فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical & Health Sciences - Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2017
  • Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Narges Esmaeili Fard, Manochehr Bahmaei, Parvin Eshratabadi Pages 181-191
    Margarine contains a higher level of unsaturated and trans-fatty acids (TFA) than butter. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of these products in Iranian market during storage. Physicochemical analyses included fatty acid composition, peroxide and Anisidine values, slip melting point (SMP), color, chlorophyll content, solid fat content (SFC) and texture analysis. Margarine, compared to the butter, contained a higher degree of unsaturation, TFA, SMP, peroxide and Anisidine than butter. Predominant TFA in butter and margarine were vaccenic (about 2.83-3.41%) and elaidic acids (about 7.55-9.26%), respectively. Peroxide and Anisidine values of margarine increased significantly during storage. a* value and SMP of all samples increased significantly during storage. The SMP of margarine-2 was more than that of other samples. Chlorophyll content of butter was significantly more than margarine. Also, the content of chlorophyll of all samples was constant during storage. L* and b* values of all samples decreased significantly during storage. SFC of butter was significantly (p
    Keywords: Butter, margarine, Physicochemical characteristics, solid fat content, trans, fatty acid
  • Maryam Salami, Maryam Tamaskani Zahedi, Maryam Moslehishad Pages 193-204
    The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical, microbial properties and antioxidant activity of fermented camel milk (Chal) and introduce it as a functional food. The protein content of the samples was determined using Kjeldahl method and total dry matter using oven drying method. The amount of fat content with Gerber method and pH was measured using a pH meter. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method. The mineral analysis was performed with atomic absorption spectroscopy and microbial count by pour plate method. Results revealed that fat, protein content and total solid determined 5.82±0.27%, 3.07±0.073%, and 12.24±0.16%, respectively. Acidity and pH determined 80±7 °D and 4.52±0.10, respectively. When a food has calcium by itself, this calcium is bonded with the protein of food, this calcium is more effective in our body than the calcium we add to food and they have not bonded any proteins. Adequate calcium consumption may support to decrease the risk of osteoporosis in life. Calcium ranged 103.29±3.87% and phosphorus 10.25±0.1% for Chal samples, respectively. The total counts were equal 6.54±0.19 log CFUmL-1; Coliform count was determined in the ranges of 2.34±0.23 logCFUmL-1 for Chal samples. The results showed that Chal was rich in antioxidant. The antioxidant inhibitory activity of Chal was obtained 45.38%. Diets rich in antioxidants, can inhibit LDL oxidation, influence the activities of immune-competent cells and inhibit the formation of cell-tocell adhesion factors. Therefore, Chal is introduced as a traditional functional food.
    Keywords: Camel milk, Chal, Microbial quality, Physicochemical properties, Antioxidant activity, Functional food
  • Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo, Zohreh Haghri, Rahim Ahmadi Pages 205-209
    Estradiol valerate (Exogenous estrogen) is a synthetic ester and is also a female estrogen hormone. There are studies showing that estradiol may have anticancer effects. This study was performed to reveal the effects of exogenous estrogens on the viability of cervical cancer cells in cell culture. We used Hela cells as our cell line in this study. Hela cells were exposed to 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/ml of estradiol. Control Helacells were not exposed to estradiol. MTT assay was used to determine the viability of cervical cancer cells in cell culture. Results indicated that administration of 10 mg/ml Estradiol led to significant decrease in viability of Hela cells compared to control cells (P
    Keywords: Estradiol, Hela cell line, Viability, Antitumor, cervical cancer
  • Mina Bagherian Far, Hakimeh Ziyadi Pages 211-218
    The Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Kefirane nanofiber membrane was successfully fabricated for the first time using electrospinning of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Kefirane blend solution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the electrospun Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Kefirane fiber membranes. Similar analysis was done for polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers. Then, the results were compared with each other. Rheological behavior of the Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Kefirane solution was evaluated using a cone and plate rheometer. The flow curves of 6% Kefiran solution and Poly (vinyl alcohol)//Kefiran blend solution showed sufficient viscosity for electrospinning. Viscosity decreased as the shear rate has increased in two samples, with both demonstrating shears thinning behavior. Electrospinnability of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/ Kefiran solution at different process conditions and Kefiran concentrations was studied. Scanning electron microscope analysis exhibited that diameter of polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers increased with increasing Kefiran. Increasing the Kefiran concentration to 6% led to the disappearance of nodes in nanofibers. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that Kefiran has maintained its molecular structure during the electrospinning process. Differential scanning calorimetry of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Kefirane nanofibers revealed lower melting point than polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers.
    Keywords: Poly vinyl alcohol, Kefiran, Electrospinning, Nanofiber, membrane
  • Mojtaba Falahati Pages 219-245
    Application of nanotechnology in medicinal and biological fields has attracted a great interest in the recent yeras. In this paper the cell membrane leakage induced by iron nanoparticles (Fe-NP) against PC12 cell line which is known as a model of nervous system cell line was investigated by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test. Therefore, PC12 cells were incubated with different concentration of Fe-NP and test was performed after 48h of incubation of the cells with Fe-NP. The resulting data showed that the Fe-NP induced the damage of PC12 cell membrane in a concentration dependent manner. Hence, it may be concluded that the different cytotoxicty effect of NPs may be referred to the concentration of NPs, type of the NPs and the cells. Indeed, the kind of cytotoxic impacts of NPs on the cells can be reduced by the considering of above-mentioned parameters.
    The resulting data showed that the Fe-NP induced the damage of PC12 cell membrane in a concentration dependent manner. Hence, it may be concluded that the different cytotoxicty effect of NPs may be referred to the concentration of NPs, type of the NPs and the cells. Indeed, the kind of cytotoxic impacts of NPs on the cells can be reduced by the considering of above-mentioned parameters.
    Keywords: Cell, cytotoxicity, LDH, Nanoparticle, membrane
  • Mojtaba Falahati Pages 223-226
    Nowadays, growing interest in the application of nanotechnology in biomedical and biotechnological fields has opened a new avenue to explore the nanoparticles-biological system interaction. Indeed, a clear gap is still in the cytotoxic effect of NPs on the biological systems. For this purpose, the interaction of the silica oxide nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) with PC12 cell line, as a model of nervous system cell line, was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For LDH assay, PC12 cells were treated with varying concentration of SiO2-NP up to 100 µg/ml and all assays were conducted at 48h after SiO2-NP incubation. The results showed that the cytotoxicity of SiO2-NP approached to its highest level after 48 h. It was also revealed that as the concentration of SiO2-NP increases to higher amounts, the LDH absorbance enhances. Finally, it may be suggested that several factors such as nanoparticle concentration and exposure time could influence on the type of interaction between NPs and the biological system. Thus, the type of interaction and cytotoxic effects of NPs can be mediated by considering of these factors.
    Finally, it may be suggested that several factors such as nanoparticle concentration and exposure time could influence on the type of interaction between NPs and the biological system. Thus, the type of interaction and cytotoxic effects of NPs can be mediated by considering of these factors.
    Keywords: membrane, leakage, PC12 cell, LDH, assay, Nanoparticle, cytotoxicity
  • Parisa Ziarati, Shermin Divanian, Behrouz Adergani Akbari Pages 227-245
    This study was done to determine the concentration of heavy metals including Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) and nutrients element Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in a simple and whole wheat Macaroni in the valid different supermarkets in Tehran. 254 samples from seven Iranian simple Macaroni, four foreign simple Macaroni, and two Iranian whole wheat macaroni were purchased consecutively in 3 seasons of 2015. Results were determined as mean ± SD of dry weight from three replicates in each test. The samples were analyzed by wet digestion method and standardized international protocols were followed for the preparation of material and analysis of mineral and heavy metals contents and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration in milligrams per kilogram of dry matter for Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc were determined. According to the results, the mean contents of Lead in the simple Iranian, imported and Iranian whole wheat Macaroni were 2.897, 3.070 and 0.636, amount of Cadmium were 0.469, 0.620 and 0.920, Copper mean contents were 1.563, 11.866 and 7.085 and finally mean level of Zinc were 16.296, 28.425 and 36.318 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentration of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc between in whole wheat and simple macaroni samples has a significant difference (P
    Keywords: Macaroni, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc
  • Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli Pages 237-245
    Waterpipe smoking has become a global youth trend especially in the Middle East countries and Iran . The aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic effects of three most popular flavored tobaccos by four different salmonella typhimurium strains and compare the possible mutagenic effects of the test samples. Ames mutagenicity assessment was conducted according to the OECD guideline using TA100, TA98 , YG1024 and YG1029 strains. Charcoal burned flavored tobaccos of three different flavors including Orange, Double Apple, and Lime Mint were filtered and exposed to all strains after strain identification tests and MIC ,MBC determinations. The Ames test results indicated significant mutagenic effects of tobacco samples in all four test strains when compared with negative control (p≤0.0001). The highest Mutagenic Factor (MF) was seen in Double Apple samples using TA 98 (MF=11.5±3.3) . In all experiments, TA strains showed higher sensitivity to the samples than YG strains which suggest these two strains for further regulatory toxicity tests ,policy making purposes and tobacco control programs . While mutagenic frequencies (MF) vary widely across studies, all test strains have indicated that flavored waterpipe tobacco smoke generates mutagenicity and possible carcinogenicity in humans which should be confirmed by further studies but we observed ‘A clear mutagenic response in Salmonella strains which is partially predictive for carcinogenic responses Despite the limitations of present work, these results may represent an important step in understanding the genotoxic potential of the most popular flavored tobaccos brands in the market of Tehran.
    Keywords: Waterpipe, Flavored Tobacco, Mutagenicity, Ames, Salmonella typhimurium