- سال چهل و هشتم شماره 4 (پیاپی 191، زمستان 1394)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/14
- تعداد عناوین: 7
- جستارهای ادبی
صفحات 1-23در مجموعه آثار دولت آبادی و از جمله رمان کلیدر، همواره دو گزاره مهم و متمایز از مقوله هنجارگریزی و آشنایی زدایی، یعنی کاربرد گویش سبزواری و گرایش به آرکائیسم (باستان گرایی)، توجه خواننده را به خود جلب می کند. خواننده در پاسخ به این پرسش که کدام واژه و ساختار صرفی و نحوی متن، برگرفته از متون نظم و نثر کهن و در واقع از مصادیق آرکائیسم است و کدام در زمره گویش (سبزواری) است، بسته به میزان آگاهی و شناخت خود از دو منبع یادشده، تقسیم بندی ای عرضه کرده و انتساب هایی صورت می دهد. در جستار حاضر، برای پاسخ به این پرسش، با بررسی رمان کلیدر و عرضه مصادیق هنجارگریزی بر معیار و سنجه متون نظم و نثر کهن و لغت نامه های فارسی، و همچنین پرس وجو از گویشوران گویش سبزواری، کوشش شده مرز آشکاری میان مصادیق این دو گرایش و کاربرد مشخص شود؛ حاصل این کار آن است که حجم بالایی از مصادیق هنجارگریزی در کلیدر، مربوط به آرکائیسم و انواع واژگانی، صرفی و نحوی آن است. در این میان، پاره ای از این دسته، در گویش سبزواری نیز کاربرد داشته و درواقع میان دو منبع، مشترک است؛ پاره ای نیز، تنها در متون کهن کاربرد داشته است؛ افزون بر این، دولت آبادی در کلیدر، واژگان و ساخت های صرفی و نحوی ای به کار گرفته است که تنها در گویش سبزواری (و یا دیگر گویش ها به ویژه خراسانی) دیده می شود. و اما دسته دیگری از مصادیق هنجارگریزی را باید برخاسته از ذهن و زبان و حاصل تراوش قلم نویسنده دانست.کلیدواژگان: آرکائیسم، گویش سبزواری، رمان کلیدر، محمود دولت آبادی
صفحات 25-46قصه های ادبی و عامیانه فارسی پر از روابط عاشقانه ای است که به غنای ساختاری قصه می افزاید. در این قصه ها عشق اغلب از مردان شروع می شود اما قصه هایی که عشق و روابط عاشقانه از زنان یا دختران آغاز می شود نیز کم نیست. این گونه عشق ها ماجراهایی می آفریند که در جای خود تحسین برانگیز است. آغاز عشق و چگونگی رسیدن به معشوق در این قصه ها متفاوت است. نگارندگان در حد بررسی خود از منابع مختلف و متنوع، ابتدا این قصه ها را به اعتبار زبان آن ها به دو نوع ادبی و عامیانه تقسیم کرده اند و سپس آن ها را بر مبنای درونمایه اصلی و مهم آن یعنی عشق زن به مرد، در محورهای مختلف با مبانی ماهیتی و نوعی و نمادین آن ها بررسی و کرده اند. با توجه به بررسی نمونه ها، تمایل و هدف پردازندگان این گونه داستان ها را می توان نشان دهنده تاکید بیشتر بر دوسری بودن عشق و تعادل و توازن مناسبات زن و مرد دانست.کلیدواژگان: قصه های ادبی و عامیانه فارسی، محورهای عشق، زنان و دختران، مردان
صفحات 47-64فردوسی نامه مجموعه ای از روایات شفاهی/مردمی از شاهنامه است که سال ها پیش به همت سید ابوالقاسم انجوی شیرازی در سه مجلد گردآوری شد. این مجموعه دربردارنده روایاتی درباره قهرمانان شاهنامه و دیگر متون پهلوانی ایران است که در میان توده مردم رواج داشته است. اگرچه ساختار داستان های فردوسی نامه اغلب بر پایه متون منظوم حماسی ایران است، شماری باورها و دیدگاه های عامیانه مردم نیز در آن نفوذ کرده و گاهی ساختار یک روایت، آن چنان دگرگون گشته است که تشخیص آن از خاستگاه و هسته اصلی آن دشوار است. متاسفانه این مجموعه ارزشمند تا کنون کمتر مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار گرفته و درباره ساختار روایات و نیز هسته اصلی آن تحقیق مستقلی انجام نشده است؛ حال آن که بسیاری از روایات این کتاب، از منظرهایی مانند فولکلورشناسی، اسطوره شناسی، جامعه شناسی و برخی علوم مرتبط به آن حایز اهمیت است. یکی از بن مایه های اساطیری پربسامد این کتاب، حضور پررنگ و چشمگیر دیوان است. در این مجموعه، اغلب هریک از دیوان با ویژگی های منحصر به فردی ظاهر می شوند و هریک دارای خویشکاری های مهمی هستند. در این مقاله صفات و خویشکاری های این دیوان را بررسی می کنیم.کلیدواژگان: دیو، فردوسی نامه، شاهنامه، اسطوره
صفحات 65-88روایت شناسان معتقدند هرگاه متنی، متنی دیگر را فرایاد آورد، میان آن ها رابطه ای بینامتنی (یا ترامتنی) برقرار شده است. برخی نیز معتقدند میان متون همواره چنین رابطه ای وجود دارد؛ در همین مسیر بود که ژنت، نظریه طبقه بندی انواع روابط میان متون را طرح کرد. عده ای دیگر از روایت شناسان مانند پراپ و تودوروف روشی خاص برای تحلیل روایات عرضه کردند: تجزیه روایت به کوچک ترین اجزای سازنده اش (واحدهای کمینه) برای بررسی و تحلیل علمی تر.
در این تحقیق، سازه ای باستانی که علاوه بر شاهنامه، در دیگر انواع متون آمده، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. روش تحقیق ترکیبی از روش ژنت و تودوروف است؛ سازه مورد بحث به اجزای سازنده اش تجزیه شده و پس از تحلیل، نوع رابطه میان روایات بیان خواهد شد. تا آنجا که نگارنده می داند، این روش ترکیبی تاکنون در تحلیل شاهنامه و سازه های آن به کار نرفته است. نتایج تحقیق نشانگر آن است که اولا میان شاهنامه و دیگر متون مورد بحث، در این سازه نوعی گفتگوی بینامتنی (ترامتنی) وجود دارد. دودیگر این که در این سازه خاص، شاهنامه، پیش متن یا زیرمتن است و بقیه متون، پس متن یا زبرمتن. سه دیگر این که ویژگی هایی ذهنی و اجتماعی نزد مردمان قدیم وجود داشته که چنین گفتگوهایی را به وجود می آورده و تسهیل می کرده است.کلیدواژگان: ترامتنیت، سازه، شاهنامه، پیش متن، پس متن
صفحات 89-114تاریخ بیهقی عموما به مثابه یک اثر صرفا ادبی مورد خوانش قرار گرفته و این نوع خوانش به نادیده گرفته شدن بخشی از ارزش های آن انجامیده است. در این پژوهش، نمود مسائل مرتبط با جنگ و نظامی گری در تاریخ بیهقی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. مدعای اصلی نگارندگان در پژوهش حاضر این است که کتاب تاریخ بیهقی آیینه تمام-نمای جنگ و نظامی گری در دوره غزنوی است و ابوالفضل بیهقی یک تاریخ نویس صرف نبوده؛ بلکه آگاهی کاملی از علم نظامی گری داشته است. تاریخ بیهقی از حیث توجه به جزئیات جنگ و مسائل نظامی در میان سایر کتاب های تاریخی کلاسیک نیز از جایگاهی ممتاز برخوردار است و یکی از مهم ترین دلایل این دقت در جزئیات، تاثیرپذیری بیهقی از شاهنامه فردوسی است. در این پژوهش نشان داده ایم که اندک بخش های باقی مانده از این کتاب، از اهمیت بالایی در نمایان سازی ماهیت دقیق سپاهی گری در دوره غزنوی برخوردار است. به این منظور، با توجه به شواهد متنی تاریخ بیهقی ارکان سپاه غزنوی را تبیین کرده ایم و بخش های مهم سپاه غزنوی را مورد واکاوی قرار داده ایم. هنگام مطالعه تاریخ بیهقی،گاه به اصطلاحات نظامی برمی خوریم که برای فهم کامل متن باید درک و دریافت دقیقی از آن ها داشته باشیم. هدف عمده دیگر در این مقاله، روشن سازی و توضیح مسائل نظامی به کار رفته در متن، به منظور فهم بهتر آن است.کلیدواژگان: تاریخ بیهقی، جنگ، اصطلاحات نظامی، غزنویان، سلطان مسعود
صفحات 115-124خاقانی شروانی شاعری دیرآشنا و یکی از سرایندگان طراز اول ادبیات فارسی است. در سرتاسر دیوان شعر وی اشارات فراوانی به اصطلاحات گوناگون علوم و فنون متداول عصر شاعر به چشم می آید. علاوه بر این، اشارات تاریخی و مذهبی نیز نمود مشخصی در شعر خاقانی دارد. تلمیحات وی به داستان ها و روایات قرآنی و اسلامی نشان می دهد که وی بسیاری از اشارات و روایات مذهبی را پیش چشم داشته، در جای مناسب از آن ها بهره گرفته است. این مقاله به بررسی بیتی از قصیده خاقانی در نعت پیامبر اکرم(ص) می پردازد. بیت مزبور اشاره به دو واقعه تاریخی و مذهبی دارد، اشاره تاریخی مصرع دوم بیت را عموم شارحان خاقانی دریافته اند، لیکن هیچ یک از شارحان تا کنون به اشاره تاریخی مصرع نخست این بیت نپرداخته اند.کلیدواژگان: خاقانی، پیامبر اکرم، مسیح، بیت المقدس، خوک
صفحات 125-141شکارنامه ایلخانی رساله ای است در باب تربیت و معالجه دوندگان و پرندگان شکاری که در قرن هشتم هجری به دست علی بن منصور حلوانی بر اساس چندین بازنامه و شکارنامه؛ به خصوص شکارنامه ملکشاهی به نام «طغان تیمورخان» تالیف شده است. این رساله از سه بخش کلی تشکیل شده است: بخش اول دیباچه ای که از لحاظ سیر تحول بازنامه نویسی و تدوین تاریخ علم از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است، بخش دوم در تربیت و معالجه مرغان شکاری و بخش سوم در تربیت و معالجه دوندگان شکاری است. علی رغم فواید زبانی، تاریخی و ادبی، متاسفانه این رساله تا کنون تصحیح و معرفی نشده است. نگارنده در این پژوهش بر آن است تا علاوه بر معرفی نسخ این رساله، جوانب مختلف آن را بررسی کند.کلیدواژگان: شکارنامه ایلخانی، علی بن منصور حلوانی، بازنامه، معرفی نسخ خطی
Different Appearances and Usages of Archaism and Sabzevari Dialect in Mahmoud Dowlat Abadi's KelidarPages 1-23Introduction Mahmoud DowlatAbadi, the author of the famous novel of Kelidar, is one of the style owner artists of Iran; for him the elevated ways of how to say has constantly been of high importance; thus, he has always been yearning to procure a path for how to say, how to say better, more profoundly and more precisely, how to say more engagingly and more effectively, and made an attempt to attain the best way to express in the most beautiful way possible. Hence, to gain this aim, along with the employment of other writing techniques, he has always paid close attention to two aspects of deviation from the norm and de-familiarization: a tendency towards the languages in the past, through studying and exploring ancient texts, which ultimately has displayed itself as archaism, and the other one is making use of his mother tongue dialect, Sabzevari dialect. This approach in DowlatAbadis works and among them in his work, Kelidar, captures the readers attention in such a way that the reader has no option but to ponder over this matter whether the words and grammar structures of the text can be attributed to ancient poetry and prose texts and indeed as symbols of archaism, and which ones have been derived from Sabzevari dialect. It is at this point that the reader, depending on his awareness and knowledge of the two mentioned sources would make a classification and would assign his attributions.
Methodology In the present study to answer the before mentioned question, by delving into the novel Kelidar, numerous examples of deviation from the norm and de-familiarization has been compiled, then by classifying these examples in three sections of words, conjugation, and syntactic structures for clarifying the origin and source, examples of gauging and an investigation of ancient Persian poetry and prose as well as Persian glossaries have been provided by interviewing those who were speaking Sabzevari dialect. Afterwards, there has been an attempt to distinguish a clear boundary between the examples of these two approaches. Applying this method, in addition to shedding light on the boundary between the instances related to archaism and Sabzevari dialect (and certainly sometimes the commonality of the two), also has another benefit which is assorting a number of instances that have been the creation of DowlatAbadis mind and pen.
Discussion The instances of archaism in Kelidar based on their source can be classified into two common groups (Sabzevari dialect and ancient Persian) and another group related to the old Persian. The common group are those words related to the overall essence of DowlatAbadis works among which Kelidar is a regional literature; when Dowlat Abadi picks up his pen and aims to depict the rural life in Khorasan and particularly the land of Sabzevar and as a matter of fact to write about the worldview, thought, livelihood, culture and social life and etc. of rural people (and even urban people of a city like Sabzevar), he has no option but to make use of words which are common in the dialect of the region to portray a real and complete picture of these affairs; words that are not being used even in the environment and atmosphere of the story in which they are happening. However, they have been used during centuries in language and texts. But another group of archaism instances are those words which are not used in Sabzevari dialect and one should seek their origin in ancient texts, dictionaries, and other dialects. Unlike the latter group, the third group are related to Sabzevari dialect; words which have not been recorded in ancient poetry and prose texts and only they can be found in this dialect and sometimes other dialects in Khorasan and outside Khorasan and thus are outside of the archaism category. In analyzing the application of this series of words, we can refer to reasons that were stated in using and the frequency of the common group. In another level of archaism, that is the conjugation level, the instances, like the archaism examples are divided into two common categories which are related to old Persian and the frequency of these two groups is sometimes very vast. In this level of study, various types of changes, other phonological variations, and all the instances of archaism are divided into two common groups between dialect and old Persian or only old Persian. But when it comes to studying the simple verbs which have always been diminished during the history, the investigations show that there are many instances of simple verbs in Kelidar which are examples of archaism (common) and in rare cases related to the dialect. The prefix verbs in Kelidar are almost similar to simple verbs, and the condition of using decorative B, the instances are that of the common group and in the various applications of Nafy and Nahy which are very common in Kelider and can see many examples of them, the instances are common and sometimes are unique to old Persian. In the third level of archaism, that of syntax, the placement variation of linking pronouns and especially objective pronouns cause a deviation of norms and de-familiarization and lead to coming of linking pronoun before the prefix of the verb (related to old Persian), coming of the linking pronoun after the noun affix of the verb (related to Sabzavari dialect), the coming of linking pronoun after the main verb (at the end of verbal phrases or verbs), (common), and also coming of the linking pronouns after words like Agar, Hich, Chenin, And Chandan (related to old Persian) in Kelidar. About the case of making intransitive verbs intransitive (making transitive verbs again transitive) (constructed by the author) some instances have been recorded. And about making passive voice verbs, DowlatAbadi in Kelidar makes use of two types of transitive and intransitive verbs that are seen only in old Persian. In using different applications of prepositions, conjunctions, inflection (to, with), the instances are mostly related to old Persian and they are common only in using the preposition to instead of with.
The other different instances in Kelidar are making use of Bas as an adverb, and with the meaning of enough which one should seek its origin in old Persian and just in cases that Bas has been used with the meaning of (just, only, not only) whose use is very frequent and we can find the traces in the mind and pen of DowlatAbadi.
Conclusion By analyzing examples of words and different conjugation and syntactic structures in Kelidar, the researcher has found out that these variations and differences are the outcome of the approach and attitude of the writer to use abilities and facilities of old Persian poetry and prose texts and Sabzevari dialect; in addition to this, the researcher has been able to gain marvelous and special structures by using the results of exploring these two sources. By this way, DowlatAbadi in Kelidar, has used different and various words and conjugation and syntactic structures to convey the meaning a group of which is associated to archaism and merely a production of old Persian poetry and prose texts (while are not in all cases like the main pattern); but in another group, the remaining characteristics of old Persian in dialect and in fact in the language of characters that DowlatAbadi has tried to depict their life and world, made him feel the necessity and other benefits in employing these ancient elements. Thus, one should divide the ancient words and conjugation and syntactic structures in Kelidar into two common sections (between old texts and Sabzevari dialect) and merely a production of old texts. Another group of these various and different examples, given the exploration of people speaking the dialect of Persian and investigation of old texts and Persian dictionaries are outside of the category of archaism and in fact can be considered a derivation of Sabzevari dialect. And we must consider the fourth group as the creation of the mind and pen of the writer.Keywords: Archaism, Sabzevari dialect, The novel Kelidar, Mahmoud DowlatAbadi
Pages 25-46Introduction Persian folktales and literary stories are full of love relationships which add to the structural richness of the story. In most of these stories, love commences on part of the male character. However, there are instances in which women or girls initiate love. These kinds of love create adventures which are admirable in themselves. The commencement of love and the way a lover establishes a relationship with the beloved are different in each story. Female characters create incidents which are considered as the elements which form the identity of the stories. In other words, women are the initiators of love and are not the secondary gender anymore. They sometimes stand against their fathers requests for marrying a man whom they do not love and instead, they choose their husband themselves. Hence, in such stories, women are often rebellious, dynamic and active and they are no longer passive individuals.
Methodology The current study aims to address the following research questions through an analyticalMethod1. What aspects may be considered for the stories containing the love of women and girls towards men?
2. What message may be taken from the analysis of these stories?
Discussion Iranian folktales and literary stories which are written about the love of women towards men contain some features of the commencement of love on part of women and its form. This finding is the result of analyzing 69 short and long stories from different sources. Regarding the language, the sources analyzed in this study can be divided into two sections: 1- literary sources, 2- folktale sources. Since the themes of these sources are similar with regard to their nature, type and symbolic property, the researchers have analyzed and described them from four main thematic aspects. The reason for considering these different aspects is to demonstrate the difference in the form and quality of love relationships. For instance, the nature of pure love relationship is totally different from impure love relationship. Also, a love which roots back to a dream by the symbolic and predictive woman character gives rise to different actions as compared to a love relationship which results from actual meeting of the two characters. In all these stories, the inner attraction of women towards men is dominant and one of the points in this categorization is the centralization of the woman characters. In other words, the nature of the love is determined based on the personality of the woman and the nature and manner of love. A woman character that has evil goals in order to establish a relationship with the man he wants, no matter what the means are, would finally become infamous and punished, but a woman who has dignity and is honorable, would ultimately reach salvation, although she may be damned at the beginning of the story. Due to the structure of some stories, their academic categorization should be taken into consideration. For instance, the love story of Zulaykha and Joseph has been considered as combined and rising love. However, based on the predictive and symbolic character of Zoleykha, it could also be discussed in the fourth axis. The groupings of womens love for men in the current study with regard to language and thematic aspects has been done based on the contents of a book entitled 100 Persian romantic poems (Zolfaghari, 1392: 48-55). Considering the main and mutual theme of Persian folktales and literary story sources, that is the theme of womens love for men, these sources can be investigated from different aspects such as the nature, namely pure, impure, combined and rising, and their nature can also be determined. The type of nature in the first axis refers to worldliness and heavenliness of the love. In the second axis, the impurity of the action or the behavior of the female character is considered, which includes: lust, through guile and charm and one-way with treason and eventually evil actions. In the third axis, a combination of these two types of love which is mixed with an element of ignominy and refinement would be discussed. Finally, the fourth axis would be analyzed based on the commencement of love on part of the predicting woman in a story and her symbolic expression. The analysis of the sample indicated that the authors of such stories put more emphasis on the two-way nature of love and the balance of relations between men and women.
The folktales and literary stories that were investigated for the purpose of this study are presented below: A) Literary Stories
Qaboosnameh: the story of Hussein ibn Ali and shahrbanoo; Shahnameh: Bijan and Manizhe, Shapur and Malekeh story; Kalila and Dimna: Beautiful woman of the merchant and the painter and the story of the carpenters wife and her neighbor; Sindbad name: beautiful wife of the farmer and the shop assistant; Bahmannameh: Tales of katayun Kashmiri with pearl; Old stories: story of Abbaseh and jafar, story of a slaves love for Mutawakkil ; Seven Orang: Joseph and Zuleikha; A tragedy: the story of a womans love for Ayaz and the story of a woman in love with the beautiful princess; Homa and Homayun : story of Shamse Khavaris love to Homa and the story of semen to Homa; Khorshid and Jamshid: the story of the love of King Jinals daughter for jamshid; lyrics: Jamshid and Khorshid, Homay and Homayun and Joseph and Zulaikha.
B) Folk Stories
Samak Ayar: May mermaid daughter of King Faghfour. Amir Arsalan rumi and Empress Farrokh liqaa.Forty parrots: love of businesswoman to the neighbors young son. Ferdowsi nameh: Tahmine and Rustam, Farangez marriage with Siavash, fourth narrative: daughter of Garsiyooz, third narrative: Jarireh marriage and the birth of Forood, Katauon and Goshtasb, Sam's and the daughter of the Emperor of China, Soodabe and Siavash. Legendary culture of the Iranian people: high stories, Mongolian girls, the God destiny, Sleep Story , palan dooz daughter and the head of the thieves, the daughter of the king, crazy Mohammad , Mongol girl, Sabzali and Sabz ghaba, Aunt Beetle, Aunt Ghz and fleas, the Tales of fortune 3, Fish Diem, oh, guile women (1), the daughter of businessman and son of King fairy, pulleys and spindles and needle, beautiful daughter of seamstress, the daughter of Khar Kesh, daughter of Karim Khayat, guile and cunning of woman 2, Moonlight, poor and Fatima, man jewelry and daughter of king, innocent and flower fairy, two Brother , GolBreeze ,Gol Breeze 2, Sultan Ibrahim, Shah Rukh and Narpry, daughter with crooked fortune, Sousse Khiar, daughter of king bergamot, the daughter of a tailor and son of king traders 1, Mohammad gol badam. Tales of Mashdi Galin Khanum: Korea Marine, Darwish and daughter of the king of China 2, fish sale girl and the shoe. People Saga: Flower twittering, King Jamshid and daughter of the king, Black Pony.
Conclusion Based on what has been said previously, in Persian folktales and literary stories about womens love for men, women and girls are more active and dynamic as compared to stories in which the male character falls in love with the female character. Just like todays women, the female characters in these stories have the right to choose their love partner and nothing is imposed on them. This activeness and dynamicity of women is such that sometimes, the name of the story is derived from the name of the female character, such as the daughter of Tailor Karim or Moonlight. Based on the beginning of the stories and the nature of the love, four axes exist in these stories. The content structure of these stories can be understood according to these axes. This content structure is so strong that it forms the identity of the stories. The authors of this paper have attempted to analytically and descriptively explain the issue of womens love for men in several Persian sources. The findings indicate that from the distant past to the contemporary era, the authors of such tales have sought to create a balance between men and women relations and their main emphasis is on the two-way nature of the love between male and female characters.Keywords: Persian folktales, literary stories, The axes of love, Women, girls, Men
Pages 47-64Introduction Ferdowsinameh is as a set of oral narrations from Shahnameh which were compiled many years ago in three volumes by Seyyed Abolqasem Enjavi Shirazi. This work includes some narrations about the heroes of Shahnameh and other Iranian epic texts which were popular among most people.
Although the structure of the stories of Ferdowsinameh are often based on the Iranian epic poetic texts, some of the popular public beliefs and attitudes have also influenced it and sometimes, the structure of a narration has changed into the extent that it is difficult to associate it with its origin. Unfortunately, this invaluable collection has not been thoroughly studied by researchers and there has been no independent research on the structure of its narrations and also its main core, although many of the narrations in this book are of high significance in studies related to Folklore, Mythology, Sociology and other similar fields of study.
One of the mythological motifs of this book which has a high frequency is the significant presence of demons. In this collection, each demon often appears with unique features and each of them has important tasks. The current study aims to study the characteristics and tasks of these demons.
Methodology In this article, the main characteristics and traits of demons would be investigated through an analytical method and the following points will be discussed: 1. What are the most important features of demons in the narrations included in Ferdowsinameh?
2. Are the characteristics of demons in the narrations of Ferdowsinameh derived from heroic texts or not?
3. What is the impact of popular culture on the transformation of the structure of Iranian mythological stories?
Discussion "Demons" are one of the manifestations of evil in Persian mythology and they can be traced back to the ancient Sanskrit and Avestan texts, followed by contemporary folktales. The word "demon" has been used in Middle Persian (dēw), ancient Persian (daiva) and Avestan (daēva), whose equivalent Sanskrit word is (devá), meaning "God" (Molaei, 2007, p. 253).
"Demons" were in fact a number of pre-Zoroastrian Aryan Gods who were later taken to mean the lord of falsehood and aberration; but the word "demon" still retains its original meaning among other Indo-European nations and the Latin (dues), Greek (zeus) and French (dieu) are all cognate with the Persian and Pahlavi word "demon" and the Avestan word daēva. Furthermore, among Indian religions, the Sanskrit word deva is still commonly used to refer to "Lord and God".
The demons are not only used in Avesta, some of the Achaemenes inscriptions and many Pahlavi writings, but they are also seen in a number of national epics and folktales. However, in Avesta and Middle Persian texts, demons have a non-objective personality, but in national epics, especially in Shahnameh, they are depicted as earthly beings only with different physical characteristics.
According to Shahnameh, the original race of demons traces back to the devil. They are large human-like creatures that have two legs and two hands and are often described as being black. They also have some animal-like characteristics such as full body hair similar to sheep, a head like a lion or an elephant, boar-like teeth and long hair. According to some studies, these features are derived from the body of the devil, magical elements, the human imagination about Supernatural demons and giant men.
Based on the reports of Shahnameh, one finds out that demons have had a governmental system, leader, generalissimo and army troops and they have even been stronger than human beings. Furthermore, the most interesting point in the community of demons is their cultural system. As a result of the military domination of Tahmoores over the demons, their culture passed on to humans. The most prominent cultural feature of demons which reflects their thoughts is their complex writing system. This system is indicative of their high intellectual level.
By studying the Iranian epic literature from a mythological perspective, one realizes that Demons have a salience role and presence in the narrations included in Ferdowsinameh. In these narrations, the demons can be placed in three major groups: 1. The demons who are present in Shahnameh and some heroic texts. There are eight different types of such kind of demons: White demon, Akvan demon, Black demon, Arjang demon, Owlad demon, Qavvas demon, Farhang demon and Barkhias demon.
2. New demons whose names are not mentioned elsewhere. These demons include two categories: a) the demons who have been made a name and there are ten of them: Riman demon, Archang demon, Owrang demon, Hushange Chehel dast demon, Afghoun demon, Qour demon, Marzban demon, Foolad zereh, desert giant, giant wonders. b) Those demons who are named based on their physical characteristics such as Double-header demon, twelve headed demon, one-eye demon and son of white demon.
3. The kings and champions who have a demon-like character based on the Iranian mythology; Zahhak, Afrasiab, Rostam e Kolhdast and zal.
Conclusion Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that some features and tasks of demons such as "ugly ", "evil and aggressor", "reverser", "transformer", "kidnapping Girls" which can be seen in Iranian mythology also exist in the oral narrations of Shahnameh, but since these stories have passed from one generation to another and they were popular among people, some elements of folktales have also been inserted into them, such as "having a number of heads and hands" ," taking an oath and being loyal to it" and "serving the people".
Over time and with the spread of heroic tales among the masses, the original forms of some myths were forgotten and some stories appeared that were often imitations of ancient stories with the only difference that the hero/villain had a different name and appearance, but his destiny was the same as the destiny of the hero/villain in ancient mythology. Furthermore, some Islamic elements entered the structure of these stories which rooted back to the beliefs of the inhabitants of lands in which the stories originated.Keywords: Demon, Ferdowsinameh, Shahnameh, Myth, Folklore
Pages 65-88Introduction Some narratologists like Kristeva and Genette believe that if a text remembers another text, a dialogue has taken place between them and an inter-textual (or trans-textual) relationship has thus been established. Some also believe that there is always a relationship between texts. Among them, Genette accompanied his claims by a theory and opened a new way before the narratologists, i.e., categorizing the types of relationships among texts and looking for the impact and inspiration of one text on the creation of another/s. Some other narratologists such as Propp (1368) and especially Todorov (1379) suggest a specific method for analysing narratives. In this method, a narrative will be divided into its smallest components (proposition) in order for the analysis to proceed more logically and more scientifically.
Method In this research, an ancient motif, which in addition to the Shahnama, appears in some historical, mystical and fictional allegorical texts will be studied and analysed. The research method is a combination of Genettes theory (intertextuality or transtextuality) and Todorovs method; the motif will be divided into its components. After analysing those components of motif and their changes and evolutions, the type of relationship among narratives will be explained. And finally the author tries to find out the reason of appearance of this motif in these texts and of dialogue among them. As far as the author knows, this combined method has not been applied in analysing the Shahnama and its motives.
Results and Discussion The motif in mind in this article is a person (often an old sage man) through deceit, infiltrates the enemys camp, and tries to mislead and defeat them. The first side of this motif is not able to confront the enemy face to face, thus the only alternative for them is deception. We may find this motif in various texts: 1) Shaghad and Rostam 2) Esfandyar and Gorgsar 3) Sohrab and Hojir in Shahnama
4) Daryush and Zopyrus in the conquest of Babylon in the History of Herodotus
5) Firuz and Khoshnavaz 6) Amr bin Oday, Qasir and overcoming Zeba in Tarikh-e Balami
7) Mahmoud of Ghazna when returning from Sumanat
8) Shamareish, the king of China and his vizier in Mojmal al-Tavarikh
9) The king of Jews who was killing Christians and his vizier in Rumis Mathnavi
10) The chapter of Owls and Crows in Kalila and Demneh
11) Teymur and Toqtamesh Khan in Habib al-Siyar
After determining the hypotext and the hypertext in the intertextuality approach, the changes in the motif can be examined. If we want to determine the hypotext and hypertext by the date in which each work was written, Herodotus's account of the conquest of Babylon by Daryush would be the hypotext and the account of Habib al-Siyar on Teymur is the hypertext. It is not, however easy to recognize and determine the hypotext and the hypertext of a motif which has verbal roots and has been transmitted orally for generations. Here the issue is not earlier written but rather sooner heard and read. Hence, we should look for another criteria.
If we choose the transformation from simplicity toward complexity as our criteria by using the logic that the human mind has evolved the same way throughout time, then based on the form, purpose and structure of the motif and the type of injuries that the devotee/traitor inflicts to himself to deceive the opponent, the narrative of Rostam and Shaghad is the hypotext of the other narratives. Based on the form and the purpose of the motif and the type of injuries, the narrative of King of Jews and his vizier is hypertext, and based on the structure, the narrative of Amr bin Oday, Qasir and overcoming Zeba which is more complicated is hypertext. The Habib al-Siyars account on Teymur, although it is a historical work, is so ambiguous and complex that the criteria do not accept it.
In most cases in these narratives, the use of deceptive motif is accompanied with success except for in the narratives of Esfandyar and Gorgsar, Teymur and Toqtamesh Kan, Mahmoud of Gazna and Hojir and Sohrab. The narrative of King of Jews and Christians has a specific situation. Criticizing the religious dissidence and zeal, Rumi has a pluralistic view to the religions and believes that all of them will lead to the truth and to God. But it seems that such a narrative increases the dissidence among the followers of the religions.
The motif of the vindictive guide has been used in ancient texts and caused a dialogue between them. In the appearance of such a dialogue some factors are involved: first, the dominance of mythological insight/belief over the mind of ancient human caused by this is his preference to attribute different events to supernatural, mysterious and strange, abnormal and fictional causes, instead of analyzing the events scientifically. Second, the prevailing belief in ancient societies upon which anything was accepted to be real only if it corresponded to/with an archetype. Third, oral transmission of narratives allowed narrators to implement events with archetypes. Indeed, the oral transmission of motifs caused comfortable dialogue between the texts and facilitated the adaptation of each text. The fourth factor is the difference between the ancient historian and the modern historiographer in terms of point of view of mind and sight, etc. The ancient historians believed that the history is as important as fiction; these two could be gathered and combined with each other for one sole purpose, i.e., the teachings. All these factors could not only ensure but facilitate the dialogue between the texts.
Conclusion The results show that first, there is a kind of intertextual (or transtextual) dialogue between the Shahnama and these texts in the field of this motif, i.e., the vindictive guide. Second, in this particular motif, the Shahnama (specially the episode of Rostam and Shaghad) is the hypotext and the other texts are hypertexts. Third, some of the mental and social features among the ancient people have been brought into being or facilitated such obvious dialogues.
On the motif mentioned above, it is necessary to consider some points: first, the division of the motif into its smallest components (proposition) and then analysis of them (the propositions) show that the relationship between the texts has passed from Intertextuality and reached to Hypertextuality (adaptation). Second, the relationship among these texts is the expanded transformation of hypertextuality which means that from the perspective of components, the motif has developed from simplicity to complexity and sometimes has combined with another motif.
Although the Herodotuss account is historically the oldest one, but according to smallest components (propositions), the episode of Shaghad shows much more signs of antiquity and ancientry; it seems that this is because some of Shahnamas materials have orally been common and passed down from a longtime ago before their appearance in written form in 10th century. Accordingly, the Rumis narrative is the most developed one and the Habib al-Siyars account, although in its infrastructure has the same motif, but has evolved so much that it has less similarities with the other narratives.Keywords: Transtextuality, Motif, Shahnama, Hypotext, Hypertext, Narrative
Pages 89-114Introduction Tarikh-e Baihaqi has been most often read as a seminal work of literature; by virtue of this fact, a great deal of its merits has been eclipsed. In this very research, the extent of demonstrating the prominence of war and military related issues will go under a close scrutiny. The prime assertion of this research states that Tarikhe-e Beihaqi presents a panoramic view of war and military affairs in Qaznavi period. Adding to the fact that Beihaqi has not been a mere chronicler, but a figure fully cognizant of war and military issues. In terms of paying close attention to the war and military affairs, Tarikh-e Beihaqi is being referred to as a towering magnum opus among other classical works.
In this very research, we indicated the fact that few remaining parts of Tarikh-e Beihaqi holds a special significance in shedding light on the very nature of obscurantism within Qaznavi period. Hence, given the textual extracts taken from the book, we elucidated and scrutinized the dark sides of Qaznavi tenure.
Embarking on studying Beihaqi, one will come across some military terms to the extent that a comprehensive understanding of the work requires and adequate knowledge of the terms. A further primary purpose of this research is to clarify and account for the military issues employed in Tarikh-e Beihaqi for its readers to make a better sense out of it.
Methodology In this paper, at first, the history of Beyhaqi, according to militarism, has been compared with some important historical works. In the next section, the fact that Beyhaqi describes military influenced by Ferdowsi is explained. The overall situation of Qaznavi Army is discussed based on the history of Beihaqi, and elements of the army are classified based on the book. In the next section, various types of weapons used in the book have been introduced and the ambiguous points have been analyzed. Moreover, the war style in Qaznavi era, according to what Bayhaqi brought in his book is investigated. Finally, in order to help the readers achieve an accurate and comprehensive understanding, scattering wars were important in areas of the war-by 421 to 432 with the image accordingly.
Discussion A Brief Look at the Expression of Military Affairs Quality as Reflected in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi and Comparing it with a Number of Historical Books
Drawing a comparison between the prominent historical books of Qaznavi and even the following periods, we come across a significant difference in the expression of military and war affairs. As such, in terms of the expression of military details, weapons, and different ways of war, Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi stands on one side of the spectrum and the rest on the other side, i.e. it signifies a remarkable supremacy. Beyhaqi describes the whole wars with utmost precision, introduces the pillars of army, and enumerates the weapons used in the war. He does it so masterfully that its readers can visualize the war if they are familiar with the technical terms used in the book.
Beyhaqi Under the Influence of Ferdowsi in Military Description
Given the fact that in other historical books that are contemporary with Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi or its forthcoming literature, except Tarikh-i-jahangusha Juvayni, war and military affairs have been rehearsed to the extent of pinpointing historical facts, Beyhaqis being under the influence of Ferdowsi could account for his interest in detailed description of war and strategies. The author of this book holds an epic tone while it is a historical work.
The Image of Qaznavi Army as Represented by Beyhaqi
What can be seen in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi is that in Sultan Masuds army grandeur, conquest, and the characteristics regarded as positive for an army surpassed weakness, and negative characteristics. The king, as an authoritative man, takes control over the affairs, and Bayhāqī admires him throughout the book.
The Pillars of Legion and its Related Issues in Tarikh-I-Beyhaqi
In this section, the order of Qaznavi legion and its pyramid have been considered. Additionally, the different types of weapons and the issues related to the right and nutrition of legion have been specified.
War Styles, Military Conventions, and Martial Actions as Mentioned in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi
In this section, it has been explained that the wars in Qaznavi period have taken place in the three forms of guerrilla, face-to-face, and besieging. Furthermore, this section has explained military actions.
The Wars Mentioned in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi
In this section, all the already mentioned wars have been discussed and the geographical map of those strategies has been shown. Among the wars mentioned in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi, all of them have been recorded as bringing victory to Qaznavi legion except two.
Conclusion Although Tarikh- i Beyhaqi is taken into consideration as a work of literature and history, but it can be a good source for obtaining military information and details of Military during the Ghaznavi period. Because the author of the book had been present in all important government events and highlights significant and detailed points for the reader.
It seems that one of the main reasons Beyhaqi pays attention to details and military issues is that he was influenced by Ferdowsi's Shahname. The similarity between Beyhaqi and Shahnameh in this issue has also been represented in the similarities between prominent characters of Tarikh- i Beyhaqi and Shahnamehs heroes as well as the quality of wars.
On the other hand, comparing Tarikh-i Beyhaqi and other historical books and even books following Ghaznavi era shows that military matters explained in this book are different from other monuments in terms of accurate and detailed analysis. It can be claimed that Beyhaqi is not a mere court editor and author, but he can be considered as a human scientist who has mastered different sciences including military sciences.Keywords: Tarikh-i Beihaqi, War, Military jargon, Qaznavids, Sultan Masoud
Pages 115-124Introduction Khaghani Shirvani is a well-known poet and one of the leading poets in the history of Persian literature. All through his poetry books, there are numerous references to various scientific and technological terms that were popular at the time. In addition, the lyrics of Khaghani abound with historical and religious allusions. His allusions to Islamic and Quranic narratives indicate that he had many religious traditions in mind and used them when the need aroused. The current article attempts to explore a couplet of an ode by Khaghani which has been composed in praise of Prophet Mohammad. This couplet refers to two historical and religious events. The historical reference embedded in the second line of this couplet has been recognized by almost all the exegetes of Khaghani, but none of the commentators have so far analyzed the historical reference in the first line of this couplet.
Methods In this article, the commentaries of Khaghani's collection of poems (Divan) are explored in a historical order so as to divide all the well-known viewpoints of the exegetes in a number of specific categories. In particular, all of the views of commentators on the above verses have been expressed in three ways. The next step was to explore and criticize these viewpoints. Then, the researchers presented a new vision based on a hadith narrated by the Prophet and approved the viewpoint according to textual evidence and the other poems of Khaghani.
Results In the composition of the above couplet, Khaghani has not considered the historical narratives mentioned by the exegetes and his thoughts were mainly based on a Hadith narrated by Prophet Muhammad about the ending of the world and the revelation of Jesus Christ. According to this Hadith, Jesus Christ will rise up at the end of the world and kill the pigs. This Hadith mentioned in specialized hadith books and interpretation books has been very famous at the time of Khaghani; therefore, the poet has used it in this couplet of his. The elements of this Hadith are also in accordance with the other poems of Khaghani which have a somewhat similar propositional content. Moreover, this view has been first proposed in the commentaries written for some of the couplets of Khaghani.
Achievements All the commentaries of Khaghanis collection of poems (new or old) have had difficulty with comprehending the true meaning of this couplet and have not presented the necessary evidence for approving their claims. Based on the available poetic and textual evidence, Khaghani has paid considerable attention to the well-known Hadith of Prophet Mohammad about the ending of the worlds in this couplet and other similar verses.Keywords: Khaghani, Prophet Mohammad, Jesus Christ, Jerusalem, Pig
Pages 125-141Introduction Shekarnameh Ilkhani is a book about training and treatment of wild animals and birds, written by Ali Ibn Mansour Halvani based on several other books like Baznameh and Shekarnameh, especially that of Malekshahi named after Toghan Teimurkhan. This book consists of three main sections. The first section is an introduction which is important for the development of Baznameh and the history of science. The second and third sections are about training and treatment of hunting birds and animals, respectively. Although this book is important for its linguistics, historic and literary aspects, it is neither corrected nor introduced, yet. In this research, the author introduces some versions of this book and examines different aspects of them.
Method Firstly, the manuscript of the Shekarnameh Ilkhani was discovered from various manuscripts catalogues. Then, all of the manuscripts were checked in terms of originality and relations and oldness. After that, Astan manuscript was selected as the main manuscript and other manuscripts were compared to Astan. Next, all of the differences among manuscripts were reported in the footnote. Afterwards, the textual criticism was prepared. The final data was gathered using libraries procedure information. This information was analyzed in various aspects.
Results and Discussion The word of Baznameh is composed of two parts. The first part is Baz, which means the falcon. The last part of this word is Nameh, which means the book. Since falcons were important for ancestors, the training and treatment of wild birds are usually considered in these types of books. As a result, this book is named Baznameh. Moreover, in Persian language, the synonym of Baznameh is Shekarnameh.
There are many other instances of Baznameh in Persian such as Noushirvani Baznameh, Kasri Baznameh, Samanian Baznameh, Mahmoud Ghaznavi Baznameh, Nasavi Baznameh written by Ali Ghoravi, Malekshahi Shekarnameh written by Khajeh Abolhasan Ali Ebne Mohammad Neyshabouri, Ilkhani Shekarnameh written by Ali Ebne Mansour Helvani, Seid Almorad Fi Ghavanin Al Sayyad or Javareh nameh Emamieh written by Khodayar khan Abbasi written by Filot, Baysonghori Baznameh, Altazkareh fi elm Al Bozdareh written by Ali Ebne Zahed Shoushtari written by Mir Hashem Mohaddes, Shahbaz nameh, and Naseri Baznameh written by Teymour Mirza Hesam al dole.
The literature review of Shekarnameh is as follows: The Ilkhani Shekarnameh has not been published, yet. However, it has been examined in some studies. Some of these studies are as follows: Mohammad Taghi Binesh has studied the structure of Ilkhani Shekarnameh in an article titled Baznamehs and Bazyari.
Ali Ghoravi has briefly studied this book in an article titled a brief history of Baznameh and introduction to some Baznamehs.
Parviz Azkaee has briefly introduced this book in an article titled Falconry in Tashayyo cyclopedia.
Sadegh Ayene Vand has mentioned the existence of this book in about three lines in an article titled Alseyd through Malek library version.
Felex Tower has briefly mentioned that the Malekshahi Shekarnameh is a model for Ilkhani Shekarnameh in an article titled the history of natural science in Persian literature.
Mohammad Ali Moulavi has mentioned some references and has introduced this book in Great Encyclopedia of Islam.
Hasan Tajbakhsh has considered this book in medical and dental
Based on the text of Shekarnameh Ilkhani, the author of this book is a person named Ali Ebne Mansour Halvani/ Halvaee/ Khavafi. In historical books and biographies, there is no information about him and the only reference for identifying him is Shekarnameh Ilkhani. From the text of this book, it can be concluded that he was an attendant of Tagha Teymourkhan. He had been in charge of Ghushkhaneh. Moreover, he was completing his Shekarnameh druing Khaje Ali Moayyed's era. With reference to the text of this book, surely, it can be said that he was an Esna Ashari Shiae.
Similarity among Ilkhani Shekarnameh and other similar books (Baznameh) in Persian literature: With the analysis of the Persian Shekarnameh, it can be concluded that some parts of this Shekarnameh is similar to the following books in terms of the material and spirituality.
Some sections of this Shekarnameh are exactly similar to Malekshahi Shekarnameh and Yanal Khalil Tash Baznameh, Kasra Baznamehs and the section of falconry of Jame Ol Olum written by Settini. Moreover, some sections of this book are similar to Nasavi Baznameh in terms of idioms and professional words.
This book contains three parts: An introduction to the history of falconry and reasons beyond writing this book.
About training and treatment of hunting birds.
About training and treatment of hunting animals.
Conclusion Shekarnameh Ilkhani is one of the most important books in the 8th century and Ilkhanan dynasty. The text of this Shekarnameh is important for language research especially linguistic studies and studying the special terms which are used in this period of time as well as studying falconry terms. There is no information about Ali Ibn Mansour Halvani in the references. However, by investigating the text of Shekarnameh Ilkhani, we found that he was a Bazdar of Toghaytimur khan and Khajeh Ali Moayyad and that he was Shia. There are six manuscripts of shekarnameh Ilkhani in libraries around the world and the oldest manuscript is in Malek library, numbered 1681. A complete manuscript is also available in Astan Qods Razavi library, numbered 28207. This Shekarnameh contains three parts. The first part is an introduction to the history of falconry till 8th century and reasons beyond writing this book. The second part is about the treatment and training of birds. The last part is about training and treatment of other wild animals. Unfortunately, this book has not been published till now. Because of the importance of this book, it is worthwhile to correct and publish this book via criticism methods based on Astan Qods Razavi manuscripts and compare this manuscript with other manuscripts. Moroever, linguistic features of this work can be used in stylistics and textual studeis of the Persian literature.Keywords: Shekarnameh Ilkhani, Ali Ibn Mansour Halvani, Manuscripts, Textual criticism