فهرست مطالب

ترویج علم - سال ششم شماره 9 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • سال ششم شماره 9 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • بهای روی جلد: 25,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/01/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Samaneh Eskandary Page 7
    The institution of science like other institutions involves social values, social norms, and social roles. The normative structure of science causes occurrence or identifying scientific deviations. This paper plans to study the norms of science and explain the deviation from them. This is a library and documentary research. The present study shows that the four norms including universalism, communality, disinterestedness, and organized skepticism that function together comprise the ethos in scientific fields. Moreover, this study shows that different perspectives make mention of the engagement of deranged individuals in scientific activities, the failure of personal and social controls, a disconnection between scientific community’s goals and the legitimate means to achieve them, and the industrialization of science by industry and academic laboratories, as the most important factors that cause deviancy from the norms of science.
    Keywords: Norms of Science, Psychopathology, Social control, Anomy, Alienation
  • Saber Abdolmaleki, Hasan Maleki Page 15
    Education and learning scientific literacy in students have become the universal goal of science education. This study aims to explore the concept of scientific literacy curriculum to use in science education. The method of this research is qualitative and is conducted based on analytic-deductive approach. In this article, at first the concept of scientific literacy will be recognized from different perspectives then its meanings will briefly be studied and expressed. The preliminary discussion makes it clear that the concept of scientific literacy is one of the goals of science education of the educational systems in the world, and obtaining a full understanding of its meaning is not an easy task. The exact and functional definition of scientific literacy, considering its educational approach, pays attention to the nature of science topics in every society and it is necessary to consider the structure, politics and dominant philosophy of community. In the following, through clarifying the concept of scientific literacy, we state its dimensions and levels from the perspective of experts and organizations active in this field. The levels of scientific literacy show that the nature of scientific literacy is a relative concept, not an absolute concept. And students could be rated from level of scientific illiteracy up to highest level of scientific literacy. This topic presents a conceptual framework for curriculum specialists in the science education curriculum design by providing the levels and dimensions of scientific literacy. In the last part of this article and as a conclusion, in addition to emphasizing the positions expressed on the concept of scientific literacy by the author, causes of differences in the definition of the concept will be expressed, including: absolute and relative nature of scientific literacy, permanent developments of science and human progress in understanding the natural world, different educational methods and scientific literacy, different definitions and expressing different dimensions of scientific literacy by science education experts, expressing the scientific literacy purposes and concepts in accordance with the political, economic, and social conditions in every community. Four dimensions that were emphasized by experts are: concepts and terminology, the nature of science, science and society and the habits of mind.
    Keywords: Scientific literacy, Science education, Nature of science, Science, society, Habits of mind, Curriculum
  • Mina Ranjbarfard Page 41
    Theory building can provide an analytical framework, facilitate the development of a scientific discipline and is essential for solving the real world problems. However, the ratioof theory building research is very small and most of the researchers avoid doing this kind of research due to lack of enough knowledge about the theory building processes and especially about the qualitative data analysis methods. This challenge has been proceed so that some internal referees are affected too and pay less attention to the manuscripts without numbers and statistical analysis. Understanding this existing research gap in the country, the author has written this paper which is inferred from Eisenhardt`s method for hypothesis building. Eisenhardt gathered various pieces of theory building from related research and put them together for developing a roadmap. This road map has adapted a positivism approach. This means that the process is designed so that can develop the testable hypothesis and theory that could be extendable in various situations. This paper explains the stages of theory building through case study research, therefore it can be effective in eliminating the existing research gap in this regard.
    Keywords: Theory building, Case study, Hypothesis building
  • Mehri Sedighi Page 59
    Today, it is not clear how the impact of research on other areas of society than science should be measured. While peer review and bibliometrics have become standard methods for measuring the impact of research in science, there is not yet an accepted framework to measure societal impact. Alternative metrics )called altmetrics to distinguish them from bibliometrics( are considered interesting options for assessing the societal impact of research, as they offer new ways to measure )public( engagement with research output. Altmetrics is a term to describe web-based metrics for the impact of publications and other scholarly materials by using data from social media platforms )e.g. Twitter or Mendeley(. This overview of studies explores the potential of altmetrics for measuring societal impact. It deals with the definition and classification of altmetrics. Furthermore, their benefits and disadvantages for measuring the impact are discussed.
    Keywords: Altmetrics, Impact measurement, Societal impact, Scientometrics, Scientific publications
  • Kolsoum Hamidi, Jafar Yaghoubi Page 75
    Today, the world is faced with main problems like increasing urban population, increasing demand for food, environmental degradation and destruction of natural landscapes due to human impacts. The solution of these problems lies in the cities. The urban agriculture as a part of urban activities can be developed along with ecosystem consideration, food provision and cultural services. In addition, farming activities in urban areas provide other multiple functions such as visual amenity, recreation facilities and hobby for urban dwellers, particularly children and old people. The purpose of this study is to explain the concept of urban agriculture and identifying its advantages and areas. This research has been conducted through a review of literature and documents. The results showed that urban agriculture is expanding and has a lot of quantitative and qualitative advantages for urban communities and these advantages can be found in economic, social and environmental dimensions that finally leading to sustainable urban development. Also, the studies show that the scope of urban agriculture continues to expand according to the new lifestyles, high compactness of cities and development of living in apartment, the domain of urban agriculture activities are developing and they appears in the new forms like vertical farms, green roofs, green walls. Factors such as further research, people participation, government supports and cooperation between experts of different sciences lead to systemic development of urban agriculture.
    Keywords: Urban agriculture, Civilization, Green space, Sustainable city
  • Hamid Kazemi, Afsaneh Soltani Page 85
    Since many people have problem in understanding the concept of "competitive intelligence", this study has been done to introduce and develop the concept of competitive intelligence in companies and enterprises. Therefore, this study will answer the fundamental questions such as; what is competitive intelligence. What processes take place in it? And what tools and techniques are used? Managers will be able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors through the use of tools, methods and specific techniques of competitive intelligence, and by taking the right decisions and strategies will be able to stay ahead of their competitors.
    Keywords: Competitive intelligence, Intelligent tools, Information systems, Techniques
  • John Toohey, Translated By: Setareh Soheili Page 95
    All photographs from the 19th century are strange but some go way beyond that. When photography arrived on the scene in the 1830s, scientists realized it could reveal secrets from the invisible worlds of microscopic bacteria and distant galaxies. Some believed the camera could go further and the surface image alone would uncover information about the internal workings of the body and the mind, even the moment of death. Forget post-mortem and spirit photography, the most extreme photographs from the 19th century were taken by scientists asking serious questions about the nature of existence. Usually, it meant a lot more than setting up a camera in front of a subject. They often had to design and build their own equipment to take shots others considered technically impossible. Sometimes, the results provided valuable information, in other cases their camera proved more important than the images produced and still others were filed away, left for others to find and wonder what on earth the photographers thought they were doing.
    Keywords: Scientific Photographs, Bizarre, Photography