فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Azadeh Emami, Zahra Mousavi *, Vahid Ramezani, Shahram Shoeibi, Hossein Rastegar, Maryam Amirahmadi, Iman Emami Pages 1-6
    Background
    Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health.
    Methods
    Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS).The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3) ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. The pesticide’s residue was analyzed in 50 pistachio samples obtained from different markets.
    Results
    Identified pesticides included fenitrothion, carbaryl and diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples) of the samples.
    Conclusion
    All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.
    Keywords: Pesticide Residue, Pistachio, Risk assessment, Strategic Crop
  • Mohammad Hossein Hesami *, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Ali Hosseini Sharifabad Pages 7-13
    Background
    Mentha longifolia is one of the aromatic medicinal plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. There are some active ingredients in the essential oil of M. longifolia, which potentially could impair the hepatic function. The aim of this study was to find the maximum dose of essential oil of M. longifolia (EOML) that does not show any hepatic deterioration.
    Methods
    Adult Wistar rats fed different doses of EOML as 50, 100, 200, 300, 400or 600 mg/kg, for two wk. After the completion of administration, the serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALPas the well-known liver toxicity enzymes and the serum total billirubine were measured, by spectrophotometer. The study was done at 2016 in Isfahan Pharmacy School, Isfahan, Iran.
    Results
    Totally, 400 mg/kg of EOML significantly raised all of the evaluating factors compare to the control group. We found complete mortality in animals that received 600 mg/kg of EOML.
    Conclusion
    The essential oil of M. longifolia is not entirely safe especially for the liver. Administration at the dose of 400 mg/kg leads to the hepatotoxic effect. The death occurred in the higher doses. The possible mechanisms for the EOML liver toxicity are triggering of oxidative stress or apoptosis by its ingredient like pulegone compound.
    Keywords: Essential Oil, Hepatotoxic Effect, Mentha Longifolia, Safety
  • Zohreh Hosseini, Mohammad Khosravi *, Masoud Ghorbanpoor, Mansour Mayahi Pages 15-19
    Background
    To explore the oral absorption of scorpion venom an ELISA were designed in this study. Scorpions and their venom were been used for centuries as medical treatments in traditional medicine. The oral administration of drug referred as the convenient way, as there was not any publication about gastro-intestinal absorption of scorpion venom; this experiment checked oral absorption of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in mice.
    Methods
    Six groups of mice orally received 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg of M. eupeus venom and their blood samples were tacked after 15, 30, 60 min and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 h after that. The presence of venom the blood samples were detected with a house- antigen capture ELISA.
    Results
    The venom was absorbed after its feeding to mice. The animals expressed no signs of envenomation and, the venom was detectable by AC-ELISA as soon as 15 min after its feed. Maximum serum levels were 2 h after its meal.
    Conclusion
    The orally administrated venom was absorbed to the blood circulation without any clinically symptoms.
    Keywords: Mesobuthu Eupeus, Oral Absorption, Scorpion, Venom
  • Mehdi Khoshnamvand, Kamran Almasieh, Shahra M. Kaboodvandpour* Pages 21-28
    Background
    The Present study was carried out to track and calculate Biomagnification Factor (BMF) of total mercury (T-Hg) between two different trophic levels (i.e., plankton and a planktivorous fish) in a fresh water grazing food chain.
    Methods
    Experimental organisms were planktonic biomass and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as a planktivorous fish. Silver carp samples were obtained from randomly selected points from different sampling stations. The concentrations of T-Hg in collected samples were determined by Advanced Mercury Analyzer.
    Results
    Means of T-Hg in planktonic biomass and muscle tissue of silver carp were 78.21 ± 3.13 and 367.12 ± 26.43 ng g-1 dry weights, respectively. Mean T-Hg in plankton, sampled fish during the study months and amongst the sampling stations did not show significant differences. The BMFHg(plankton-fish) was differ among months; moreover, calculated BMF was greater than 1 during study months, which means biomagnification was occurring in SGR. The concentration of T-Hg in the muscle tissue of all fish samples that weighed more than 850 gr was higher than the acceptable limits based on EPA (300 ng g-1) and WHO (500 ng g-1) standards. The highest BMFHg was observed in August
    Conclusion
    It seems that mercury pollution of SGR has a natural source. The calculated BMFs were greater than 1 and the concentrations of T-Hg in muscle tissues of those samples weighing more than 850 gr were higher than FAO and WHO standards. Therefore, consumption of the SGR's silver carp must be accompanied by serious health considerations.
    Keywords: Biomagnification, Grazing Food Chain, Mercury, Plankton, Silver Carp
  • Olufemi David Owolabi *, James Sunday Omotosho Pages 29-38
    Background
    Fish have been at high risk of atrazine toxicity. Comparative atrazine toxicity on the tissues of Clarias gariepinus is scanty. Therefore, acute and chronic effects of atrazine on some biochemical parameters in Clarias gariepinus were investigated in this study.
    Methods
    Atrazine toxicity was determined by assessing the responses of glucose, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinestarase (AChE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood, gill and liver of fish exposed to both acute (0.00, 28.00, 30.00, 32.00 and 34.00 µg/l) and chronic (0.00, 7.00, 7.50, 8.00 and 8.50 µg/l) concentrations for 96 h and 28 d, respectively.
    Results
    In acute exposure, glucose and MDA levels showed significant (P
    Conclusion
    Exposure to varying concentrations of atrazine induced enzymatic/metabolic alterations in C. gariepinus. These alterations can be used as biomarkers of atrazine toxicity in fish.
    Keywords: Atrazine, Biochemical parameters, Clarias gariepinus, Oxidative stress, Tissues
  • Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad *, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Ghasem Rashidiyan, Narges Rostamian, Hamed Ghafari Farsani Pages 39-44
    Background
    Edifenphos, a kind of organophosphate toxins, is used as agricultural fungicides in rice fields. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on lethal concentration of exposure to edifenphos on Rutilus frisii kutum (Caspian kutum).
    Methods
    The experiment was carried out in static condition and based on instructions of OECD within 10 d under controlled water physicochemical factors. Dissolved oxygen was fixed on 7-7.5 ppm, pH: 7 to 7.5 and hardness: 200 ppm. Fish were acclimatized in 70*40*30 cm aquarium for 10 d before the test. Treated aquariums with concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 2, 4, 8, 16 ppm of edifenphos with one control group (no toxic concentration), were performed. In order to test the effect of temperature on acute toxicity, three ranges of 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC were treated and LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out in Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Tehran in 2016.
    Results
    LC50 value in 25 ºC was lower than 20 and 15 ºC. LC50 96h edifenphos for Caspian kutum in 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC was 3.70, 3.61 and 3.26, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Higher temperature increase toxicity rate of edifenphos and the toxin had a positive temperature coefficient on Caspian kutum.
    Keywords: Caspian Kutum, Edifenphos, Organophosphorus Fungicide, Lethal Concentration, Temperature
  • Ajai Kumar Srivastav *, Shilpi Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Prof. Nobuo Suzuki Pages 45-49
    Background
    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that elicits broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against a number of important arthropod pests. Determining the insecticides’ toxicity to amphibians can give us a better understanding regarding the role of toxicants in amphibian declines. This information would be beneficial to assess their ecological relevance at environmental concentrations. The present study assessed toxicity of chlorpyrifos to an anuran Rana cyanophlyctis.
    Methods
    For the determination of LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of chlorpyrifos (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg/L) for the test. Mortality of the frog at different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software) to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level.
    Results
    The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 8.252, 7.254, 6.247 and 4.993mg/L, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Mortality has been noticed in chlorpyrifos treated frogs related to the decline in amphibian population. Therefore, chlorpyrifos should not be used near water reservoirs.
    Keywords: Amphibian, Anuran, Chlorpyrifos, LC50, Organophosphate, Toxicity
  • Somayeh Taheri, Dr. Mahdi Banaee*, Behzad Nematdoost Haghi, Mohammad Mohiseni Pages 51-58
    Background
    We investigated the effects of different dose of aflatoxins, secondary toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus, on some biochemical parameters in kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
    Methods
    This study was done in Aquaculture and Biology Laboratory of Behbahn Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2015. Fishes were distributed into five groups: Group I-III was fed contaminated diets with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed, respectively. Group IV was fed contaminated diets with extraction solution (methanol, acetone, and diluted water) as a positive control. Control group received normal feed (Group V). After 21 d of experiment, activities of cellular enzymes and oxidative stress biomarker were evaluated.
    Results
    Aflatoxins (0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1) caused a significant increase in ALT activity. Although, significant increase of LDH activity (P
    Conclusion
    Diets containing certain concentrations of aflatoxins (0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed) made oxidative damage to kidney tissue, including changes in oxidative stress biomarker and biochemical parameters.
    Keywords: Aflatoxins, Biochemical Parameters, Common Carp, Nephrotoxicity, Oxidative Stress