فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:5 Issue:3, 2017
  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2017
  • 112 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • استفاده از فرآورده های جانبی و صنعتی نیشکر و سلامت خاک
    صفحات 185-194
  • پتانسیل تولید بیوگاز از هضم بی هوازی فضولات ماکیان دار مراکش
    صفحات 195-204
  • تغییر مواد مغذی و فلزات سنگین در طول فرآیند ورمی کمپوست در علف سبز غالب Salvinia natans با کمک کرم Eisenia fetida
    صفحات 205-220
  • تهیه کمپوست کاغذ و چمن هرس شده با پساب تصفیه شده بی هوازی کارخانه روغن پالم
    صفحات 221-230
  • تاثیر کمپوست پسماند جامد شهری، کود گیاهی، پرلیت و ورمی کمپوست در رشد و مقدار محصول گوجه فرنگی در سیتم هیدروپونیک
    مریم حقیقی، محمدرضا برزگر صفحات 231-242
  • اثر مقدار هوادهی بر حذف کلی فرم در طول فرآیند کمپوست کردن زائدات میوه و سبزی
    صفحات 243-249
  • تاثیر شیرابه ورمی کمپوست بر روی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمایی استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) در سیستم کشت بدون خاک
    سیامک شیرانی بیدآبادی، مرضیه افضل، صفورا دهقانی پونه صفحات 251-262
  • بازیافت مواد جانبی صنعت نیشکر برای تهیه کمپوست غنی شده فشرده و تاثیر آن بر رشد و محصول دهی برنج (Oryza sativa L)
    صفحات 263-272
  • ارزیابی سنتیک های فرآیند کمپوست تنها و کمپوست همزمان زائدات مختلف کشت و صنعت
    صفحات 273-280
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  • Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health
    M. L. Dotaniya Email Author, S. C. Datta, D. R. Biswas, C. K. Dotaniya, B. L. Meena, S. Rajendiran, K. L. Regar, Manju Lata Pages 185-194
    Purpose
    Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source. Therefore, it is attempted to review the potential of sugar industries by-products, their availability, and use in agricultural production.
    Methods
    A large number of research experiments and literatures have been surveyed and critically analyzed for the effect of sugarcane by-products on crop productivity and soil properties.
    Results
    Application of sugar industries by-products, such as press mud and bagasse, to soil improves the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and enhanced the crop quality and yield. A huge possibility of sugarcane industries by-products can be used in agriculture to cut down the chemical fertilizer requirement. If all the press mud is recycled through agriculture about 32,464, 28,077, 14,038, 3434, 393, 1030, and 240 tonnes (t) of N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, can be available and that helps in saving of costly chemical fertilizers.
    Conclusions
    Application of sugarcane industries by-products reduces the recommended dose of fertilizers and improves organic matter of soil during the crop production. It can also be used in combination with inorganic chemical fertilizers and can be packed and marketed along with commercial fertilizer for a particular cropping system. That helps in reduce the storage problem of sugarcane industries by-products across the India.
    Keywords: BagasseNutrient managementSugar industryPress mudSoil quality
  • Potential for biogas production from the anaerobic digestion of chicken droppings in Morocco
    Ouahid Elasri, Mohamed El Amin Afilal Pages 195-204
    Purpose
    The chicken droppings can have a negative impact on the environment and public health. In this work, we are interested in treating this waste by anaerobic digestion and we estimate the national potential of green energy produced by anaerobic digestion and map the areas that need digesters to improve national poultry farming.
    Methods
    The anaerobic digestion of this waste is performed in three steps. In the first step, the chicken droppings are placed in a laboratory digester without pretreatment. In the second step, the droppings are placed in an industrial digester without pretreatment. In the third step, a methanogenic inoculum is incubated with the chicken droppings in a batch digester. The biogas production is measured by manometer, and the composition of this biogas is analyzed by gas chromatography.
    Results
    The chicken droppings without pretreatment generated a small amount of biogas (11.24 and 20 m3 for one ton of waste fresh) in the laboratory and in the prototype digester. After pretreatment (heating and grinding), this waste produced a large quantity of biogas, on the order 230,58 ml/gCOD, equivalent to 64.4 m3 for one ton of fresh waste, with 60.2 % methane, 38.8 % carbon dioxide and 0 % hydrogen. This biogas production has a lower heating value of 385 kWh for one ton of chicken droppings. Based on these results, our country has high potential for green energy (200 GWh) by transforming the droppings of broilers by anaerobic digestion.
    Conclusion
    In Morocco, the installation of biogas digesters in poultry units is an effective technique for this industry, because this waste is a potential energy source.
    Keywords: Chicken droppingsAnaerobic digestionGreen energyBiogasPretreatmentInoculums
  • Transformation of nutrients and heavy metals during vermicomposting of the invasive green weed Salvinia natans using Eisenia fetida
    W. Roshan Singh, Ajay S. Kalamdhad Pages 205-220
    Purpose
    Effective vermicomposting of Salvinia natans is a good alternative for protecting wetlands damaged by the weed due to the vast potential for use of the product vermicompost in agriculture, but the presence of toxic metals in the weeds may deter the usage.
    Methods
    Research was carried out on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics as well as bioavailability and leachability of nutrients and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) during vermicomposting of S. natans mixed with cattle manure and sawdust in five different combinations [trial 1 (eight S. natans: one cattle manure: one sawdust), trial 2 (seven S. natans: two cattle manure: one sawdust), trial 3 (six S. natans: three cattle manure: one sawdust), trial 4 (five S. natans: four cattle manure: one sawdust) and trial 5 (ten S. natans: 0 cattle manure: 0 sawdust)] for 45 days with Eisenia fetida earthworm.
    Results
    The highest growth of earthworms was in trial 4, having the highest (40 %) cattle manure. Trial 4 also indicated the highest reduction of volatile solids (38.6 %) and soluble BOD (82.3 %). The water-soluble forms of all nutrients were increased significantly. The highly bioavailable water-soluble and DTPA-extractable forms of heavy metals were reduced favourably after the process. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test indicated that leachable heavy metals of the vermicomposts were also reduced and were within the threshold limits for agricultural applications.
    Conclusions
    Eisenia fetida was very effective for reduction of bioavailable and leachable forms of selected heavy metals, and the TCLP test confirmed that the vermicompost was not hazardous for soil applications. The potential of the earthworms to increase the available nutrients, but mitigate the metal toxicity during vermicomposting of S. natans will be useful for sustainable land renovation practices.
    Keywords: Salvinia natansVermicompostingNutrientsHeavy metalsBioavailabilityLeachability
  • Composting paper and grass clippings with anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent
    A. Y. Zahrim Email Author, P. S. Leong, S. R. Ayisah, J. Janaun, K. P. Chong, F. M. Cooke, S. K. Haywood Pages 221-230
    Purpose
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the composting performance of anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (AnPOME) mixed with paper and grass clippings.
    Methods
    Composting was conducted using a laboratory scale system for 40 days. Several parameters were determined: temperature, mass reduction, pH, electrical conductivity, colour, zeta potential, phytotoxicity and final compost nutrients.
    Results
    The moisture content and compost mass were reduced by 24 and 18 %, respectively. Both final compost pH value and electrical conductivity were found to increase in value. Colour (measured as PtCo) was not suitable as a maturity indicator. The negative zeta potential values decreased from −12.25 to −21.80 mV. The phytotoxicity of the compost mixture was found to decrease in value during the process and the final nutrient value of the compost indicates its suitability as a soil conditioner.
    Conclusionsd: From this study, we conclude that the addition of paper and grass clippings can be a potential substrate to be composted with anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (AnPOME). The final compost produced is suitable for soil conditioner.
    Keywords: CompostingPaperGrassAnaerobic palm oil mill effluentPhytotoxicity
  • The effect of municipal solid waste compost, peat, perlite and vermicompost on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) growth and yield in a hydroponic system
    Maryam Haghighi Email Author, Mohammad Reza Barzegar, Jaime A. Teixeira Da Silva Pages 231-242
    Purpose
    An experiment was conducted to assess the ability of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC), peat, perlite and vermicompost (VC) to improve the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), an important horticultural commodity, in hydroponic culture.
    Methods
    Organic matter, when used as a substrate, can affect tomato cultivar ‘Grandella’ plant growth. In this study, we studied the effect of MSWC, either composted by earthworms (VC), or in an uncomposted form, as well as conventional substrates peat and perlite, on tomato growth when incorporated into hydroponic culture. Growth and physiological attributes were assessed at the fruiting stage.
    Results
    Among several ratios of MSWC, peat, perlite and VC, VC with 25 % compost increased the number of red fruits in the harvest period significantly more than the control. The use of VC, peat and perlite increased root fresh and dry weight, root volume, mean photosynthesis, and the number of fruits at all physiological stages compared to the control.
    Conclusion
    Vermicompost can improve tomato growth physiology when used as one part of the substrate in hydroponic culture.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste compostOrganic substratesPeatPerliteVermicompost
  • Effect of aeration rate on elimination of coliforms during composting of vegetable- fruit wastes
    E. IŞil Arslan Topal Email Author, Ayhan, Uuml, NlÜ, Murat Topal Pages 243-249
    Purpose
    In waters and wastes, direct pathogen detection is difficult and time consuming. Therefore, coliforms are used as indicators to measure the presence of pathogens. Composts originated from extrements, sewage sludges and plant wastes those contact with manures may have potential health hazard to human. Therefore, the detection of coliforms both during composting and in the obtained composts is used to investigate the presence of pathogens for determination of the potential health risk.
    Methods
    In this study, the effect of six different aeration rates on elimination of total and faecal coliform bacteria was investigated during in-vessel aerobic composting of vegetable–fruit wastes. Total coliform and faecal coliform numbers in the samples were measured by the most probable number method.
    Results
    Coliforms significantly increased before the thermophilic stage except the faecal coliforms in the reactor which operated with the lowest aeration. The coliforms suddenly decreased after thermophilic stage in all reactors. Total coliforms reduced within the range of 78.2–99.9 % while faecal coliforms reduced within the range of 72.5–99.9 % after the thermophilic stage. At the end of the composting period (day 18), total coliforms and faecal coliforms reduced within the range of 99.9–100 %.
    Conclusions
    Although all the aeration rates used in the present study were effective for the elimination of coliforms, the lowest faecal coliform number was seen in the reactor that had the lowest aeration rate. At the end of the study, the faecal coliform numbers in all reactors confirmed some limits for the application activities of composts.
    Keywords: Total coliformFaecal coliformAerationEliminationCompostingWasteVegetable–fruit
  • The effect of vermicompost leachate on morphological, physiological and biochemical indices of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in a soilless culture system
    Siamak Shirani Bidabadi Email Author, Marzieh Afazel, Safoora Dehghani Poodeh Pages 251-262
    Purpose
    A comparative study was carried out to assess the impact of vermicompost leachate (VCL) and inorganic fertilizer either alone or in combination on growth and biochemical parameters in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) through a soilless culture system.
    Methods
    The cattle manure-based vermicompost was processed by earthworms and the resulting leachate was brewed for 48 h and then collected in the system reservoir for use in soilless culture. An inorganic fertilizer was also prepared by dissolving a water soluble fertilizer in distilled water.
    Results
    Most of the parameters measured were influenced by fertilizer type and growth media. The results indicated that VCL could increase some growth attributes like biomass production, plant height and leaf area, but not as much as what observed in the combined treatment of inorganic fertilizer and VCL. Whereas the carbohydrate content of the leaves did not significantly change in all fertilizer type treated plants, the photosynthetic efficiency and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (proxidase) POX and (catalase) CAT markedly increased in VCL treated plants.
    Conclusion
    Due to the equivalent effects of both VCL and inorganic fertilizer in the current investigation, it could be suggested that replacing inorganic fertilizer with VCL or developing an equilibrated fertilization strategy that combines the proper ratios of inorganic fertilizer and VCL could be justified for sustainable Stevia cultivation.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activityFertilizerPhotosynthetic efficiencyStevia rebaudianaSustainable agricultureVermicompost leachate
  • Recycling of sugarcane industries byproducts for preparation of enriched pressmud compost and its influence on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    D. Kalaivanan, K. Omar Hattab Pages 263-272
    Purpose
    Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of enriched pressmud compost prepared from sugarcane industries byproducts on soil nutrient availability, growth, yield parameters and yield of rice.
    Method
    The effect of five levels of pressmud compost, viz., 0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00 t ha−1 in two varieties, viz., ADT 36 and ADT 43 and a hybrid ADTRH 1 during the Kharif season of 2009 was studied. The experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized block design with three replications.
    Results
    The results of the field experiment revealed that the hybrid ADTRH 1 manifested higher grain and straw yield, whereas the variety ADT 43 and ADT 36 registered lower grain and straw yields, respectively. With regard to the enriched pressmud compost, the application of 1.25 t ha−1 of enriched pressmud compost recorded higher straw and grain yields and it was comparable with 2.50 t ha−1 of enriched pressmud compost. Nutrient availability, growth, yield and efficiency parameters of rice were comparable with application of 1.25 and 2.50 t ha−1 of enriched pressmud compost.
    Conclusion
    Considering the input cost, incorporation of 1.25 t ha−1 enriched pressmud compost as basal along with required remaining nitrogen through inorganic fertilizer as top dressing in three splits may be recommended for rice crop to realize maximum yield in kuruvai (kharif) season.
    Keywords: GrowthMineral fertilizerNutrient availabilityPressmud compostRiceYield
  • Evaluating composting and co-composting kinetics of various agro-industrial wastes
    Hani Abu Qdais, Mohamad Al Widyan Pages 273-280
    Purpose
    Agro-industrial wastes are posing serious challenges for the agro-industries. Composting and co-composting of such wastes will lead to converting such wastes into a useful product that will serve as a soil conditioner. The present research investigated the kinetics of composting and co-composting of several agro-industrial wastes.
    Methods
    Seven pilot scale composting and co-composting piles of substrates from grain dust (GD), coffee-processing waste (CPW) and olive mill waste (OMW) were tested. Temperature and moisture content of the piles were monitored during the composting process and adjusted whenever necessary.
    Results
    The biodegradation kinetics was found to be of first order for all composting and co-composting piles. As judged by the value of the reaction rate constant, and the temperature of the piles, the biodegradability of the grain dust was the highest among all composting piles, followed by the coffee-processing residue and finally the fresh olive mill waste. As for the co-composting, the highest degradability was noticed in the pile that was composed of grain dust and coffee-processing waste followed by that of grain dust mixed with dry olive mill waste, and then followed by coffee-processing waste and dry olive mill waste and finally by grain dust with fresh olive-processing waste.
    Conclusions
    Composting and co-composting of agro-industrial wastes is a low cost and an environmentally friendly waste management option for solving the problem of the disposal of such waste. The study revealed that all piles followed first-order kinetics with different biodegradability rates.
    Keywords: Agro, industrial wasteCompostingCo, compostingKinetics