فهرست مطالب

Psychiatry - Volume:11 Issue:4, 2016
  • Volume:11 Issue:4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Judith Mclenan, Carlo Lazzari, Gail Mcmillan, Robert Mackie Pages 201-205
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years) referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs) to an Urgent Referral Team (URT) based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays) for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.
    Method
    One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.
    Results
    We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.
    Conclusion
    The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.
    Keywords: Depression, Personality Disorders, Primary Health Care, Psychopathology, Suicide
  • Hamed Ghiasi, Abolalfazl Mohammadi, Pouria Zarrinfar Pages 206-213
    Objective
    Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder.
    Method
    In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique.
    Results
    Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.ýý
    Conclusion
    The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.
    Keywords: Attachment Styles, Borderline Personality Disorder, Emotion Regulation, Theory of Mind
  • Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi, Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian, Saeed Sadeghian, Abbasali Karimi, Soheil Saadat, Flora Peyvandi, Arash Jalali, Tahereh Davarpasand, Shahin Akhondzadh, Nazila Shahmansouri, Masoumeh Lotfi, Tokaldany, Maryam Amiri Abchouyeh, Farah Ayatollahzade Isfahani, Frits Rosendaal Pages 214-223
    Objective
    Depressed coronary artery disease (CAD) patients may experience a poorer prognosis than non-depressed patients. The aim of this study was to find the associated factors for depressive symptoms in young adults with CAD.
    Method
    This was a cross-sectional study within Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC) study. Young adult CAD patients (men ≤ 45 year-old and women ≤ 55 year-old) were visited from March 2013 to February 2014. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and all patients were asked to fill in the Beck Depression Inventory II. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. A logistic regression model was used to find multiple associated factors of depressive symptoms.
    Results
    Seven hundred seventy patients (mean ±SD age: 45.34 ±5.75 y, men: 47.7%) were visited. The point prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.9% in women and 30.2% in men (p
    Conclusion
    In premature CAD male patients, opium usage, MACE, initial CABG treatment, positive family history for CAD and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms; and hypertension and BMI were associated with depressive symptoms in women.
    Keywords: Association, Cohort Studies, Coronary Artery Disease, Depression, Young Adult
  • Fatemeh Khalili Kermani, Mohammadreza Mohammadi, Fariba Yadegari, Fatemeh Haresabadi, Seyed Mehdi Sadeghi Pages 224-233
    Objective
    In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM) was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions.
    Method
    Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys), using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training. The training was in the form of structured games and was offered to the participants in two 60-minute sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Other participants were assigned to the control group, receiving no treatment. All the participants were also evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The main measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Digit Span and Symbol Search B subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV); and scores of dictation and mathematics were used in terms of pre and post-test.
    Results
    The results of the t-test revealed a significant improvement in the post-test measures as well as a significant reduction of parents’ reports of inattentiveness, and improvement in academic performance in the experimental group. However, no significant changes were found in the control group.
    Conclusion
    The academic and working memory improvements were primarily due to the training method of WM. Our findings suggest that the training method of WM in the form of structured games may be a practical method for treating children with ADHD, but it needs to be further investigated.
    Keywords: Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity, Structured Games, Working Memory Training
  • Fatemeh Ranjbar, Fariborz Akbarzadeh, Mahboub Asadlou Pages 234-238
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on treatment response of refractory hypertension of the patients.
    Method
    This was a triple-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on female patients suffering from refractory hypertension and PMS at the same time. We obtained informed consent from 40 patients who had inclusion criteria and selected 20 patients for the intervention (sertraline 50 mg daily) and 20 for the control groups. The study period was five weeks. The mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after intervention was measured separately for each individual in each group and the mean of blood pressure of the members of the two groups were compared with each other.
    Results
    The mean age of the participants was 43.60 ± 4.57. In this study, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of both groups reduced after intervention. The mean of systolic blood pressure was reduced by 40.86 mmHg in the intervention group and this reduction was 16 mm Hg in control group after intervention (P
    Conclusion
    Administration of sertraline is more effective in controlling diastolic blood pressure in women suffering from refractory hypertension and comorbid PMS.
    Keywords: Premenstrual Syndrome, Refractory Hypertension, Sertraline
  • Mansour Shakiba, Mohammad Hashemi, Sara Shahrabadi, Maryam Rezaei, Mohsen Taheri Pages 239-243
    Objective
    Interaction between genetic and environmental factors is considered as major factors in Schizophrenia (SCZ). It has been shown that dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission dysfunction play an essential role in the SCZ pathogenesis.
    This study aimed to find the impact of functional 19-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism in dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population.
    Method
    This case-control study was conducted on 109 SCZ patients and 116 matched healthy subjects. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood cells using salting out method. Genotyping of 19-bp ins/del DBH polymorphism was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method.
    Results
    Neither the overall chi-square comparison of cases and controls (
    Keywords: Deletion, Dopamine Beta, Hydroxylase, Insertion, Polymorphism, Schizophrenia
  • Manoochehr Azkhosh, Ali Farhoudianm, Hemn Saadati, Fateme Shoaee, Leila Lashani Pages 244-249
    Objective
    Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran.
    Method
    This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.
    Results
    Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (P
    Conclusion
    The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.
    Keywords: Acceptance, Commitment Therapy, Addiction, Psychological flexibility, Psychological Well, being
  • Seyed, Ali Mostafavi, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Mohammadreza Mohammadi, Saeed Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Eshraghian, Payam Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Chamari, Zeinab Sari, Shahin Akhondzadeh Pages 250-256
    Objective
    Compulsive or binge eating is a kind of disturbed eating behavior, which is mostly observed among dieting women, and is integrated with appetite disorder, and uncontrolled eating of plenty of junk food. The Compulsive Eating Scale (CES) created first by Kagan & Squires in 1984, is an eight-item self-reporting instrument that is made to measure the severity of binge eating disorder. The aim of this study was to provide the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Compulsive Eating Scale (CES) among overweight and obese women in Iran.
    Method
    One hundred and twenty six (N = 126) overweight and obese women consented to participate in this study. We estimated the anthropometric indices, including body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, a total body fat percentage, and visceral fat level with body analyzer all in standard situations. Then, the participants completed the CES. Next, to assess concurrent validity, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger anxiety scale, appetite visual analogue rating scale, Food Craving questionnaire, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, and Restraint eating visual analogue rating scale were performed simultaneously. To assess test-retest reliability, CES was repeated for all the participants two weeks later. Moreover, we reported the internal consistency and factor analysis of this questionnaire. Furthermore, we estimated the concurrent correlation of CES with logically relevant questionnaires and body composition and anthropometric indices.
    Results
    Based on the reliability analysis and factor analysis of the principal component by Varimax rotation, we extracted two factors: eating because of negative feelings, and overeating. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the CES was 0.85 (Cronbach alpha of the factors was 0.85, and 0.74, respectively). The test-retest correlation of the CES was 0.89. Also, the split-half reliability of the questionnaire was established with the correlation coefficient between Sets I and II. The correlation was 0.85.
    Conclusion
    This study provides preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the CES. This instrument would be helpful in measuring the clinical practice and research studies of obesity, appetite and eating disorders reliably and validly.
    Keywords: Appetite, Compulsive Eating Scale (CES), Eating Disorder, Obesity, Overweight, Women
  • Hasan Soltani, Serwa Mohammadzadeh, Manoochehr Makvandi, Siroos Pakseresht, Alireza Samarbaf, Zadeh Pages 257-261
    Objective
    Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV) may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide.
    Method
    In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR) was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group.
    Results
    In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic.
    Conclusion
    An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.
    Keywords: BDV, Nested RT, PCR, Schizophrenia
  • Mina Malary, Mehdi Pourasghar, Soghra Khani, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi Pages 262-268
    Objective
    Hypoactive sexual desire Disorder (HSDD) is a common sexual problem among women. Sexual interest and desire inventory –female (SIDI-F) has been widely validated and used to measure sexual desire in women. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of SIDI-F for Iranian population.
    Method
    This was a methodological study on the psychometric properties of SIDI –F. This report describes the process and principles used in the translation and cultural adaptation of the SIDI-F on 40 women of reproductive age who were selected using convenience sampling method. The content validity of this inventory was proved by analyzing the feedback solicited from women of reproductive age, professions specialized in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was assessed through test-retest and internal consistency reliability.
    Results
    Few cultural differences were identified and considered during the process of translation and validation. In Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurement, the total score of SIDI-F was higher than Lawsche table (%51 for 14 experts), indicating the importance of including the mentioned items in the tool. CVR scores for all items were equal or more than 0.79. The internal consistency reliability measured for the whole tool was 0.89, showing considerable total reliability.
    Conclusion
    The Persian version of the SIDI-F seems to be valid and reliable and can be used to identify women with low sexual desire through research and sexual health programs provided by the health centers in Iran, and to design appropriate interventions to treat HSDD.
    Keywords: Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Health Interest, Desire Inventory, Female, Psychometric
  • Saman Jamali, Sekineh Sabokdast, Hamid Sharif Nia, Amir Hossein Goudarzian, Sima Beik, Kelly A. Allen Pages 269-273
    Objective
    This research aimed to study the effect of life skill training on mental health of Iranian middle school students.
    Method
    This experimental study was conducted In 2015 on 100 students of city of Ghaemshahr (North of Iran), who were randomly selected and divided into two equal groups of intervention (n = 50) and control (n = 50). Qualified trainers provided eight sessions (two sessions a week for 2 hours) of life skills training to the intervention group for one month. The control group did not participate in any training sessions during the same period. Mental health in both groups was assessed by a questionnaire pre- and post-training. Data were analyzed using descriptive and infernal (ANCOVA and paired t-test) statistic tests.
    Results
    The average age of the participants in both groups was 13.5±1.01. ANCOVA test results revealed that the average score of violence, addiction, stress and sensation-seeking before and after the training was statistically significant in the intervention group and control groups (p
    Conclusion
    Life skills training had positive effects on mental health of the participants. Given the importance of mental health in modern societies, it is necessary for schools to incorporate life skills in their curriculum to support the mental health of adolescents.
    Keywords: Iran, Life Skills, Mental Health, Students, Training