فهرست مطالب

School Health - Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Claudia Marino, Alessio Vieno*, Michela Lenzi, Alberto Borraccino, Giacomo Lazzeri, Patrizia Lemma Page 1
    Background
    Previous studies have indicated that electronic media use may affect the health of school-aged children.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to examine the association between computer use and psychological symptoms among Italian adolescents, taking into account the mediating role of difficulty in getting to sleep.
    Patients and
    Methods
    This study used data from 23,941 15-year-old students participating in the health behavior in school-aged children survey (mean age, 15.7 years; 50.1% girls). Self-completed questionnaires were administered in classrooms. Measures included computer use, psychological symptoms, and difficulty in getting to sleep. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the associations among variables.
    Results
    On average, students spent approximately 2 hours per day using computers and about one-third of the sample reported weekly psychological symptoms (feeling low, irritable, and nervous). Further, 15.8% of Italian adolescents reported experiencing difficulties in getting to sleep more often than once a week or almost daily over the last six months. The structural equation model showed that more frequent computer use was associated with a higher frequency of psychological symptoms in adolescents, and the difficulty in getting to sleep partly mediated this association.
    Conclusions
    Overall, these results indicate the role of computer use in influencing the sleep quality and health of adolescents. Educational programs are recommended to increase awareness among families and students of the effects of computer use and sleep habits on health.
    Keywords: Computers, Sleep, Adolescent, Health
  • Robabeh Rostami*, Meysam Ghaedi Page 2
    Background
    The right establishment of specialized and sports movements results from proper motor development in childhood.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a period of core stabilization training on the fundamental motor skills in children aged four to six.
    Methods
    From the kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 31 children aged four to six were selected using purposive sampling method, and randomly divided into two groups: 16 children in the control and 15 children in the core stabilization training groups. After implementation of the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2) as pre-test, the experimental group performed core stabilization training for six weeks (four sessions per week) and overall for 24 sessions of 45 minutes; in the same period, the control group did the normal activities of kindergartens. When the experimental group had finished its training, both groups were evaluated again in the post-test stage by TGMD-2. It is a process-oriented test that measures the development of the fundamental motor skills of 3 - 10-year-old children in locomotor skills and object control categories and its results can be interpreted by both norm- and criterion-referenced methods. To describe the biographical characteristics of the participants, and the resultant data of the test, mean and standard deviation statistics were used and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to evaluate the normal distribution of data. At the level of statistical inference, univariate analysis of covariance was used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software, version 21. The significance level was P ≤ 0.5.
    Results
    Regarding pre-test scores as covariate variable, the intervention of core stabilization training in locomotor skills and object control skills indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.006 and P = 0.011, respectively).
    Conclusions
    It was concluded that the core stabilization training can be used as a valuable intervention leading to the development of fundamental motor skills. Furthermore, such training has more effects on object control skills than locomotor skills.
    Keywords: Core Stabilization, Fundamental Motor Skills, Children
  • Nina Mendez*, Mayra Vera, Aviles, Lizbeth Gonzalez, Herrera, Federico Dickinson, Marco Palma, Solis, Michael Prelip Page 3
    Background
    Obesity has negative impact on health and socialization. Previous studies found that children with obesity have lower grades, but it is unclear: a) if specific subject might affect their grade point averages, b) if the results of standardized tests and school grades are the same for children with and without obesity in a community where pediatric obesity is highly prevalent.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to compare school grades and standardized test scores of children with and without obesity in a probabilistic sample of primary school children from Southern Mexico, where overweight/obesity is highly prevalent.
    Methods
    The study measured a probabilistic sample of 2971 children going to public primary schools in Merida, Mexico, transformed the anthropometric data into body mass index (BMI) z-scores according the world health organization (WHO) reference values and categorized children according to their BMI status, and the scores they obtained in national standardized tests (n = 2791). The study analyzed the association between children with/without obesity and their academic performance in terms of school grades and standardized tests using mean comparison T-tests and multinomial logistic regression models using Stata 12.
    Results
    Differences were observed between obese and non-obese children in overall grade point averages; however, no differences were observed on national standardized academic test scores. In analyzing specific academic subject areas, no differences were observed in grades for math, literature, social sciences, life sciences and art. The only significant difference observed was in the grade for physical education with obese students earning lower grades than their non-obese counterparts.
    Conclusions
    There were no significant differences between the children with obesity and those without obesity in standardized tests. Students without obesity had significantly higher grade point average than their peers with obesity (8.4 and 8.5, respectively; P
    Keywords: Pediatric Obesity, Schools, Mexico, Standardized Grade Score
  • Aira Sabokseir, Ali Golkari* Page 4
    Background
    Developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) and dental caries are two prevalent dental conditions that may have major negative impacts on children’s quality of life. Fluoride, especially the level of fluoride in water, can influence the occurrence of both dental caries and DDEs. However, data on the extent of this influence on Iranian children has not been explored.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to compare DDEs and dental caries in three areas with different levels of fluoride in water among 9-year-old children of the Fars Province, Iran, in order to provide data for oral health preventive programs.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children residing in areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in water of the Fars Province, Iran. Cases with DDE were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using the modified DDE index. DMFT index was used to evaluate dental caries. The prevalence of children with DDE and dental caries, the mean number of teeth with DDE, and mean DMFT were compared among the three areas by binary logistic and Poisson regressions after adjustment for sex. SPSS software version 22 was used to analyze the data. The significance level was set at α = 0.05.
    Results
    The overall prevalence of DDE was 59.9% with the mean number of teeth with DDE of 1.59 ± 1.97. The most prevalent type of DDE in all three areas was diffuse opacities (35.5%). The overall prevalence of children with dental caries in permanent teeth was 25.6% with the mean DMFT of 0.67 ± 1.187. The percentage of children with untreated caries in permanent dentition was 73.98%. It was found that 24.3% of permanent first molars were affected by caries. The higher level of fluoride was significantly associated with more DDEs and less DMFT.
    Conclusions
    When planning for oral health care services, it should be noticed that a considerable number of Iranian children in the Fars Province are affected by dental caries and DDEs, which their occurrences have been affected by the level of fluoride in water.
    Keywords: Prevalence, Dental Caries, Dental Enamel, Child, Fluoride
  • Kokab Namakin, Mahyar Mohammadifard*, Mahmoud Zardast, Naemeh Ebrahimabadi Page 5
    Background
    With respect to the increased prevalence of fatty liver and its development at young age in the Iranian population, as well as the importance of prevention and control of its related factors, the current study aimed to explore the relationship between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in 6-18-year-old children in Birjand, Iran.
    Methods
    In this case-control study, thirty 6 - 18-year-old children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome were selected based on Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria by convenience sampling. Then, 46 children and adolescents not affected by this disease with the same gender and age were selected as the control group. Weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure of the participants were measured and recorded, and blood sugar tests, blood lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) and aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-square test, independent T-test and logistic regression analysis at the significant level of P
    Results
    The mean age in the case and control groups were 13.17 ± 1.64 and 12.46 ± 2.27 years, respectively (P = 0.14). The relative frequency of fatty liver in the case group (86.7%) was higher than that of the control group (28.3%) (P
    Conclusions
    According to the results of the current study, it is recommended to develop some programs to modify the lifestyle and encourage children and adolescents by schools, the media and parents to keep fit.
    Keywords: Fatty Liver, Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, Children
  • Farshid Paidar*, Ahmad Amirhooshangi, Reza Taghavi Page 6
    Background
    Mathematics self-concept and academic burnout are one of the most important psychosocial factors in academic achievement.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to compare gender differences in mathematics self-concept and academic burnout in the students.
    Methods
    The sample included 140 male and 90 female first-grade high school students selected via one-stage cluster sampling method. The current descriptive study applied mathematics self-concept scale by Radi in 2011 and also school burnout inventory by Salmela-Aro, Naatanen in 2004. Data were analyzed using independent t-test.
    Results
    The results showed that the mean of scores in mathematics self-concept and its subscales components (skills and capabilities, mathematics enjoyment and mathematics avoidance) were not significantly different between male and female students (P > 0.05), while the mean scores of academic burnout and its components (exhaustion, cynicism, inadequacy) were higher in male students (P
    Conclusions
    Mathematics self-concept and its components were the same between male and female students, but academic burnout and its components were higher in males than females.
    Keywords: Mathematics Self, Concept, Academic Burnout, Gender
  • Mitra Edraki*, Narges Parvizi, Sedighe Montaseri, Saeedeh Pourahmad Page 7
    Background
    Motivation is among factors that drive humans’ behavior and since many years ago, psychologists have paid much attention to its role in educational and academic development. Besides, students mental health is influential on the success of any country’s educational system.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between academic motivation and general health of female junior high school students in Jahrom city of Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was done on 464 students studying in female junior high schools of Jahrom in the second semester of 2015. Multistage random sampling was used. In order to study academic motivation, Harter academic motivation scale and to study general health, goldberg general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used, the validity and reliability of which have been approved. The data were entered in the SPSS statistical software (version 21) and were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation, independent two-samples T-test, and linear regression modeling method.
    Results
    The results of the correlation test indicated that academic motivation was associated with general health. Accordingly, lower GHQ scores were associated with higher academic motivation scores. In other words, healthier students had higher academic motivation (P
    Conclusions
    According to this study, healthier students had higher academic motivation. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to students’ general health and academic motivation, which could lead to their educational achievement.
    Keywords: General Health, Academic Motivation, Junior High School Student
  • Theresa Marie Hunter*, Cecilia Obeng, Joseph Ogah Page 8
    Background
    Substance use among school-aged children is an international public health concern. Rates of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use among school children in Ghana have been increasing.
    Objectives
    The objective of this study was to assess Ghanaian teachers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding substance use among school children in Ghana.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of teachers from the Central and Ashanti Regions of Ghana completed a survey questionnaire assessing their perceptions of substance use among Ghanaian school children. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 23.0. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to identify associations between participants’ demographic factors and beliefs regarding drug use among school-aged children.
    Results
    The sample consisted of 289 teachers with over half (57.7%) of them being male, and ages ranging from 20-66 years old. The majority of the teachers (50.9%) indicated that they believed alcohol was the most common substance used by school-aged children in Ghana. Over 90% of them m indicated that they believe school children in Ghana will first use alcohol before they are 13 years old. Only 54.3% of teachers indicated that they are aware of drug policies in the schools where they teach.
    Conclusions
    The results from this study should encourage the development and implementation of school policies on substance use and health education programs that discuss the risks and circumstances of substance use.
    Keywords: Substance Use, School, Ghana, Teachers