ها،کانال و لنگرگاه ها، سکوها و ترمینال های نفتی، فعالیت پالایشگاه ها، تغییر کاربری اراضی،کیفیت رسوبات، آلودگی نفتی، آلودگی هوا، مناطق حساس زیستی و تنوع زیستی می باشد که علت آن را می توان آلودگی های ناشی از واقع شدن منطقه صنعتی پارس جنوبی در بالادست آن، بهره برداری بی رویه و تبدیل کاربری زمین توسط ارگان های مختلف دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل DPSIR، شاخص، آنالیز ریسک، مدیریت ریسک، پارک ملی، دریایی نایبند
  • سعید فرهادی، حسین محمدعسگری *، علی دادالهی سهراب، سید محمدجعفر ناظم سادات، سید حسین خزایی صفحات 583-604
    مدلهای عددی هواشناسی و ایستگاه های زمینی به تنهایی قادر به ردیابی و بارزسازی توفان های ریزگرد نیستند و در بسیاری از موارد خطاهای قابل توجهی دارند. این امر ضرورت استفاده از روش های بارزسازی ریزگردها براساس داده سنجش از دور را نمایان می سازد. هدف از این پژوهش، استفاده از تصاویر سنجنده مودیس جهت تخمین عمق نوری ریزگردها در سطح خلیج فارس و براورد رابطه همبستگی خطی میان ریزگردهای جوی با اندازه گیری های زمینی می باشد. میزان عمق نوری ریزگردها با استفاده از برنامه تهیه شده در نرم افزار MATLAB و بر پایه کمترین اختلاف میان بازتاب موجود در جدول LUT و بازتاب ثبت شده در تصاویر MODIS محاسبه شد. ارزیابی کارایی داده های تصاویر با استفاده از آزمون همبستگی پیرسون، شاخص RMSE و RMSD انجام گرفت. براساس ارزیابی نتایج در هفت ایستگاه AERONET مورد بررسی مشخص شد که نتایج حاصل از تصاویر با داده های اندازه گیری شده در اکثر ایستگاه ها دارای همبستگی معنی دار می باشد(R2=0.93). به ترتیب باندهای 1.243 و 1.632 با ضریب همبستگی 0.94 و 0.97 و RMSE و RMSD برابر با 0.02 و 0.02 برای باند 1.243 و 0.1 و 0.01 برای باند 1.632 بهترین و مناسب ترین حالت را نمایش دادند.
    کلیدواژگان: عمق نوری، مودیس، خلیج فارس، آئرونت، ریزگردها
  • الهام یوسفی روبیات، اسماعیل صالحی*، سید حمید ظهیری، احمد رضا یاوری صفحات 605-624
    کشاورزی به عنوان فعالیتی که به طور تنگاتنگ با محیط سروکار دارد، برای داشتن کارایی بالاتر و تناسب بیشتر با محیط زیست، نیازمند شناسایی علمی توان روزافزون محیطی است. فرض های نادرست در روش های ارزیابی موجود مانند مستقل در نظر گرفتن عوامل اثرگذار و ورودی های دقیق همواره باعث ایجاد خطا در نتایج نهایی ارزیابی کاربری زمین شده است. برای رفع این مشکل، در این پژوهش از روشANPFUZZY برای ارزیابی توان کشاورزی استفاده شده است. بدین منظور، در ابتدا یک مجموعه جامع شامل 12 عامل از معیارهای اثرگذار شناسایی و سپس برای هر عامل نقشه ی قابلیتی تهیه شد که برای استانداردسازی و واردکردن عدم قطعیت ها فازی سازی شدند. سپس برای رد فرض استقلال عوامل و دیدن تعاملات از تکنیک فرایند تحلیل شبکه استفاده شد. در ادامه نقشه ی کاربری حفاظت به عنوان لایه ی ممنوعیت حذف و با استفاده از ترکیب وزنی خطی نقشه ی نهایی ارزیابی توان کشاورزی حوضه آبخیز بیرجند تهیه گردید؛ بر طبق آن پتانسیل هر پیکسل برای ایجاد کاربری کشاورزی مشخص شد. در انتها نقشه ی حاصل با نتیجه ی به دست آمده با استفاده از تکنیک روی هم اندازی ایرانی مقایسه شد و نتایج نشان داد که روش ANPFUZZY با شناسایی جامع تری از عواملی تاثیرگذار، واردکردن عدم قطعیت ها و همچنین دیدن تعاملات به نتیجه ی واقع بینانه تر و دقیق تری دست یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی توان کشاورزی، فرایند تحلیل شبکه، فازی، حفاظت، حوضه آبخیز بیرجند
  • ضیاالدین بادهیان*، معصومه منصوری صفحات 625-635
    افزایش سطح گازهای گلخانه‎ای، تخریب محیط‎زیست و جنگل‎زدایی به همراه کاهش ظرفیت زیستی کره‎زمین جهت پاسخ‎دهی به نیازهای بشر از مهم ترین نگرانی ها در سطح جهانی به شمار می رود. در این پژوهش با استفاده از مفهوم ردپای اکولوژیک، پایداری حوزه آبخیز کال‎شور واقع در شهرستان سبزوار مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند که کل ردپای اکولوژیک حوزه برابر با 1076337 هکتار است و با مد نظر قرار دادن مساحت حوزه (243231 هکتار)، کسری اکولوژیک حوزه به میزان1052105 هکتار زمین، قابل توجه است. از این مقدار بخش مصرف آب با 48 درصد بیشترین میزان کسری و بخش‎های حمل‎ونقل نیز با 15 درصد از کل کسری زمین حوزه آبخیز، کمترین نقش را در ناپایداری این منطقه دارد. لذا می‎توان ردپای اکولوژیکی را به‎عنوان یک ابزار مناسب برای ارزیابی آثار محیط‎زیستی در مقیاس درون شهری و نیز ارزیابی پایداری اکوسیستم‎ها بکار برد و از راهکارهایی مانند: آموزش و ارتقای سطح آگاهی مسئولان، اصلاح الگوی مصرف در رابطه با مولفه های آب، غذا و حمل و نقل، توسعه زیرساخت‏های ارتباطی و برطرف کردن کمبودهای موجود بخصوص در زمینه مصرف آب و سازمان‏دهی و نظام‏ مند کردن ساخت و سازها به منظور هماهنگی با محیط‎زیست بهره جست.
    کلیدواژگان: ردپای اکولوژیک، کسری اکولوژیک، حوزه آبخیز کال‎شور، ظرفیت زیستی، پایداری اکولوژیک
  • سونا شاهی پور*، حسین مجتبی زاده صفحات 637-648
    امروزه گردشگری روستایی از بخش های مهم در فعالیت های روستایی به شمار می رود که به عنوان راهکاری در جهت توسعه نواحی روستایی محسوب می شود مقاله حاضر نیز به بررسی کارکرد گردشگری روستایی در ایجاد اشتغال ساکنین و نیز توسعه روستای کندوان در ارتفاعات سهند استان آذربایجان شرقی که در 52 کیلومتری جنوب غربی شهر تبریز است می پردازد. روش کار به صورت میدانی بوده و اطلاعات از طریق پرسشنامه و همچنین مشاهدات نگارندگان از این روستا و با استفاده از مطالعات اسنادی و کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده است که تجزیه تحلیل یافته ها و ارزیابی فرضیات از روش SPSS بوده و ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 0457 براورد شده است که در نتیجه آزمون انجام شده هیچ یک از سوالات حذف نشدند. با توجه به آزمون خی دو در فرضیه اول و دوم پژوهش که به ترتیب برابر 48/4 و 95/14 می باشد می توان دریافت که گردشگری هم در توسعه روستای کندوان و هم در بهبود وضعیت اقتصادی خانوار های این روستا تاثیر به سزایی داشته است که می توان به پیامد هایی از جمله ایجاد اشتغال، تعامل فرهنگی، بهبود محیط زیست و بهبود توجه دولت به منطقه و همچنین جلوگیری از مهاجرت روستایی اشاره کرد. ولی با این حال می توان به ایجاد کمپ های اقامتی و استراحتی کم هزینه به منظور افزایش تعداد شبهای اقامت برای قشر های مختلف مردم و نیز رعایت ظرفیت تحمل گردشگری منطقه به منظور جلوگیری از آسیب های زیست محیطی روستای کندوان به خصوص در نیمه اول سال تمرکز کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، روستا، توسعه، کندوان
  • حسن حیدری *، معصومه پاشا زانوسی، شیوا کسرایی صفحات 649-667
    این مطالعه ارتباط بین چهار متغیر رشد اقتصادی، آلودگی محیطزیست، توسعه مالی و درجه باز بودن تجارت را برای هشت کشور بزرگ اسلامی طی دوره زمانی 2012-1980 با استفاده از داده های تابلویی و مدل سیستم معادلات همزمان مورد بررسی قرار میدهد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که رابطه دوطرفه بین رشد تولیدو آلودگی محیطزیست وجود دارد. در واقع در این گروه از کشورها، با رشدتولید، آلودگی های زیست محیطی افزایش می یابد که نشان می دهد در این کشورها تولید بدون توجه به آثار زیست محیطی آن صورت میگیرد. توسعه سیستم مالی نیز رشد تولید را در این گروه از کشورها افزایش میدهد و بر آلودگی های زیست محیطی می افزاید. در واقع توسعه مالی باعث افزایش مصرف انرژی و افزایش فعالیت های صنعتی می شود و از این طریق آلودگی های محیط زیستی را موجب میشود. همچنین درجه باز بودن تجارت در این کشورها می تواند به رشد بیشتر و توسعه مالی کمک کند و از طریق این دو کانال آلودگی زیست محیطی نیز افزایش می یابد. با توجه به یافته های این پژوهش،درکشورهای عضو گروه دی 8، باید بستری فراهم شود تا با گسترش تجارت، توسعه سیستم مالی و به تبع آن افزایش رشد تولید، بادست یافتن به فنآوری های جدید در عرصه محیط زیست به رشدپایداراین کشورها کمک کرد
    کلیدواژگان: رشداقتصادی، آلودگی محیط زیست، توسعه مالی، درجه بازبودن تجارت، کشورهای عضو گروه دی 8
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  • Alireza Ehsanzadeh*, Farhad Nejadkoorki, Ali Talebi Pages 455-473
    Introduction
    Increasing urbanization and industrialization rate in developed and developing countries cities, such as Tehran, has led to increased air pollution. Todays, the prediction and estimation of air quality parameters in urban regions are important topics in environmental studies due to their effect on human health. Measurement of air quality are widely used in air quality control plans. These measurement classify air quality based on the amount of pollution and various contaminants. The first measure of air quality is Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) which has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USA-EPA). This index converts concentration of the main air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter less than ten microns (PM10), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) into the air pollution standard index. In 1997, PSI was expanded by the US-EPA and presented under a new index named Air Quality Index (AQI). One of the first steps that must be taken for air pollution control is measuring the concentration of air pollutants including PM10, CO, O3, SO2, and NO2. An index named AQI can determine the relationship between concentration of pollutants and the level of public health and controlling measures related to air pollution. This index classifies air quality into six main groups of good, moderate, unhealthy for sensitive groups, unhealthy, very unhealthy, and hazardous. This index also involves the controlling measures related to each class for preventing adverse effects of pollutants on different walks of life. Poor air quality caused by high concentrations of pollutants in the large city of Tehran has caused various diseases and many problems to the public health and welfare of citizens and also causes damage to the environment and living organisms. Hence, assessment and modeling of urban air quality, which has a nonlinear nature, and also determining the factors affecting it are considered one of the most essential environmental programs in large cities. Therefore, the present paper aims to compare the efficiency of artificial neural networks, decision tree, multiple liner regression and principal component regression in modeling and estimation of urban air quality index.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, hourly data on concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological parameters related to Tajrish and Gholhak stations in Tehran will be used for modeling and estimation of AQI. Meteorological and air pollution data recorded at Gholhak and Tajrish stations, Tehran covering the course 2005 to 2011 to develop models. For the assessment of the performance of the models and comparison of the obtained results in train and test phases, statistical indices such as Index of Agreement (IA), Fractional Bias (FB), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Square Error (MSE), Correlation Coefficient (R) and coefficient of determination (R2) were used. The initial objective is to use the guidelines of US-EPA and Iranian Center Environmental Health and Work (CEHW) to calculate air quality index based on the hourly concentrations of each of pollutants. In the next step, air pollution and AQI value will be obtained using time series of meteorological data. Then, simulator and estimator models of air pollution will be developed using artificial neural networks (ANN), decision tree, multiple liner regression (MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) methods in MATLAB software. In the first step, concentration of each of pollutants is the input to the algorithm of AQI calculation and the output will be air quality index for each pollutant and the overall air quality index will be used for development of models along with meteorological data. To develop the models, data were randomly divided into two categories of training and testing. In this study, 80 percent of data were used in the training phase and 20 percent of them were used in the testing phase. The final objective is simulation and estimation of air quality index for the studied stations in Tehran. At the end, the methods used for modeling in this study will be compared with each other in order to identify the model which produces better results of estimation and modeling.
    Results
    The results of calculation of air quality index show that the dominant class of air quality in Gholhak Station is “unhealthy for sensitive groups” with 11165 hours and the main cause of poor quality of air in this station is nitrogen dioxide. In Tajrish station, the class “moderate” is dominant with 17538 hours and PM10 are the major responsible for this quality of air. The results of modeling showed that the efficiency of the applied methods in the study has different performances for the estimation of AQI. According to the findings, CART algorithm is of high performance in estimation of air quality index, as the correlation between simulated and observed values are very close to 1. Based on train and error, it was found that Perceptron artificial neural network with a hidden layer and Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, with 20 neurons in the hidden layer of Gholhak station and 25 neurons in the hidden layer of Tajrish station, yields the best performance in estimation and modeling of air quality index. The highest correlation between target variable and estimated values was also determined. Initial investigation showed that there is significant correlation between the input data used in Gholhak and Tajrish stations. To resolve this problem, principal component analysis (PCA) method was used. KMO test was used in order to determine the feasibility of PCA. Since KMO value was obtained 0.581 in Gholhak station and 0.606 in Tajrish station, the feasibility of PCA method was confirmed. To perform this method, after standardization of input variables, the correlation matrix was established and 13 eigenvalues and eigenvectors for Gholhak Station and 12 eigenvalues and eigenvectors for Tajrish station were obtained. The components 1 to 5 in Gholhak station and components 1 to 4 in Tajrish station had an eigenvalues greater than 1. These components were selected as the main components and used as the inputs to the regression model. Equations 1 and 2 show the regression model of AQI estimator in Gholhak and Tajrish stations:AQI = -63/74 (9/89 × PC1) (0/ 2 × PC2) (0/ 19 × PC3) – (0/ 094 × PC4) - (1/09 × PC5) (1)
    AQI = 28/23 (0/ 933 × PC1) (0 / 2415 × PC2) (0/ 0336 × PC3) - (0/ 0088 × PC4) (2)
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    Error statistics in two stations showed that decision tree model in Gholhak Station has a better performance than this model in Tajrish Station. Correlation coefficient (R) and coefficient of determination (R2) in both models were very close to 1 which suggests the high ability of regression decision tree model in estimation of urban air quality. Comparison of error statistics in the studied stations showed that ANN model in Tajrish stations has a better performance than this model in Gholhak Station. Error statistics in both stations showed that PCR model in Tajrish station has a better performance than this model in Gholhak station. The results of investigation of all methods used for modeling and estimation of air quality index in the studied stations show that ANN model with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm had the best performance in both stations. The worst performance was observed in PCR model. In this research study, the air quality was monitored in two station. The findings of this research suggest that the models employed here are apt for the appraisal of air quality in the studied stations, and they can be used by researchers as a tool for gaining knowledge about the air quality and taking measures for controlling, decreasing, and preventing pollution as well as for more accurately informing the public on the air quality level in the polluted urban areas.
    Keywords: Modeling, Air Quality Index Artificial Neural Network, Decision Tree, Principal Component Regression
  • Hoseiin Malakoti *, Amir Mohamadiha Pages 475-487
    According to the industrialization of human societies, it is obvious that knowledge of environmental pollutants, their emission, transportation, dispersion and control will play as an important factor in the survival of humanity. Monitoring and observation networks are recognized as powerful tools for detection and control of environmental pollution concentration and their applications will increase when it is combined with predictive atmospheric chemistry and physics tools and will convert to a management tool to be used in a comprehensive projects. The monitoring networks not only detect background patterns but also must have ability to display anomaly values in critical conditions. Radiation monitoring networks in order to observing gamma dose rate generated by natural resources and man-made artificial structures (nuclear facilities) are designed. Some of the criteria considered parameters in such projects are included environmental characteristics of the site region, the meteorological parameters responsible for transport, dispersion and transmission of pollutants and distribution of population density. The final aim of this study is to design a monitoring network to measure the level of gamma dose radiation in the area around the nuclear power plant in Bushehr. For this purpose, it will be determined the optimize number and location of these stations in 100 km around this site.
    Dispersion code used in this study ADIM1.0, is a Double Gaussian function base. In this study, is applied some interpolation approaches and approximation function of original function. The locating algorithm is working base on recognition of the areas with the highest standard deviation (σ) of interpolation. The reason for this selection is that in the main criterion of the interpolation methods are to minimize the interpolation error in this purpose. However, the most common method for minimizing the error values in areas with the highest error of interpolation is considering the correct value and after, conducting the new interpolation. The location of the observational station is considered to be in the area with the greatest amount of interpolation error. This method has been used in many projects in order to designing of the monitoring network. Locating algorithms has been developed in this study, after reading the input dispersion matrix in Matlab software environment, an algorithm applies step by step to be able to determine the location of the first to the last station in the final step as follows:1) In the beginning, the code searches maximum and minimum of the original function and after stores these values in the same location in a new matrix.
    2) By taking zero values in the four corners of the new matrix and the maximum and minimum of basic matrix, the interpolation is done between these six initial guess, as the average of the interpolated matrix be equal to the original matrix.
    3) The next step, the code is calculating the standard deviation of the differences between these two matrixes. The next point for the observational site will be the point with highest standard deviation.
    4) The next step, the original value from basic dispersion matrix in the selective point with highest error will replaced with interpolated value in this point.
    5) Now with the values for seven-point, interpolation will repeated again and the new estimate of the dispersion function will achieved. The second step will repeat and the point with the highest standard deviation will be finding in the compression with the main function, and the third step will be repeated.
    6) This process will continue until when the estimate of the dispersion function for interpolation be closest to the original matrix and the last place to be find for site establishment.
    As mentioned earlier, the purpose of this study was to determine the optimum location of monitoring stations around Bushehr nuclear power plant to 100 km radius and for this purpose below four steps we will conduct for achieving this aim:A) In the beginning by conducting long term dispersion simulation using wind directional distributions, boundary layer stability and other input parameters to ADIM1.0 code (Feizinejad and Khamoushi, 2003) long term radionuclide dispersion pattern will archived. For this purpose, atmospheric observations from BNPP tower and weather station and radionuclide emission data for normal operating conditions (composition and concentration) during 2011 were introduced into the code.
    B) By applying an interpolation method (Kriging), the ADIM1.0 radial dispersion pattern (16 directional sectors) in the region convert to the square pattern mesh with 5 km resolution. Error variance in Kriging method is usually smaller than other conventional methods such as IDW and Spline.
    C) The final version of Long-term dispersion present into written monitoring network design MATLAB code in this study as input data.
    D) The locating algorithm will determine the location of observational stations.
    The converted long term dispersion pattern to square mesh was presented maximum, minimum and average values equal to 348×10-10, 4.6×10-10 and 15×10-10 Bq/m3 respectively. The results was showed that the pattern of long-term dispersion of ADIM 1.0 code is correspond to the prevailing wind and showing bigger vales in the northwest-southeast.
    The primary endpoint of the study was that to find areas with the highest standard deviation in the interpolation is worked perfectly valid and estimated pattern with increasing of replication process be quite similar to original dispersion pattern. Absolute error and absolute value of relative error was calculated as these quantities are expected to be diminishing rapidly with increasing the number of iterations.
    The iterations results were showed that the rate of decreasing absolute value of relative error level could be approximately around 283×10-10 Bq/m3 between the first to fifth iteration, after the 20th iteration could be approximately around 5×10-10 Bq/m3 between the 15th to 20th iteration, and then it is remained almost in the same level. According to this interpretation, in order to optimization of the cost of construction and maintenance of network monitoring, the number of station for monitoring network is considered equal to 20 stations within 100 km radius area of the Bushehr nuclear power plant. The 20 monitoring stations can be represented a suitable view of dispersion pattern of radionuclide particles of the Bushehr nuclear power plant and it will be available to experts and managers for other applications and safety. The results were showed that the final interpolated pattern is obtained correctly the maximum values. It is also clearly represented spatial distribution anomaly in the South East and North West directions and background values.
    Keywords: Monitoring network, Design optimization, Radionuclide atmospheric dispersion, ADIM1.0 model, Locating algorithm
  • Kobra Jafari * Pages 489-506
    IntroductionLandfilling sites of wastes including big volume of waste. In recent years lack correct management caused that landfilling sites of municipal waste taken as one of main source pollution effluence at environmental. From between diverse contaminants heavy metals because of environmental stability, biogeochemical process, poison biology, sorption and desorption, redox potential, sedimentation, dissolve, ciliate and hazardous of habitat are more important. Heavy metals prevalent in leachate are include As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn. The traditional method of landfills was to directly stack wastes in valley and watercources that are naturally formed or in artificial pits and pounds without any treatment to prevent wastes from diffusion and transference is caused during filling, the wastes will release leachate of high concentration due to self-zymosis and rain fall washing as well as dipping in both surface and ground water, which will flow slowly with groundwater, polluting its surroundings for decades, even hundreds of years. The problem and major environmental concerns associated with the dispersal or disposal of industrial and urban wastes generated by human activities is the contamination of the soil. Groundwater pollution from landfills can depend on several factors, such as hydraulic conductivity of the strata underneath the landfill site, depth of vadose zone, type of soil in vadose zone, hydraulic gradient of aquifer and the type of landfill. Faults and gaps of rock bed can course for leachate infiltration in groundwater. Main purpose from this study, investigative contaminant heavy metal derived from waste landfilling on soils and waters downstream landfilling site of Ardebil municipal waste.
    Materials and methodArdebil municipality is a city located in the northwest Iran in central part of Ardebil province in zone west Alburz – Azarbaijan. The landfilling site of Ardebil municipal waste located between 48° 13´ 40″ longitudinal east and 38° 26´ 33″ latitudinal north. Landfilling site of Ardebil municipal waste with an area of about 50 hectare and at an altitude of 1575 m above the sea level is located in distance 22km west north of Ardebil city. Daily 300 ton municipal waste is disposing in this site with traditional method and without any preservative. The location of the study area is shown in the Figure. 1.
    Figure. 1 Location of the study area
    The annual average amount of precipitation and evaporation are determined 320-810 mm, respectively. The area is determined to have a semiarid climate. Open dump areas located in the unit Eocene Trachyandesite. Depth soil is very shallow with outstanding rock without cover of soil and texture soil is sandy. Groundwater levels in the surrounding landfilling site are 30-60 m.
    In preliminary area is investigated from aspect topographically, surface and groundwater position, soil texture, soil depth and genus of rock bed. In order to investigate concentration some heavy metals in downstream soils landfilling site of Ardebil municipal waste, 1 sample control was taken from distance 400m upstream from landfilling site and 11 sample were taken from distances 50 to 1300m from landfilling site in downstream. To avoid from influence various arbitrary surface conditions, the selected depth of sampling is from 10 cm to 20 cm below the surface. After determine soil texture and PH in the laboratory elements of Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Zn and Pb were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). To assess soil samples pollution the metals concentration in the soil samples compared with the reference values recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency and enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index calculated for all samples. Based on enrichment factor can estimate elements concentration relative to their natural concentrations. This factor calculating from under formula:EF = Sc/ Rc
    Where EF is the enrichment factor, Sc concentration of element in soil and Rc is concentration of element in reference material. Bhuiyana et al (2010) divided contamination into different categories based on EF values. These categories shown in Table 1.
    Table 1: classification of enrichment factor values
    Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) introduced by Muller (1969) and calculating from under formula:Igeo= log2 [(Cn) / (1.5Bn)]
    Where Cn is the measured concentration of the element n and Bn is the geochemical background value element n in average crust. Muller divided geoaccumulation index values into classes four (Table 2).
    Table 2: classification of geoaccumulation factor values
    Because of devoid of perpetual surface waters sampling didnt from surface water. To sampling from ground waters source 1 sample control were taken from upward landfilling site and 4 samples from downward in dry and wet season. Then measuring general parameters (EC, PH, COD, BOD, and TDS) and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Zn and Pb) of water was done in laboratory.
    Results and discussionIn the all samples sand particle was very high and soil texture is sandy. The PH values in the samples ranged from 6.84 to 8.11 and The EC values in the samples ranged from 9818 to 17532. Result comparing element concentration of soil samples with the reference values recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency show that Cu in 1 and 2 samples is above the standard limits. Fe and Mn in 1 sample are above the standard limits. Co in 1 and 7 samples is above the standard limits. Pb, Zn and Cd in all samples are above the standard limits. Results calculating enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Pb, Cd and Zn have the most enrichment and accumulation.
    Soils downstream shows high contamination from Cd, Zn and Pb elements. Considering these elements in control sample is higher from United State Environmental Protection Agency standard but these elements concentration in control sample is lower relative to downstream samples so these metals derived from anthropogenic and lithologic of sources. Lithologic source the elements derived from igneous rocks collection of inner and volcanic in the area. Anthropogenic source the elements derived from colored plastic, battery, medicine apparatus, electronic apparatus and toiletries of wastes. Because of soils are sandy richment heavy metal is lower.
    Result comparing water samples analysis with the reference values recommended by World Health Organization show that EC and TDS in downward samples are above the standard limits. PH, BOD, COD, Fe and Cu in the all samples are low the standard limits. Zn and Pb in the all samples are above the standard limits. Co, Ni and Cd were not detected in none from samples. In none from water samples exist not meaningful difference between elements concentration in control sample with downward samples that indictor pollution derived from leacate. High concentrations Zn and Pb elements derived from condition of lithology and geology area.
    Conclusion
    Considering results analysis samples of soil and water deduced that soils of downstream was polluted from Pb, Zn and Cd elements and agricultural lands downstream was polluted. Considering in landfilling site slope is very high and soil very sandy, leacate can effluence in vast surface and was caused area soil pollution. Results analysis of water samples didnt explain pollution in 5 water samples was collected. Considering Ardebil landfilling site located in elevation and wells sampled located in distance more from landfilling site leacate cannot pollute those. Locating the site on rock layer of very fragile and without soil cover will cause serious hazardous. For more study:1-Determining leacate pollution index (LPI)
    2- Air analysis for determining air contaminants
    3- Chemical analysis farm product for determining cancinogen metals concentration
    4- Diging pizometers in appropriate sites for monitoring of groundwaters pollution
    5- Determining origin of lithologic Zn and Pb elements.
    Keywords: Ardebil, landfilling site, heavy metal, soil pollution, water pollution
  • Mohsen Ahmadpuor* Pages 505-516
    The aim of this study is to determine of mercury levels in various internal organs of the Fereydunkenar International Wetland’s birds for the first time and to determine the influence of this metal on their health.
    This study has been done in the Fereydunkenar international wetland where is the most important wetland habitat of the central areas of Hyrcanian ecosystem. Fereydunkenar International Wetland with 5427 hectares area has located in the southern Caspian. This wetland also is the overwintering habitat of only surviving flock of Western Siberian Crane in Iran, every year attracts about one-third of overwintering birds species (150 species), that will migrate the northern geography latitudes to Iran. Bird samples were collected in autumn 2011.
    Samples collected from tow species (Common coot: n = 15 and Common teal: n = 16). The birds were biometrics (total body length and weighing). Sex and age of birds was identified. Finally liver, kidney and breast muscle of each bird was completely separated from the body and were kept until beginning to analyze in temperature - 20 ° C. Then 0.2 g of each tissue (liver, kidney, and breast muscle) was transferred in 50 mL Teflon containers with lid and 5 ml of nitric was added to it. Then the samples were transferred to the microwave and temperature of microwave reached the 180° C temperature with a gentle slope during 40 minutes and maintained at this temperature for 20 minutes. Then, the temperature of the microwave was reduced with a gentle slope to cool the samples. After cooling, the solution was passed through filter paper to obtain a clear solution. Next, the clear solution obtained was increased with two time deionized water in the 50 mL volumetric flask. In this stage, Mercury concentration was measured in each sample by using atomic absorption tool, Perkin-Elmer model (AA 700) according to method of cold vapor technique.
    Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS ver. 18.0. Results have been expressed in µg/g-1 ww with SD.
    The results showed, that the highest mercury levels were observed in the liver of both species (0.34±0.16 µg/g-1 ww in Common coot and 0.28±0.11 µg/g-1 ww in Common teal). After the liver, the amount of mercury in the kidneys of both species was higher (0.22±0.08 µg/g-1 ww in Common coot and 0.25±0.13 µg/g-1 ww in Common teal). There was a significant difference in mercury concentrations among different tissues (between liver with two other tissues), (P
    Keywords: Mercury, Common coot, Common teal, Fereydoonkenar International Wetland
  • Mohammadreza Jalili Ghazi Zadeh *, Ziaedin Aidi Pages 517-529
    Pressure management is an effective method for water demand management. For evaluation of the effects of pressure changes on leakage level of water networks, the FAVAD equation is usually used. However, in this equation, exponent of pressure parameter (N) needs to be determined. For estimation of N, either some information about the leak opening is necessary or network’s leakage level needs to be known which is very difficult to measure. On the other hand, available studies about the effects of pressure changes on water consumptions and leakage don’t seem to be enough. In the present study, a new analytical method is proposed for calculation of N, in which direct measurement of leakage level, does not need. In order to test ability of the proposed method as well as the pressure effects on leakage and water consumption, an isolated water network in Tehran city has been selected.
    Different pressure patterns were implemented on outlet of a pressure reducing valve and variation of the minimum night flows, customers’ water consumption and inlet flow discharge were then measured in the pilot network. In this study, implementation of the pressure management could reduce the minimum night flow, water inflow and customer's consumption up to 50, 21 and 30 percent, respectively. Furthermore, using the obtained data, different equations for estimation of pressure effects on reducing of night flow, total inflow and water consumption are presented.
    Introduction
    Considering water scarcity, population growth, increase of water consumption per capita and high cost of drinking water production, optimum usage of existing water resources is a vital issue. Pressure management is one of the most effective solutions among the water demand management methods to help solving these problems.
    Although pressure management is one of the best methods for water demand management, some operation managers ignore using this method in their water distribution networks and would prefer to use other methods such as water rationing when they face water scarcity. It may be because of lack of experience on pressure management. The main objective of this paper is to show the good results and practicability of pressure management especially for old and existing water distribution networks.
    N parameter in the FAVAD’s pressure-leakage formula, represents the power-law relationship between leakage rate and pressure. The value of the exponent N may vary from 0.5 for “Fixed Area” leaks to 1.5 or more for “Variable Area” leaks where leak area varies with pressure. In this paper a new modified method of calculation the N exponent is shown.
    Materials and Methods
    An isolated water distribution network in Tehran city was chosen for this study (Figure 1). Region is supplied with only one reservoir. After isolation of the region, a modulated PRV in the entrance of the isolated region was assembled, moreover, a pressure regulator were installed to induce different pressure patterns. Also an ultrasonic flowmeter was used in downstream of the reservoir to measure input flow to the isolated region.
    Since at the begging of study the optimum pressure pattern was not exactly known, therefore after preparation of isolated region and setting up the equipment, different pressure patterns were applied to the modulated PRV as try and error process to find the best pattern. These patterns are shown in Figure 2. This process continued by applying more pressure reduction to the PRV until the first complaint was received from the customers. On the other hand, by having different pressure patterns and measurement of night flow for each one, it could be possible to follow changing of night flow with water pressure variation.
    For each patterns inflow was recorded in 10 minute intervals and the measurements were continued for a week. Output pressure of PRV before installation of modulated PRV was 50 meters. It should be noticed that output pressure patterns of PRV were adjusted such that the costumers didn’t face any pressure shortage and no complaint was reported during the study.
    Different conditions and information of measurements are shown in Table 1. For better comparison of mentioned patterns (Figure 2), average amount of applied pressure patterns during 24 hours is also mentioned in table.
    Results and Discussion
    After completion of measurements, the data was analysed and following results are obtained: Results show that with no complaints of consumers, total inlet flow reduced about 21 percent in final week. Inlet flow is composed of network leakage and consumer’s consumption, reduction of inlet flow means lower consumers’ consumption and/or lower network leakage.
    To study the effects of pressure management on the consumers’ consumption, 64 consumers were selected as sample of total consumers and their domestic water consumptions measured by reading their flow meters in different weeks during the study period. Results for domestic water consumptions are shown in Table 2.
    Results show more than 30 percent water saving for the consumers’ consumption in final week. Minimum night flow is composed of network leakage and consumer’s night consumption. Since amount of consumer’s night consumption is almost constant, the minimum night flow could be a convenient indicator for estimation of network’s leakage. Minimum night flow occurs at midnight hours and especially between 12 to 4 AM.
    The trend of results shows a reduction of minimum night flow with reduction of pressure and a potential for reduction of night flow more than 30 percent. It should be also mentioned that no complaint was received from consumers when final pattern was applied to the modulated PRV. Table 3 shows the measurement results of minimum night flow in the different weeks (weeks).
    In this study, using data obtained from the pilot, a novel analytical method for estimation of the pressure exponent (N) has been presented. Using this method N=1.15 was estimated for the network under study.
    Conclusions
    In present study, results of pressure management on distribution network show that with no complaints of consumers, some benefits such as leakage reduction and consumer’s consumption are practically achievable.
    A novel analytical method for estimation of the pressure exponent (N) in the FAVAD equation as well as analytical equations for evaluation of pressure management’s effects on leakage and water consumption have been recommended.
    Considering complexity of water networks in term of flow hydraulic, geometrical and material of pipes, more research are still needed to study the relation between pressure, leakage and consumers’ water consumption.
    Keywords: Water distribution networks, Pressure management, Leakage, Leakage, pressure relationship, N exponent
  • Hoseiin Kalhor, Hoseiin Ganjidoost* Pages 531-550
    Introduction
    Water scarcity has led to the search for alternative water resources. One solution is the recycling of wastewater for irrigation. Wastewater treatment is often based on biological systems such as activated sludge or other engineered units in urban areas. In rural areas, low-cost, environmentally-friendly alternative treatments such as constructed wetlands (CW), are more common. CWs are man-made planted systems that utilize natural processes to improve water quality for human benefit. Salinity in treated wastewater is often increased, especially in arid and semi-arid areas.
    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove or control of soil and water pollution. Soluble salts, heavy metals, oil and oil derivatives and radioactive substances are pollutants that have been removed using phytoremediation from different environments. In the past two decades, the use of phytoremediation was thrived in the treatment of urban and industrial wastewater and also the treatment of contaminated shallow soil. The sun is the main supplier of energy and is a clean source of energy in terms of creating secondary materials arising from the treatment. Plants use three organs, root, stem and leaves to absorb various pollutants from soil or water. By transferring the pollutant to its tissues, the plant can collect the pollutants from artificial pond cumulatively.
    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of two plants in simultaneous removal of organic matter and salinity of wastewater. In order to have a close estimation of the saline wastewater characteristics, both saline and organic matters were used. A comparison was also done on morphological characteristics of two plants affected by salinity tensions and organic matter in continuing. The results of this study can help the researchers to treat saline wastewater biologically and economically, lateral goals such as creating beauty, producing feed for livestock and also preventing soil erosion.
    Materials And Methods
    Setting up sector includes: the preparation of the mature plant, making the laboratory pilot, preparing artificial wastewater, determining the different concentrations of wastewater, determine the number of plants in each tank, transfer plant to pilot and ultimately add wastewater to the reactor. In order to ensure the effectiveness and safety of plants, rooted plants with a life of at least two months were needed. Therefore, by referring to the vetiver farm belonging to the Iranian Association of promotion and development of Vetiver plant in Tankabon, the required plant was prepared. Swamp palm was provided from the center of Oxus houseplants and transferred to the laboratory. Pilot has 17 batch reactors with a volume of 1.7 liters and was made of Plexiglas according to Figure 1. The aim of this pilot is to create the proper context for simulation of artificial wetlands, existing multiple tanks in order to apply different levels of salinity and different amounts of organic matter to each plant and also compare the amount of removal in tanks containing plant against the control tanks. The pilot was set on the basis of permanent flooding. In this way the platform holder was used that usually kept a plant and directly floated on the reinforced solution. An air pump which has also pumped air into air rocks and created tiny air bubbles in solution, take the required oxygen to plant root. Aeration in addition to supply required root oxygen, also provided mixing in the solution. To measure the parameters, the spectrophotometer system Hach model DR 4000, digital scales PJ300 model manufactured by Mettler by precision of 0.001 hot, EC meter Martini model of MI 805 was used. Stem diameter measurement was done with Vernier caliper with precision of 0.01 cm and measuring leaf area with measuring system of leaf area DeltaT area meter mk2. ATF was used to dry the leaf. In order to make the electrical conductivity in the solution, NaCl was used and to meet required COD of the starch, ultrapure Merck Company used and to prepare solutions, distilled water twice distilled used. Plants were fed with liquid fertilizer Pokon made in Holland. Experiment was done with three replications.
    Figure 1. Used pilot in research a) air pump b) reactors with plant c) control reactor
    Five wastewaters with different amounts of electrical conductivity and organic matter were produced artificially in the laboratory. Their characteristics are shown in Table 1. Both swamp palm and Vetiver plant in addition to treatment with 5 mentioned wastewaters were irrigated with distilled water as the control. 5 of the reactors without plant was irrigated with mentioned wastewater to be investigate the effect of aeration in reducing the amount of electrical conductivity and COD parameters. In every reactor, the amount of 5 mL liquid fertilizer to provide nutrients and maintain the ratio of NPK at 5: 7: 7 required of plant was added. As long as fertilizing was enough for a period of two months of plant growth. This amount was selected based on the company of making fertilizer. Table 2 provides the reactor arrangement and placement of the plant and control reactors.
    Table 1. Amount of salinity and COD in different solutions
    Electrical conductivity COD (mg/L) Number
    Table 2. Ordering reactors and wastewater and each reactor plant
    To investigate the obtained results of removing organic matter and salinity, experiments were done at 5 reactors containing Vetiver plant and control (without plant) during four periods, respectively, 10, 15, 15 and 20 days with the specifications listed in reactors containing wastewater in Table 1.
    Discussion &
    Conclusion
    The obtained results of this research in laboratory scale showed that using phytoremediation method in artificial wetland, in different levels of salinity and organic matter, on average, for every single plant and vetiver 17%, and per unit of swamp palm plant have had 15% salinity reduction and wastewater in following. Other results are as follows:The process of reducing the amount of electrical conductivity in both species reduced with increasing salinity levels. The highest amount of salt intake by plant of swamp palm in the electrical conductivity was observed 2500 micro Siemens per centimeter and about 30% and about 53% for Vetiver.
    The process of reducing organic matter in both species reduced with increase in salinity level with the highest efficiency of COD reduction by plant of swamp palm in the electrical conductivity was observed 0 and organic matter mg / L 300 about 50% and for Vetiver plant about 58%.
    Comarison of COD and Electrical Conductivity Removal
    Based on the measurement results and the importance of plants, the highest level of leaf area, dry weight and diameter of stem was obtained in vetiver plant and the highest root velum in swamp palm plant. All of these characteristics according to salinity tolerance by the plant, since the transfer to pilot have increased the toxicity and wilting in the mentioned plants and since then has remained static or due to loss of plant and destruction of associated tissue was reduced. Chlorosis in Vetiver plants shows the accumulation of salt in the root that indicates the process of root phytoremediation in this plant. Creating Toxic effects on palm leaves and also the tiller of the plant in salinity before the drought threshold acts as a control on dilution mechanism in phytoremediation of swamp palm. This mechanism was observed in Vetiver due to observing green tillers.
    By changing the rinsing characteristics of plant and also destroying the balance of plant enzymes, the electrical conductivity of solution causes reduction in the amount of water taking, drought of plant and results in the lack of transfer of pollutants from the flooding environment into the tissues of plant. Finally, Vetiver plant was diagnosed in comparison to swamp palm for phytoremediation of saline wastewater with appropriate organic matter.
    Keywords: Phytoremediation, Salty Wastewater, Vetiver, Cyperus alternifolius
  • Kiyumars Safidi *, Meraj Sharari Pages 551-563
    According to key role of dead trees in maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems, the awareness of the full decay dead trees times, play an important role in developing in forest protection and management program. This research was done in the Asalem forest to investigate decay dynamic of dead beech trees. A total of 90 sample cuts of dead beech stumps were randomly selected and studied. For each sample, species, diameter and degree of decay stumps were recorded. To determine the density of dead wood, cut samples were taken with the length, width and height of 5 centimeters per two perpendicular directions to the cross-section of each sample. The results showed that the decay time of 95% and 50% of the dry mass of beech stumps take a 49 and 22 years, respectively. According to the results, the decay constant of this tree species varied 0.01 to 0.07. Meanwhile in this research the total time of dead wood recruitment in the four decay class estimated totally 36 years and 2,17,12 and 6 years, respectively. Results showed there is no significant relationship between decay rate and wood extracts. According to the results in the maintaining dead wood as source of biodiversity in the forest ecosystems, the dynamic of density and volume of dead wood must be considered.
    Introduction
    Today, the dead woods are important to the conservation of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. The importance of maintaining diversity in natural ecosystems, has led to the formation of different perspectives of the forestry projects. In the most forestry projects, especially in the conservational projects and management based on the ecological point of view, one of the main objectives of forestry plans is maintaining biological diversity in forest ecosystems (Bollmann & Müller 2012). In addition, biodiversity have been introduced as one of the main quantitative indicators to evaluate the sustainable management of forest ecosystems and high variability in forest ecosystems demonstrate the health and sustainability of ecosystems (Parviainen & Västilä 2011).
    Researchers have figured out the importance of dead trees in the 1970s. Most publications have been proved its importance in biodiversity (Müller and Schnell, 2003; Schuck et al., 2004), nutrient cycling (Hafner and Groffman, 2005; Santiago and Amanda, 2005), natural regeneration (Yan et al., 2007; Sefidi et al., 2013) wildlife habitat (Harmon et al., 1986; Hunter, 1990)
    Due to the change in the overall attitude toward forest management and conservation approaches, and highlights the role of forests in carbon sequestration and storage, today aware of the time of trees stay in the forest can help managers of forest in regulating forestry plans. According to dynamics of the dead trees volume in the forest ecosystem, knowledge of the changes in volume over time will be very helpful to maintain dead woods in different period’s forestry project. This research attempts to answer these questions; (1) the total decay time of a dead beech in natural conditions it takes a few years? And (2) each of the four decay classes naturally spent how many year. The answers to these questions can help us to achieve the main objective of this research provide appropriate quantitative information from the decay rates of oriental beech trees
    Method and Material:This study was conducted at Asalem Forest (37°36' N, 48°52'E). The climate of the area is temperate with an annual mean temperature from 7.3 to 8.3 C and an annual mean precipitation of 586–885 mm. Forests occupy plateaus on moderately inclined slopes, largely free of rocks with limestone bedrock. Caspian forests occupy an approximate area of 2,000,000 ha being dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). The field sampling for the case study was carried out in August 2014. A chronological sequence of samples for 0, 2, 5, 11, 15, 19 and 25 years after the harvesting period was established) Müller-Using and Bartsch, 2003). In total, 90 stumps of beech were chosen randomly for dead wood carbon measurements.
    Stumps were considered as a representative of dead trees, because their mortality age was specified and it was possible to establish chornosequence plots (Harmon et al., 1986). Consequently, the sample a cube shape with 4cm length was removed from two opposite parts of a cross-section using chain saw and axe. Consequence plots were a representative of the defined decay class in this forest. Decay class of stumps was specified by visual characteristics which were observed in the structure of the bark and tissue of the wood (Albercht, 1990; Sefidi & Marvie-Mohadjer, 2010).
    All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.3 software. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to detect differences in carbon contents, C concentration and wood density of beech and hornbeam trees. Tukey’s HSD procedure was used to determine significant differences in the mean density of wood with years at α =0. 05 level.
    Discussion of
    Results
    The findings showed that the decrease in wood density over time follows a negative exponential function. Based on the results the total decay time of the about 95% dead wood can be estimate or in other words time of reduction to estimate the 95% of the timber weight can be estimated, which is consistent with the findings of studies in northern Iran (Alidadi et al., 2015) and correspond in other similar areas in forests (Yang et al., 2010; Garrett et al., 2012; Müller & Bartsch, 2009). The results of this research in the Asalem of beech forests revealed that the time required to decay and lose 95% of the weight of a beech tree dead wood lasts about 46 years. Different results for different tree species have been reported. The decay time varies among different species. The rate of decay in trees in addition to the sites geomorphic features (Fukasawa, 2015) and environmental conditions such as climate (Russell et al., 2014) that are influential in the decay process (Dunn & Bailey, 2012) are also influenced by genetic species there.
    Numerous studies have mentioned the differences between species in the rate of decay. Mackensen et al. (2003) reported differences in the rate of decay in the eucalyptus species. The tree species of E.radiata and E.elata showed differences in the rate of decomposition of the wood. In addition conifers and broadleaf tree species also varies by the chemicals properties of wood caused to e differences in the decay rates (Mackensen et al., 2003). Studies of (Palmetto & Tohi, 2014) showed differences in the decay of tree species due to differences in moisture content and density of trees. In the in Mazandaran province, Alidadi et al (2015) reported the total time of beech dead wood decay need to approximately 36 years. The contradiction in the results can be caused by different climatic condition between two study sites. In the European beech forests Müller & Bartsch (2009) reported 30 years for total decay of beech trees. Diffrences caused by environmental factors like climate and also initial density of tree species.
    In addition to the aforementioned, the chemical characteristics of wood can also be more effective on the activity of microorganisms and the development of decay process.
    Conclusion
    Today, we are witnessing a change in attitude and overall approach the managers of the forestry sector to the management of our forest ecosystems. In the concepts based on the conservation of biodiversity in forest, the health of ecosystem has been an important position. T According to the findings of this research it is recommended that in the maintenance of dead trees in the forest ecosystems, beside to the volume of dead trees in the forest floor, the dynamics and volume changes over time to be considered.
    Keywords: Dead wood, Decay time, Decay grade, Beech
  • Lila Rahimibalochi *, Sare Qorbani Pages 565-582
    Establishing Marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most important approaches in biodiversity protection and fishery management. Coastal marine environments are facing with numerous threatening factors. Therefore having a comprehensive assessment of multiple risks faced with socio-economic dimensions of marine protected areas is crucial and this should be integrated in ecological research for management of these areas. Environmental risk assessment is the process of examining stressors factors and exposure to these factors. Chemical and non-chemical stress factors should be taken into consideration in a comprehensive risk assessment. In addition, socio-economic aspects have been integrated to other factors in risk assessment process of marine protected area.
    The purpose of this study is to identify, evaluate and rank stressors of marine protected areas. Hence, Nayband marine national park was selected as a case study. This area has a high biodiversity and natural beauty that is threatens by high pollution and over capacity exploitation by different organizations. Therefore, the environmental risk assessment and management is essential in this national park. This study was carried out by field visit, interview with Bushehr's department of environment staff and residents around the park.
    Pressure-state-response framework has been used for conceptualizing risk analysis and risk management issues in this study. An environmental issue is divided into five parts by DPSIR model. (D) Represents Driving forces which indicate the social, economic, human and climatic conditions, these forces produce biological, chemical and physical pressures (P) Pressures are tensions that produces by human on environment. (S) State shows the condition of the environment. (I) Impact indicates environmental degradation like loss value of fishery. (R) Responses are measures by decision-makers to respond to environmental issues.
    In this study, we used integrated framework from integration of multilayer DPSIR model and current approach of ecological risk assessment. This has been archived in four major steps a) identifying potential threats,b) data collection,c) data classification and d) ranking risks. In the first step, potential threats such as maritime transportation, fishing and land-based marine pollution was investigated. In the second step, environmental and socio-economic factors that are associated with potential threats were identified. In The third step, we established a multi-layered framework to explain causal relationships between ecological interactions and socio-economic development. The data is classified into five categories in the DPSIR ring based on causal relationship. In the fourth step, the identification and ranking criteria, taking into account the risk of environmental threats and their consequences. Ranking for each criterion was conducted by a team of experts based on the principle of quality of each index and weight of evidence. Each indicator was allocated a qualitative score of very low (VL), low (l), medium (M), high (H) and very high (VH) based on the “Seven Rapid Ranking Criteria” for MPA management. The risk quotient (RQ) was applied as the quantitative ERA approach to determine if measured levels of chemicals in the target waters and sediments were likely to cause harms to local MPAs. This coefficient is calculated by comparing measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with predicted no effects concentrations (PNECs) to obtain the RQs (RQ = MEC / PNEC). If RQ
    Keywords: DPSIR Model, Indicator, Risk Analysis, Risk management, Nayband Marine National Park
  • Saeid Farhadi, Hossein Mohammad Asgari *, Ali Dadollahi Sohrab, Seyed Mohammad Jafar Nazemosadat, Sayyed Hossein Khazaei Pages 583-604
    Introduction
    Atmospheric aerosol plays a significant role in the Earth's radiation budget through radiative forcing and chemical perturbations. Aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the climate system by reflecting sunlight. Quantifying the net effect requires accurate information on the global distribution of aerosol properties that have to be estimated from satellite observations. Estimating aerosol properties is also one of the first steps in generating high-level land surface products from satellite observations. Effective aerosol retrieval information is also essential to satellite imagery atmospheric correction. Satellite remote sensing has been employed to supplement the prediction of ground-level dust concentration. Satellites are able to cover vast spaces at a relatively low cost. For aerosol studies, the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) has enabled the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data globally from the satellite's spectral observation. MODIS AOD is a measure of light transmittal by aerosols in an atmospheric column during the satellite overpass. With the evolution of the retrieval algorithm, MODIS AOD has become increasingly important in the role of producing more accurate estimation for the aerosol. Estimation of aerosol loadings is of great importance to the studies on global climate changes. Meteorological numerical models and ground stations are not able to tracking and detection of dust storms and in many cases have significant errors. This issue show necessitates use of reconstruction ways dust according to remote sensing techniques. The purpose of this study, use of remote sensing technology and MODIS images to estimate dust concentration on the Persian Gulf surface and estimating the linear correlation relationship between the dust measurements in ground and atmospheric. In this study, we develop a new algorithm for estimating the aerosol optical depths using MODIS data over Persian Gulf surfaces. This algorithm is validated using AERONET measurements.
    Materials and Methods
    In the current study we analyze atmospheric aerosol optical properties over Persian Gulf. Annually, Dust storms are imported into Persian Gulf from the West and North West and South West. Data corresponding to the station was extracted for channels of 0.644, 0.855, 0.466, 0.553, 1.243 and 1.643 µm of satellite image. The ocean algorithm was designed to retrieve only over Dark Ocean, (i.e. away from glint). There is a special case when we retrieve over glint, and that is described below. The algorithm calculates the glint angle, which denotes the angle of reflection, compared with the specular reflection angle. The glint angle is defined as:Θ_glint=〖cos〗^(-1) ((cosθ_s cosθ_v )(sinθ_s sinθ_v cosϕ)) (1)
    Where θ_s, θ_v and ϕ are the solar zenith, the satellite zenith and the relative azimuth angles (between the sun and satellite), respectively. The retrieval requires a single fine mode and a single coarse mode. The trick, however, is to determine which of the (4 x 5) twenty combinations of fine and coarse modes and their relative optical contributions that best mimics the MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. The reflectance from each mode is combined using η as the weighting parameter:ρ_λ^LUT (τ_0.55^tot )=ηρ_λ^f (τ_0.55^tot )(1-η)ρ_λ^c (τ_0.55^tot) (2)
    Where ρ_λ^LUT(τ_0.55^tot) is a weighted average reflectance of an atmosphere with a pure fine mode 'f' and optical thickness τ_0.55^tot and the reflectance of an atmosphere with a pure coarse mode 'c' also with the same τ_0.55^tot. Before the final results are output, additional consistency checks are employed. Our primary means of true ‘validation’ is comparison with ocean-based sunphotometer measurements, specifically, those of AERONET. The AERONET measured AOD is easily interpolated to the exact MODIS wavelengths (for example 0.55 µm) by quadratic interpolation in log reflectance/log AOD space. The AERONET ‘sun-measured’ definition of FW differs from either of the MODIS (land or ocean) definitions, but should be correlated with either. AOD images were compared with values obtained in AERONET stations, in finally AOD values were evaluated using statistical indexes of Average, standard deviation, correlation, Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Difference Square Error (RMSD). In the following validation, we use AERONET Level 1.5 data of the Dalma, Bahrain, Abu Al Bukhoosh, Sir Bu Nuair, Umm Al Quwain, MAARCO and Mussafa station when available.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The evaluation results showed that good correlation exists between the AOD simulation and AERONET data, with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.90. The best and most suitable mode demonstrated for 1.243 and 1.643 bonds with the correlation coefficient equal to 0.94 and 0.99 and RMSE and RMSD index equal to 0. 2 and 0.02 for band of 1.243 and 0.1 and 0.01 for band of 1.643, respectively. We conclude that significant limitations exist for aerosol retrieval using marine AERONET stations. The number of matching points between the two datasets may become sufficient toattempt the reduction of the current uncertainties. Given the identified uncertainties, the results of this study do not contradict these previous validation efforts. Future research may reduce these uncertainties and require modifications to the retrieval algorithm. We used AOT data from a comprehensive set of Persian Gulf AERONET stations to evaluate the dust retrieval algorithm. Data evaluation was performed by using the Pearson correlation coefficient, root mean square error index (RMSE) and root mean square deviation index(RMSD). The evaluation results showed that good correlation exists between the AOD simulation and AERONET data, with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.90. The regression analysis of AOD data revealed similar limitations. We found that the AOD simulation are on average 5%–25% more than the corresponding AERONET values, depending on the regression weighting assumptions for the comparison dataset. To further evaluate the performance of the algorithm in comparison with the AERONET measurements, we used the RGB image from MODIS. Overall, the comparison with the AERONET data has revealed similar performance of the two satellite datasets with a tendency of the simulation AOTs to underestimate and the MODIS over-ocean AOTs to overestimate the AERONET values. The range of these discrepancies is comparable to the uncertainties associated with the limited number of ocean stations and natural aerosol variability. The comparison of AOTs in the Persian Gulf AERONET stations showed that AOD values in AERONET stations are, on average, 5%–25% lower than the corresponding simulation ones. While the biases in ocean retrieval algorithms and cloud screening procedures may not be excluded, these results indicate that aerosol loading in marine locations may differ significantly from that in adjacent land areas, thereby limiting the achievable validation accuracy. We conclude that significant limitations exist for aerosol retrieval using marine AERONET stations. These limitations can be linked to the extreme sparsity of the marine AERONET data, uncertainties associatedwith local conditions at the marine stations, and regression accuracy limits imposed by natural aerosol variability. The number of matching points between the two datasets may become sufficient toattempt the reduction of the current uncertainties. Given the identified uncertainties, the results of this study do not contradict these previous validation efforts. Future research may reduce these uncertainties and require modifications to the retrieval algorithm.
    Keywords: Optical Depth, MODIS, Persian Gulf, AERONET, Dust
  • Elham Yousefi Rubiat, Esmail Salehi * Pages 605-624
    Introduction
    Agriculture is one of the main uses of the land. Using agriculture to increase production is always with acidification and loss of groundwater reserves. Therefore, with proper planning for use of agricultural land so that to leave the least negative impacts on the soil and water pollution, it is regarded imperative for sustainable development. This study is aimed to better understanding of the environmental assessment of the area to be examined in the Birjand agricultural water reserves and to assess the agriculture. One of the problems that exist in the common assessment methods is the lack of precision of space, as well as the assumption of independent valuation factors and not seeing the relationships and feedbacks in the evaluation process. In the current research with the aim of resolving the problem to determine a more accurate assessment of using agricultural land according to environmental factors and the underlying factors of the “Fuzzy” method and techniques using a network analysis process.
    Materials And Methods
    - Description of study area:The research study is the Birjand's Watershed. That it is located in the East of Iran and the County of Southern Khorasan and the City of Birjand is at the center of there. The scope of the geographical location is located at 41, 58 and 44, 59 E and 44, 32 to 8, 33 N latitude. The Birjand plain has an average annual rainfall of 140 mm and an average temperature of 16.5 degrees Celsius, according to the climate classification it is one of the most arid areas.
    -
    Method
    -The use of the “Fuzzy” logic in the Evaluation of land use
    In 1996 Zou and Sivico, found some of the problems associated with the implementation of multi-criteria assessments and GIS, these states are: Input for multi-criteria assessment methods GIS usually are ambiguous, inaccurate and wrong. Despite this awareness of these methods assuming that the input data is accurate. In this connection, some efforts in connecting to this problem by combining multiple criteria techniques in GIS was conducted, and the analysis of the sensitivity and the propagation were performed. Another way to deal with uncertainty of input data (values and priorities of decision-makers) was to use the “Fuzzy” logic approach.
    - Weighting by Analytic Network Process (ANP)
    In this study, based on various factors and the intrinsic nature of space problems, using the ANP method. ANP method is one of the techniques of multiple attribute decision making (MADM). The ANP method is a developed method of AHP, which can be correlation and give a feedback between effective elements in the decision making and modeling, and all internal effects of effective components in decision-making, are used and entered into the account. The ANP technique with a comprehensive framework, with all interactions and relationships, between decision-making levels are the formation of a network structure, can be considered. Clusters represent levels of making decisions and arrows indicate interactions between the decision making levels. The direction is determined by the dependence arcs. In some cases where the elements of a cluster of or all the elements affect other clusters (or are influenced by it), communicate between clusters that are called external dependence.
    Results
    According to the issue mentioned it will be decided by a structured value tree. The framework, where the measurement to achieve the objectives set are introduced and presented.
    -Preparation of “Fuzzy” Maps for each factor
    At this stage, for each of the factors identified, in the previous stage a map was provided based on the utility of the aim (areas suitable for agriculture) to study. For drawing up the maps, GIS and Idrisi Selva Software is used.
    -The Prohibition Layers: protection land use
    Areas with slopes above 70%, protected areas of the Department of Environment and flood-prone areas (Figure) capable for protection, so that the area is not to be used by anyone and they should be removed from the research area. Determining prohibitions and standardization are based on Boolean Logic (0 and 1).
    - Weighing the Factors by using the ANP
    Method
    According to factors affecting at land capability of agricultural development is identification, and was drown in the software. Then the software gives us the final weight (as below). All of these steps use the Super Decision Software 2.0.8.version.
    climate:0.148,rainfall: 0.046, Evaporation:0.015, slop: 0.066.distance of river:0.0149, distance of water resources:0.022, texture soil:0.058, Soil fertility:0.073, Soil drainage: 0.028, Depth soil: 0.045, soil erosion:0.074, land cover: 0.406
    Linear Combination:At this stage, the layers of the raster weight are based on gathering the formula (1) to obtain the final Fitness map. In this relation: S is fit Land, Wi is operating weight, Xi is the operating phase, and Ci is rating the prohibited criteria.
    Formula(1) S=∑_(i=1 )^n▒W_i X_i ∏_ ^ ▒C_i
    Comparing the Method of Evaluation of the Iranian Model with the ANP FUZZY Technique
    From the following forms, the area assigned to each class for two methods can be stated as follows:Pic1. compares the results of evaluation, using the ANP FUZZY Method and the Iranian Model (overlay)
    Table (1) compares the results of evaluation, using the ANP FUZZY Method and the Iranian Model (overlay)
    Area
    overlay
    (m2) quota overlay
    (%) Area
    ANP FUZZY
    (m2) quota
    ANP FUZZY
    (%)
    Good capability class 110108345 3.21 271674384 7.93
    Moderate capability class 150745348 4.40 707816248 20.66
    less capability class 885840235 25.86 986628010 28.80
    no capability class 2278320097 66.52 1458895384 42.59
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    In this study, at first, based on 12 environmental and infrastructure factors, and also considering restrictions, the value of each pixel of the study area, the ANP FUZZY technique has been achieved in agriculture. In drawing up the map, we tried a few things, to be observed: 1- Comprehensive measures to be selected for the proper evaluation. 2- The entering of uncertainties and standardization of all factors carefully raised the ranking. 3- By using the Analytic network process, incorrect assumption of independence, has been removed, the feedback and interaction are considered in the assessment. Firstly, the map of multi-criteria evaluation is to determine the suitability of the land, suitable areas for agriculture in the study area, is a consolidated map with a raster format and is for areas that do not have a limit of development, and that the amount has values from 0 to 203. There are not areas with a higher value of 203 in this area and this shows that the areas with great potential for agriculture are not available in the area. More utility indicates the higher capability, and the less utility indicates lower capability than for the corresponding user. The utility of each pixel represents the favorable factors and the weights assigned to them. According to this method, it was revealed that 93/7%, 66/20%, 80/28%, and 50/42% of the study areas respectively, have a high, medium, low and unable capability to make them useable for agricultural. So, finally, by comparing the two methods of the Iranian Model and the ANP FUZZY Technique, the conclusion is that the Iranian Method has been a simpler approach to nature and its interactions, in the present method, have a more comprehensive identification of impact factors, entering uncertainty of the “Fuzzy” Technique and also see interactive network analysis techniques to design more realistic and arriving at a more detailed process which is closer to the situation of villages.
    Keywords: Agriculture capability evaluation, Analytic Network Process(ANP), fuzzy, protection, Birjand's Watershed
  • Ziaedin Badehian*, Masoumeh Mansouri Pages 625-635
    Introduction
    During the recent years, issues such as emission of greenhouse gasses, environmental degradation and deforestation along with the reduction of the biological capacity of the Earth have been one of the most important global concerns. Obviously, an individual has a daily effect on the planet Earth, however, the problem is the rate of the impact that each person leaves on the Earth. In this respect, the present study aims to investigate the effects of different land uses on the Kalshoor watershed applying the EF method. For this purpose, first, we introduce the concept of ecological footprint then the result of the calculation of this indicator will be presented and discussed.
    Material and
    Methods
    Study area
    The study area is Kalshoor watershed being a mountainous area located in the North East of Iran in Sabzevar city (36° 12′ 48.63″ N, 57° 40′ 35.39″ E). The area of the region is about 243232 hectares.
    Methods
    Based on the method proposed by wackernagel and Rees, below steps should be taken to calculate the Ecological Footprint (EF):1- Estimation of per capita consumption of consumers’ good as per the regional data and division the total consumption by the population of the area.
    2- Estimation of land allocated to an individual for the production of each case through the division of average annual consumption of each case by the average annual production or land yield.
    3- Calculating the average EF for an individual through the addition of all the allocated area for the parts consumed by a person in a year.
    4- Calculating the EF of the designated area through multiplying average EF for an individual by the population size.
    Results
    The primary result of this study showed that the basin of Kalshoor, due to its geographical position, has productive lands, which makes the agriculture the second prevalent land use in the area after range management. Other parts of the area are composed of forest, residential areas, lake, river, and springs. Moreover, part of water consumption, and services and energy parts have the highest and the lowest rate of EF, respectively. Regarding the population of the study area (775033), overall EF of the Kalshoor, is about 1076337 ha. Considering the total area of the study area (243231/61), meeting the needs of the residents, requires for an area 4.4 times bigger than the present basin area. This means that we have the land shortage of 1052105/39 ha for ecological land. In other words, the Kalshoor watershed basin should be supported in meeting its needs. In all parts of consumers’ goods, EF exceeds the total available land. Of total land shortage in the area, 48% belongs to the section of Water consumption. In the section of transport part with 15% of the total land shortage of the basin, have the least role in the unsustainability of the area. The partial calculation also shows that only in the sections of agriculture, constructed land, the EF of Kalshoor basin is lower than biological capacity, and there is no ecological shortage for these two sections.
    Discussion
    The rate of per individual EF in Kalshoor basin, in comparison to that of in the country of Iran and world (with 1/16 and 1/60ha respectively), is low. The Unsustainability of the Kalshoor basin is due to inordinate exploitation of the present resources. Moreover, another reason for unsustainability in the study area is a low yield of agricultural productions. In addition, due to the presence of the tourists in this area and the subsequent environmental impacts, the rate of EF increases. If the current trend of resource depletion continues, regional sustainability will be endangered. For lessening the rate of EF, three comprehensive solutions has been presented: 1- enlargement of the planet Earth! 2- reduction of the population 3: reduction of the per capita consumption. The first solution is apparently impossible and the second one is very difficult and time dependent. Nevertheless, the third solution seems quite necessary. Tomas Malton (1798) suggests the second solution. This scientist warns about the population growth and assert that consumption increases with increasing population, while in the long term the rate of food production will be lesser than population growth (Salehi et al., 2010). Wakernagel et al (2000), believe that technology can improve the capability of lands to increase the efficiency of the resources. One of the proposed methods to reduce the EF is decentralized density. Holden and Hoyer (2004) argue that the decentralized density (building relatively small cities with high-density and low distances between houses and public and private services) will ultimately reduce the EF in the residential section. In other words, by the construction of small and dense towns, EF is reduced. Therefore, policies about redistribution of the population in the lands are debatable. One of the major factors in reducing EF is scientific management, especially in urban residential which guarantees the achievement of sustainable urban facilities. Many environmentalists believe that the continuity of the traditional economic patterns and excessive consumption of materials and natural resources in a region will jeopardize the human survival. Conclusively, considering the environment and natural ecosystems in decision-making processes, require a profound understanding of EF concept and taking political protective actions to control and decrease the rate of EF. Therefore, informing about extreme using of the ecosystems and decreasing the production of waste and its retrieval, applying efficient technologies to decrease the rate of exploitation of ecosystems and controlling industrial pollutions of modern technologies to supply the ecological sustainability of different ecosystems, seems inevitable.
    tainability for different ecosystems, seems inevitable.
    Keywords: Ecological Footprint, Ecological Deficit, Kalshour basin, Biological Capacity
  • Sona Shahipour *, Hossein Mojtabazadeh Pages 637-648
    Diversifying economy, increasing human development index, industrialization's problems, beyond standard pollution especially in metropolises, rural immigrations, boosting efficiency and human resource effectiveness, employment, cultural communications, protecting environment and generally constant development are of this world's concerns. All countries in different developmental levels are trying to respond this concern. Meanwhile those who are interested in diversifying economy and try to get away from single basis economy, try to create new methods or path. One solution is tourism. Most of the countries especially those that have environmental potentials have long term programs in their national development program. Today tourism as a vast service industry has gained a proper status in economical, cultural, social and political matters. Tourism is the phenomenon of the twentieth century and cannot be disregarded.
    Population growth especially in youth generation in the recent decades has made us think of new ways of employment and economic development. Utilizing different tourist attractions for income creation and improving country's economic status is one of thesis ways.
    Considering Kandovan village's location and its unique structure and also tourism effectiveness in economic development as economists call it "invisible export" by thoughtful insight and also by training natives and tourists we can show this industry's results in the area. According to this study's findings that are gathered through field study and library research, and is practical, in order to have effective programs in rural areas, and ultimately due to the fact that Kandovan has tourist attractions, it can have important effect on family economic status and village economy improvement.
    Method and materials:This study has a descriptive- analysis method and practical goal. It is conducted to help organizing in rural areas and have effective role in activities.
    Tourism development in rural areas is an important element and a solution to help the village from poverty, immigration, economic and social problems. Besides tourism is an effective variable in enhancement of infrastructure, promotion of social and cultural exchange, attracting capitals and using it in the village is an economic development. Wilson points out that: tourism development is a solution in attracting foreign currency, employment and comprehensive growth. Netherland believes that tourism development can help rural restoration. Hall states that Development of rural tourism can improve the performance, production efficiency, and helps increase rural income.
    Ivana believes that rural tourism development has an important effect on economy diversifying. Some believe that rural tourism is a facilitator in rural area revitalization. Studies prove that there is relation between rural tourism development, and expanding production support and promotion of the indicators of health and well-being. Development literature indicates that in development of tourism in rural areas, including diversification of the local economy, development and social progress and development of the rural character in light of their own cultural values. Din believes that between prosperity of the tourism industry by strengthening the role of rural women, strengthening the efficient use of natural resources in rural economic revival there is meaningful relation.
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings that are gathered through field study and library research and by survey and analysis, we conclude that this area has the potentials for tourism development which can have noticeable economic effects. This village has lots of tourist attractions such as: Natural, historical, cultural, economic attractions, etc. each is a factor for attracting tourist. Among economic attractiveness of the village we can name garden and dairy products and honey and mineral water.
    One of the results of this study is the presence of the culture of tourist acceptance by people who want internal and external tourists from all study groups (women, youth, those working for municipality, men, etc.). As a result providing the basic facilities including transport, construction of places for tourist accommodation and necessary training for women and youth in the groups can act in this field is required.
    Health services at an advanced level are of issues that are of interest to tourists and the absence of which can have negative effect on village development and Kandovan's family economy improvement.
    On the other hand based on the findings and in light of the fact that Kandovan is located in a region that is dominant by cold weather in the second half of the year, Tourists visit accurse only in the first half of the year. So there should be solutions for the first half of the year to protect the village from environmental damage and for the second half of the year for financial and economic matters so that lack of the tourists is compensated for residents.
    Of other outcomes of this study is that most of the tourists are from different provinces and less foreign tourist, the number of which even reaches a hundred in a year. Job creation is another outcome of tourist attraction which even promotes hand craft making in the area. Due to the arrival of tourists during the past 7 years, more than half of the residents are employed in the service sector, this also can decrease immigrations comparing to other cities. Of other positive effects of tourist attraction is resident's cultural communication and improving government's attention to the area. All mentioned can distinguish Kandovan from other villages. Kandovan village's development in the last decade was due to tourist presence, we can also point out the construction of rock hotel.
    Given the theories provided in this research and also a summary of relevant theories mentioned in the chapter on theoretical framework, and comparison of these theories with the results of test of hypothesis, significance of hypotheses were concluded, it can be concluded that there was a direct relationship between hypotheses of this research and theories provided by scholars, and there was no conflict between them and can complement each other
    Test of hypotheses:Hypothesis one: It seems that tourism has an effect on development of Kandovan rural area.
    Table 1 – Chi2 test of role of tourism in development of Kandovan rural area
    Chi2 test Degrees of freedom P value
    48/4 4 01/0
    Given the above table, hypothesis one showed significance at chi2 difference value of 4.48 and 4 degrees of freedom and alpha level of smaller than 0.05 and equal to 0.01. This means that tourism has an effect on development of Kandovan rural area, which was consistent with literature. Data analysis using SPSS software, which showed significance of hypothesis one, we found out that the said hypothesis was confirmed.
    Hypothesis two: It seems that tourism is a directing factor affecting economy of Kandovan.
    Table 2 – Role of tourism in economy of Kandovan rural area
    Chi2 test Degrees of freedom P value
    95/14 8 04/0
    Given the above table, hypothesis one showed significance at chi2 difference value of 14.95 and 8 degrees of freedom and alpha level of smaller than 0.04. This means that tourism has noan effect on development of Kandovan rural area, which was consistent with literature. Data analysis using SPSS software, which showed significance of hypothesis two, we found out that the said hypothesis was confirmed.
    Table 3 – Test of reliability of questionnaire
    Cronbach’s alpha coefficient Standardized Cronbach’s alpha Number of items
    .457 .423 16
    Given the results of the study, for calculating reliability of questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha test was used. Cronbach’s alpha was estimated to be 0.457, which was an average coefficient. This value shows the extent to which the results of questionnaire are reliable and the extent to which the questionnaire can give the same results. None of the items were excluded based on the results of this test
    Solutions
    Keywords: Tourism, village, Development, Kandovan
  • Hassan Heydari *, Shiva Kasraei Pages 649-667
    One of the macro economic goals of countries is continuous and sustainable economic growth and development. This often creates environmental problems, such as increased use of natural resources and lead to the releasing of larger amounts of contaminants that by considering its importance, economists paid attention to this issue. Many factors affect a country's economic growth. Among these factors, it can be cited the country's financial development and size of trade. The effect quality of financial development on economic growth as well as the role of financial intermediaries depends upon assessing the firms’performance that attempt to innovate in organization. On the other hand, in addition to the structure of the financial sector in a country, trade as a factor in business growth and economic development by creating competition at the international level is to increase competitiveness in the international arena. Although free trade between countries in the long term brings economic prosperity, the freedom to trade in some circumstances may not lead to prosperity. Given the importance of this issue, the impact of trade liberalization on environmental pollution has become one of the challenges facing policy makers. Thus, given the importance of the issue, this study examined the interrelationship between economic growth, environmental pollution, financial development and trade openness during the period of 2012-1980 in the eight largest countries. Many studies have examined the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, financial development and trade openness, however, what distinguishes this study from another studies in the field of econometric techniques is Using panel data and simultaneous equations model for the first time in these countries which are examined simultaneously the influence of a) environmental, economic development and openness on economic growth, b) economic growth, financial development and openness on pollution environment ,c) economic growth, environmental pollution and degree of economic openness on the financial development, d) economic growth, environmental pollution and financial development on the openness of the economy. However, in most studies, only causal relationship between two variables is investigated. In addition, the study authors suggest that such experimental work has not been done for the D8 countries Group.
    Methodology and data:The general form of the Cobb-Douglas function which is used in this study is as follows:Y(t)=θ.〖C(t)〗^λ1 〖FD(t)〗^λ2 〖T(t)〗^λ3 〖K(t)〗^α 〖L(t)〗^(1-α) 4
    By getting Logarithm of the above series, the following equation reach:LnY_t=α_1α_2 lnC_tα_3 ln〖FD〗_tα_4 lnT_tα_5 lnK_tε_t 5
    As our study is the panel data, equation (5) is rewritten as follows:LnY_it=α_1α_2i lnC_itα_3i ln〖FD〗_itα_4i lnT_itα_5i lnK_itε_it 6
    Where "i=1,…,N " Represents the number of countries, "t=1,…,T" Represents a period of time. System of simultaneous equations in the present study is as follows:LnY_it=α_1α_2i lnCO_itα_3i lnFD_itα_4i lnT_itα_5i lnK_itε_it (7)
    LnCO_it=α_1α_2i lnY_itα_3i lnFD_itα_4i lnT_itα_5i ln〖Y^2〗_itα_6i lnEN_itα_7i lnUR_itε_it (8)
    LnFD_it=α_1α_2i lnY_itα_3i lnCO_itα_4i lnT_itα_5i lnIF_itε_it (9)
    LnT_it=α_1α_2i lnY_itα_3i lnCO_itα_4i lnFD_itα_5i lnFDI_itε_it (10)
    i=1,…,8 t=1990 to 2012
    The equations are specified and the method of 2SLS is used to estimate. In the above equation. Y¡ CO¡ FD¡ T¡ K¡ EN¡ UR¡ IF and FDI represent the economic growth, the CO2 emissions , financial development, trade openness, capital, energy, urbanization, inflation and net inflow of foreign direct investment, respectively.
    Empirical
    Results
    We apply two-stage least squares method to estimate the system of equations. The results are presented in table 1.
    As Table 1 shows, the effect of co2 emissions on growth (Y) of D-8 member countries, is significant and negative. Development Index variables, trade openness and capital has a significant positive effect on economic growth. Production growth has a significant and positive effect on greenhouse gas (CO) emissions. Financial development, trade openness, energy and urbanization variable have positive and significant effect on the environment pollution. Moreover y2 has a negative effect on CO2 gas emissions, but this effect is not significant at the 5% level. Economic growth in these countries at 10% has a significant positive effect on financial development (FD). Trade openness has a significant positive effect on the development of and financial growth. Inflation has a significant and negative impact on financial development. Production growth, financial development and foreign direct investment has a significant and positive impact on the degree of trade openness (T).
    Conclusions
    This research investigates relationship among four variables of economic growth, environmental pollution, financial development and trade openness. The results show that there is a bilateral relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions. In fact, by economic growth, environmental pollution increases because production takes place without regard to their environmental effects. Financial development system have bilateral relationship with economic growth in these countries. In other words, financial development growth in this group of countries increases production and adds environmental pollution. The financial development increases energy consumption or industrial activity improves and thereby increases CO2 emissions. In other words, financial development in this group of countries has not led to the achievement of environmentally friendly technology, yet. In these countries another variable which is affecting environmental pollution, is urbanization. On one hand, by increasing urbanization and industrial plants, on the other hand increasing a large number of vehicles, causing more pollution in the environment. Other affecting factor in these countries is trade openness that can help finance growth and development but also increases CO2 emissions. Trade openness enables countries to access the technologies of their business partners, find their way to the larger markets and thereby increase economic growth. As well as the development of the financial system, increase capital efficiency and capital goods can buy from foreign countries and thus make it possible to be feasible foreign trade. In these countries, high inflation makes financial intermediaries able to operate with maximum efficiency. So if the inflation rate rise, makes the financial sector less and less efficient allocation of capital. these results can be found in the countries of the D-8 countries, which Iran is also present, it should provide the basis to develop the financial system and thus increase production, gain new technologies in the field of environment helped to sustainable growth.
    Keywords: economic growth, environmental pollution, financial development, trade openness, 8 large muslim countries