- Volume:5 Issue: 1, Jan 2017
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/30
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Association of Milk and Dairy Products Consumption During Pregnancy with Fetal and Neonatal Head Circumferences: A Systematic ReviewPage 1Context: Milk and dairy products consumed by mothers seem to be effective for fetal and neonatal anthropometric measurements, because they contain various nutrients.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to systematically review the influence of milk and dairy products consumption by mothers on fetal and neonatal head circumferences.
Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted in electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI, Ovid, Embase, Medlib, Google Scholar, clinical trials and Cochrane central register of clinical trials.
Study Selection: All studies that assessed the relationship between milk and dairy products consumption in healthy females during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal head circumferences were included in our systematic review. Finally, seven studies were relevant that included five cohort studies, one cross-sectional study and one randomized clinical trial.
Data Extraction: This systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting item for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement recommendation, and for quality assessment, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for cohort studies, the adapted NOS for a cross-sectional study and the Jadad quality assessment score for a randomized clinical trial, were used.ResultsSeven studies that comprised of more than 50000 pregnant females were included in this review. One cohort study, one cross-sectional study and one randomized controlled trial study showed that milk or dairy products consumption by pregnant mothers was not associated with neonatal birth head circumference, while three cohort studies reported that maternal milk or dairy products intake had a positive effect on neonatal birth head circumference. Two cohort studies showed that there was no relationship between maternal milk or dairy products consumption and fetal head circumference while a cross-sectional study reported that there was a positive relationship between milk or dairy products consumption during pregnancy and fetal head circumference.ConclusionsEvidences in this field are limited and inconsistent. According to the findings, there is a positive association between milk and dairy products consumption by pregnant mothers and neonatal birth head circumference but there is no relationship between maternal milk and dairy products consumption and fetal head circumference. However, almost all studies emphasized the importance of milk and dairy products in the maternal diet as a source of valuable nutrients.Keywords: Milk, Dairy Products, Maternal Nutrition, Fetal Head Circumference, Neonatal Birth Head Circumference, Systematic Review
Page 2Context: Pediatric nephrolithiasis is a noticeable cause of morbidity among children. Although, nephrolithiasis is a common disease in adults, its incidence has had a rising trend in children.ObjectivesHere in, we reviewed the current state regarding evaluation and management of children with nephrolithiasis in the last decade.
Data Sources: The current literature regarding incidence and trend, along with diagnostic evaluation and management of children aged less than 18 years old with nephrolithiasis was searched on MEDLINE and Google scholar from January 2005 to March 2016.
Study Selection and Data Extraction: The search terms included, kidney stone OR nephrolithiasis OR urolithiasis and Pediatric OR children. English language and human studies were included. Expert opinions, editorials and case reports were excluded. Consequently, the authors independently reviewed the abstracts and the papers, which matched the inclusion criteria.ResultsFrom a total of 1050 studies identified through the database search, 71 articles were selected for the review. According to the results of this review, pediatric nephrolithiasis has an increasing rate worldwide. Recent studies in this regard indicated that the number of girls with nephrolithiasis has increased. The change of life style, diet, obesity and metabolic syndrome and popular imaging study along with referral of the patients to pediatric centers could be contributed to this trend.ConclusionsEvaluation of patients, particularly young children, includes metabolic assessment. Stone analysis and 24-urine collection analysis are very helpful for determining underlying diseases. Medical as well as surgical approaches are used to prevent kidney injuries.Keywords: Nephrolithiasis, Children, Incidence, Management
Page 3Context: Venipuncture has been reported as one of the major sources of pain in the childrens wards. Various distraction techniques have been used so far to reduce this pain. Distraction technique is one of the non-pharmacological methods of pain control that uses the five senses in order to focus the patients attention on other stimuli.ObjectivesThis study aimed to determine the effect of distraction techniques on the pain of venipuncture in children.
Data Sources: In this systematic review study, all RCTs about distraction techniques were reviewed with no time limit. In order to find evidence in this context, English and Persian scientific databases (PubMed, Elsevier, SID, e.g.) were searched by specified keywords like venipuncture, distraction, and pain.
Study Selection: All studies assessing the effect of distraction techniques on the pain of venipuncture in children were examined in our systematic review. A number of 148 articles were found in the initial investigation of titles, abstracts, and main-texts. After the elimination of duplicates and irrelevant ones, eventually 31 RCT studies and 2 review articles entered the study.
Data Extraction: A checklist was used to extract required data from relevant articles on name, year and type of study, sample size, age range of participants, type of intervention, employed method, and obtained results.ResultsBased on the findings, various techniques of distraction were used on pain control in children including music, virtual reality, audio-visual equipment such as cartoons, animation and video game, squeezing rubber balls, Filippits distraction cards, Hugo point ice massage, making bubbles, breathing exercise, Kaleidoscope color screen and touching the palm of the hand to reduce the pain of venipuncture.ConclusionsDistraction techniques can reduce the pain of venipuncture in children. It is suggested to make these techniques more effective and apply them by considering the age and mental and physical conditions of children.Keywords: Review, Pain, Venipuncture, Pediatrics, Non, Drug Techniques
Page 4Context: Peer education is an effective strategy for improving adolescents health. It focuses on the improvement of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among adolescents with regards to different healthcare issues and empowers them to make informed decisions. This review study aimed to determine factors that promote peer education among adolescents.
Evidence Acquisition: In this narrative review, electronic databases including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed (including Medline), Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus were searched. Articles published between 1991 and 2016 were retrieved and undergone abstract and full-text appraisal. Lastly, 53 articles were selected and used to write this review.ResultsThe factors influencing the promotion of peer education among adolescents were classified as follow: characteristics of peer educators: personal, skills and communication characteristics; characteristics of the educational program: theoretical foundations, program transparency, program sustainability, adolescents comprehensive participation, and evaluation and monitoring; and structural characteristics of the educational program: supportive structure, and financial-official structure.ConclusionsTaking into account the importance of adolescence and issues surrounding this period, the important role of peer education in the promotion of adolescents health should be emphasized.Keywords: Peer Education, Peer Educator, Adolescent, Narrative Review
Page 5Context: Although cholelithiasis is not a common condition in children, recent studies have documented an increasing incidence rate, owing to the development of diagnostic tools. The prevalence of cholelithiasis in children has been reported to be 0.13% - 0.3%, whereas in obese children and adolescents, the prevalence rate has been estimated at 2% - 6.1%. In this study, we aimed to review cholelithiasis in children. The gathered results could be useful in finding a suitable method and proper clinical practice for this complication.
Evidence Acquisition: For literature review, international databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar, were searched, using keyword combinations, e.g., cholelithiasis in children, gallstone in children, and childhood cholelithiasis, to review diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for cholelithiasis in children from 2006 to 2016. Also, some articles were retrieved through hand searching and reviewing the reference lists of papers, regardless of the date of publication. Abstracts, duplicates, and articles irrelevant to childhood cholelithiasis were excluded.ResultsA total of 36 out of 93 articles were reviewed. The results showed that the prevalence of childhood cholelithiasis varies in different communities, with a global rate of 1.9%. Most cases of cholelithiasis in children were associated with underlying diseases. Hemolytic diseases, hereditary blood disorders, and cirrhosis were among the main causes of cholelithiasis in children. Cholelithiasis was detected incidentally or via diagnostic evaluations due to the presentation of symptoms.ConclusionsAlthough evaluation of the underlying causes of gallstone formation and appropriate diagnostic/therapeutic implications is still a challenging issue in the management of childhood cholelithiasis, in asymptomatic cases or those with gallstones of certain sizes, it is only recommended to monitor the disease or rule out the underlying causes. It should be noted that long periods of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can impose stress and tension on families.Keywords: Cholelithiasis, Childhood, Diagnosis, Therapy
Page 6Context: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing skin disorder that affects all ages including infancy and childhood. There are many proved and unproved treatments for atopic dermatitis.
Evidence Acquisition: Data sources of this narrative review included studies about pediatric atopic dermatitis with the following keywords, pediatric, atopic dermatitis, immunity, acute, chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disorder, infancy, childhood, diagnosis, management and treatment. All of the articles were written in English language with full text on management or treatment.ResultsInnate and adaptive immune system involved atopic dermatitis. Major characteristics of atopic dermatitis include pruritus, chronic or relapsing lesions and personal or family history of atopic disease. There is no specific treatment for atopic dermatitis. The treatment included rehydration, emollients, topical steroid, calcineurin inhibitors and immunosuppressant. Crisaborole topical ointment, a PDE4 anti-inflammatory topical agent (phase three of the research) could be effective in atopic dermatitis.ConclusionsAvoidance from trigger factors and emollients are basic treatments of atopic dermatitis.Keywords: Pediatrics, Dermatitis, Atopic, Theapy
Page 7IntroductionAcute cerebellitis (AC) is a rare potentially life-threatening condition in children. Some viral infections, vaccines and neuroimmunologic disorders are the most common causes of AC. Opium poisoning is an unusual cause of this condition.Case PresentationA 2-year-old girl was referred with loss of consciousness. She was ataxic just a few minutes after opium ingestion and after 1 hour, she became unconscious. We only found pinpoint pupils. After naloxone drip, her condition had been better but she was still obtunded and her urine was positive for opium products (morphine). MRI of the brain showed marked bilateral cerebellar swelling that respond to high-dose steroid dramatically.ConclusionThis case shows that opium intoxication should be considered as a rare cause of acute cerebellitis in children.Keywords: Acute Cerebellitis, Opium Intoxication, Opioid, Children
Page 8BackgroundDiabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children.MethodsThis case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza) from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group). Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16.ResultsDuring the study period, 97 (39.2% male) newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88%) and polydipsia (88.66%). Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (PConclusionsIn conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and fathers education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.Keywords: Children, Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1