فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical Research - Volume:16 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:16 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Special Issue
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • Faraz Mojab* Pages 1-1
  • Alireza Tavakkoli, Ali Ahmadi, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh* Pages 2-23
    Nigella sativa (N. sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. N. sativa seeds and oil have been used in the treatment of different diseases. Various studies on N. sativa have been carried out and a broad spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been established which include antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, antitussive, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic and bronchodilator. This is also indicated that the majority of the therapeutic effects of N. sativa are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) that is main bioactive constituent of the essential oil. According to several lines of evidence, the protective effects of this plant and its main constituent in different tissues including brain, heart, liver, kidney and lung have been proved against some toxic agents either natural or chemical toxins in animal studies. In this review article, several in vitro and animal studies in scientific databases which investigate the antidotal and protective effects of N. sativa and its main constituents against natural and chemical induced toxicities are introduced. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to determine the efficacy of this plant as an antidote or protective agent in human intoxication.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Thymoquinone, Antidote, Protective, Natural toxin, Chemical toxin
  • Ayse Erdogan*, Aysun Ozkan Pages 24-34
    The aim of our work was to compare cytotoxic and membrane-damaging effects of O. majorana L. essential oil and linalool on Hep G2 and to investigate their possible protective (antioxidant) effects against H2O2 induced membrane damage. The oils were investigated by GC and GC-MS and antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and -carotene–linoleic acid assays. Assessment of cell viability was made by The CellTiter-Blue® Cell Viability Assay. Also, malondialdehyde levels in Hep G2 cells were assayed after IC10, IC50 and IC70 essential oil and linalool concentrations treated for 24 h.
    Five components were identified in the essential oil and the major components of the oil were carvacrol (52.5%) and linalool (45.4%). After 24, 48 and 72 hours incubations IC50 values were calculated respectively, for essential oil 100, 80 and 63 μg/mL, for linalool 81.5, 72.7 and 64.7 μg/mL. The essential oil was able to reduce the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with an EC50 of 170 μg/mL. Inhibition value of linoleic acid oxidation was calculated as 40% for the oil. Preincubation with the essential oil and linalool increased cell viability against H2O2 cytotoxicity. The essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool significantly decreased membrane-damaging on H2O2 treated Hep G2 cells.
    Keywords: Origanum majorana L, Linalool, Cytotoxicity, Membrane-damaging, Membrane-protective effect
  • Alireza Garjani, Haleh Vaez, Abbas Delazar, Maryam Rameshrad, Fariba Heshmatiafshar, Parina Asgharian* Pages 35-45
    Myocardial infarction is a common presentation of coronary artery disease and the leading cause of death worldwide. The present study was investigated potential resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries following administration of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Scrophularia frigida (S. frigida) in isolated rat heart. Male Wistar rat hearts (n= 8-10) were isolated and allowed to equilibrate for 20 min, and then subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. In the control group, Krebs-Henseleit (K/H) solution was perfused, however in the treatment groups; K/H solution containing 1, 5, and 10 µg/ml of extract was infused. In addition, total phenol, total flavonoid content and antioxidant property were evaluated and extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis. Administration of extract improved the flow rate, developed pressure and max and min left ventricular dp/dt. Number and duration of VT significantly were reduced by all extract concentrations in ischemic phase. In reperfusion phase, significant decreases in single and total arrhythmias were seen. Furthermore, 5 and 10 µg/ml of the extract remarkably decreased the infarct size. An appropriate concentration of S. frigida extract exhibited a protective effect against I/R-induced injures, which might be due to the antioxidant activity of the iridoids and phenolics.
    Keywords: Scrophularia frigida, Ischemia, Reperfusion, Arrhythmia, Infarct size
  • Hesham I. El Askary, Mohamed Y. Haggag, Dina R. Abouhussein *, Shaimaa M. Hussein, Amany A. Sleem Pages 46-57
    Passiflora species were known by their anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the most active leaf extract of Passiflora caerulea L. grown in Egypt. The ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited higher activity than aqueous extract as anticonvulsant (63% potency relative to carbamazepine), analgesic (70% potency relative to indomethacin), antioxidant (71% potency relative to vitamin E), anti-inflammatory (90% potency relative to indomethacin) and antipyretic (90% potency relative to paracetamol). Fractions obtained successively from the ethanolic extract were then subjected to the same biological testing demonstrating that the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active in all activities (50, 96, 80, 63 % potency relative to reference standards used in each of the selected activity, respectively) followed by n-butanol then n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Purification of the anticonvulsant sub-fractions obtained by column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction, led to the isolation of three compounds that were identified by physical and spectroscopic techniques as Lucenin II (1), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (2) and Chrysin 6-C-β-D-glucoside (3). The amount of Chrysin 6-C-β-D-glucoside was found to be 0.0184 g % w/w of the dried leaves using HPLC method that showed linearity (R2 = 0.9996) over the range 0.015-0.25 mg/mL. C-glycosyl flavones and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives may thus be the responsible principles for the biological activity of the plant under investigation. Moreover, RAPD technique was performed for the genetic characterization and authentication of the plant, where 106 fragments were recorded after DNA amplification with fifteen primers.
    Keywords: Passiflora caerulea, anticonvulsant, chrysin 6-C-?-D-glucoside, HPLC quantification, genetic characterization
  • Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Mustafa Ghanadian *, Mohammad Rabbani, Fatemeh Tahmasbi Pages 58-63
    Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl is an herbaceous wild plant native to Iran which is traditionally used in Iranian folk medicine as a mild sedative tea for reducing anxiety and for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Our previous study on ethyl acetate extract of S. lavandulifolia proved anti-anxiolytic activity and so the present study was designed to determine chemical components of this biologically active fraction. The extract was prepared using maceration method. Column chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) was used respectively to separate the fractions. Finally some evaluated fractions were used for high pressure liquid (HPLC) and peak shaving recycle technique to achieve more purification. Separated compounds were determined using NMR analysis and mass spectroscopy. Six compounds have been isolated from ethylacetate extract of aerial parts of S. lavandulifolia including four flavonoids (apigenin, kumatakenin, penduletin and 4', 7-dihyroxy- 3, 5, 6-trimethoxy flavon), a labdan diterpenoid (labda-13-en-8, 15-diol) and an iridoid.
    Keywords: Stachys lavandulifolia, labdan diterpenoid, flavonoid, monoterpen lacton, Lamiaceae
  • Nilufer Orhan *, Didem Deliorman Orhan, Alper G., Ouml, Kbulut, Mustafa Aslan, Fatma Ergun Pages 64-74
    Fruit and leaves of junipers are commonly used internally as tea and pounded fruits are eaten to lower blood glucose levels in Anatolia. Thus, we aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potential and the chemical profile of Juniperus foetidissima Willd. and J. sabina L. in this study. In-vitro antidiabetic activities of leaf and fruit extracts were examined by their inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Then, in-vivo antidiabetic activities of leaf and fruit extracts of Juniperus species were investigated on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Additionally, antioxidant activities (phosphomolybdenum, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging activity assays), phytochemical screening tests and high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC) were done. In-vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of the extracts were supported by the results of in-vivo antidiabetic activity studies. Phytochemical screening tests indicated presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and carbohydrates in the extracts. Amentoflavone was identified as the major compound in the extracts and content of amentoflavone was determined. As a result, Juniperus extracts and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications.
    Keywords: Amentoflavone, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus sabina
  • Mahsan Bayani, Mahmod Ahmadi Hamedani *, Ashkan Jebelli Javan Pages 75-82
    This study was conducted to evaluate the hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of Mentha spicata (Labiateae) leaves aqueous extract (MSLA) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, hyperglycemia was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). The aqueous extract of M. spicata was orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for 21 days and the effects were compared with glibenclamid (2 mg/kg). Fasting blood sugar (FBS), body weight, lipid profile and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) were monitored at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after induction of diabetes. Total phenol contents (TP) and reducing power (RP) were also evaluated. TP and RP of aqueous extract were 2.763 ± 0.39 mg Gallic acid/gr and 0.026 ± 0.001 IC50 mg/ml, respectively. The LD50 of the extract was found to be 1500 mg/kg.
    The administration of M. spicata aqueous extract produced a significant reduction (P˂0.01) in FBS, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and MDA (101.83 ± 4.33, 95.66 ± 4.75, 89.83 ± 5.26, 26.20 ± 5.10 mg/dl and 1.53 ± 0.61 µmol/l, respectively) in diabetic rats. These effects were comparable with the effects of standard antidiabetic drug (glibenclamide). The results of the investigation indicated that M. spicata leaf aqueous extract possess hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties in diabetic rats. Therefore this study suggest a promising use it for treatment of diabetes.
    Keywords: Alloxan, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, malondialdehyde, Mentha spicata
  • Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim *, Gamal A. Mohamed, Amgad I. M. Khedr, Bader M. Aljaeid Pages 83-91
    A new cyclic diarylheptanoid namely alnuheptanoid B (3), along with four known cyclic diarylheptanoids: myricanone (1), ()-S-myricanol (2), myricanone 5-O--D-glucopyranoside (4), and ()-S-myricanol 5-O--D-glucopyranoside (5) were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Alnus japonica Steud (family: Betulaceae) stem bark. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic analyses, as well as optical rotation measurement. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 are isolated for the first time from A. japonica. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of compounds (1-5) were assessed using DPPH assay and carrageenin induced rat paw edema model, respectively. They displayed significant antioxidant activity in relation to propyl gallate (standard antioxidant) at concentration 50 µM. Compound 2 demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect at a dose 10 mg/kg compared with indomethacin (positive control).
    Keywords: Alnus japonica, Alnuheptanoid B, Cyclic diarylheptanoid, Antioxidant, Anti, inflammatory
  • Zeliha Selamoglu *, Cihan Dusgun, Hasan Akgul, Mehmet Fuat Gulhan Pages 92-98
    It has been investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts of the contained-allantoin plants in this study. Contained-allantoined plant samples Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Robinia pseudoacacia, Platanus orientalis and Aesculus hippocastanum were tested at different concentrations. The antioxidant activities of plant samples were analysed by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), reducing power assay and β-carotene bleaching method. Plantago major plant showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to other plant extracts in results of the in vitro assays including 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method with 90.25 %, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) with 1.789 %, reducing power assay (FRAP) with 1.321 % and β-carotene bleaching method with 78.01 % in 1 mg/mL. The lowest antioxidant activity was determined in Robinia pseudoacacia plant. In conclusion, allantoin shows antioxidant properties and it has positive the effect on total antioxidant capacity.
    Keywords: Allantoin, plant extracts, antioxidant activity, in vitro assays, Turkey
  • Nafiseh Saghafi, Masoumeh Ghazanfarpour, Ramin Sadeghi, Azadeh Hosseini Najarkolaei, Maryam Ghaffarian Omid, Afrooz Azad, Elnaz Hosseini Najarkolaei * Pages 99-111
    The aim of this research was to perform a systematic review of the efficacy of non-hormonal herbal drugs in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Three electronic databases were systematically searched from their inception to May2015: PubMed, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and Scopus. In this meta-analysis, vaginal maturation value was considered as the primary outcome measurement. Sample size, mean values before and after treatment and standard deviations for each outcome measurement were used for meta-analysis. Pooled difference in means calculated as the main effect size. A random-effects model was used to pool the data across studies. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochrane Q value. For quantification of the heterogeneity, the I2 index was used. The meta-analysis of 10 phytoestrogen studies showed that while the standardized mean difference of vaginal maturation value increased 0.164% (95% CI: -0.746 to -.0.419), this increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.582). The meta-analysis of seven soy studies showed that while the standardized mean difference of vaginal maturation value increased 0.072% in (95% CI: -0.42 to 0.5.), this increase was not statistically significant (p = 0.777). . Overall it can be concluded that soy phytoestrogens and isoflavones can improve vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women, although this effect was not statistically significant.
    Keywords: Phytoestrogens, Soy, Isoflavones, vaginalatrophy, meta-analysis
  • Mehdi Bakhshaee, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour *, Majid Esmaeili, Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Ghazal Alipour Talesh, Maryam Salehi, Morteza Nourollahian Mohajer Pages 112-118
    In this study, we aimed at studying the benefit of Urtica dioica root extract in the management of allergic rhinitis. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 74 patients with the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and a positive skin prick test were randomly divided into 2 groups. The study group was treated with routine allergic rhinitis treatment and Nettle root extract (Urtidin®, Barij Essence Pharmaceutical), while the control group received placebo along with routine treatment for one month. Patients’ symptoms, eosinophil percentage on nasal smear, serum IgE, and IL-4, IL-5, interferon- γ levels were recorded. Clinical and laboratory findings were monitored and statistically analyzed
    Based on the Sino- Nasal Outcome Test 22, a significant improvement in clinical symptom severity was observed in both groups (P .1).
    Intergroup Pre- and Posttreatment laboratory findings suggested that there was a significant difference in posttreatment changes of mean IFN γ levels between the study and placebo group (P = 0.017)
    To summarize, the current study showed certain positive effects of Urtica dioica root extract in the management of allergic rhinitis but similar effects were demonstrated by placebo as well. We believe that our limitations underscore the need for larger, longer term studies of Nettle in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
    Keywords: allergic rhinitis, Nettle, Urtica dioica, cytokine, herbal medicine
  • Ines Skandrani *, Ludovik Leloup, Herve Kovacic, Marie Genevi, Egrave, Ve Dijoux Franca, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekira Pages 119-134
    In this study, we investigate the potential of Moricandia arvensis methanol leaf extract (MeOHL) on calpain activity, melanin biosynthesis and DNA mutagenicity. Cytotoxic effect and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by lucigenin in colorectal cells (BE) were also determined. In addition the chemical analysis of the extract was also studied and the chemical profile illustrates its content in para-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA), a glycosylated kampferol (GK), a glycosylated kampferol with Rhamnose (GKR) and 19 amino acids (AAs). Our results showed that MeOHL extract enhanced a significant cytotoxic (max of IP = 89.23%) and antioxidant (max of IP=100%) activities. Furthermore, the tested extract stimulated calpain activity and significantly increased the production of intra (46 µg/mL cells) and extracellular melanin content (12.5 µg/mL). Using Ames assay, the extract exhibits a significant inhibition of mutagenicity induced by methy-methane-sulfonate (MMS) (76.32%) as well as 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) (91%) in the Salmonella thyphimurium TA104 assay system.
    Keywords: MeOHL extract, calpain, melanin, ROS, TA104
  • Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari *, Rouhollah Gazor, Mehrdad Asgari, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Ebrahim Nasiri, Zahra Atrkar Roushan Pages 135-141
    Background
    Acantholimon gilliati Turril(Plumbaginaceae) is used in variety of diseases including hepatic ailments in the west region of Iran. Aim of the study: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of methanoilc extract (ME) of A. gilliati on formaldehyde (FA) induced liver injury in adult male mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Fifty six adult male mice were divided into 8 groups. In control group received normal saline. Group II treated with formaldehyde 10mg/kg. Group III to VIII treated with both FA (10mg/kg) and metalonic extract of plant at doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 mg respectively. All animals in 8 group were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day). At the end of experiment evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method for assay of histopathology of liver and serum levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
    Results
    Formaldehyde induced liver damage both in histology and function. The levels of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes were significantly increased in FA treated group. Administration of ME in all experimental groups significantly reduced serum levels of ALT and ALP (P= 0.02). however AST was reduced significantly just in groups III and IV(p
    Conclusion
    Results showed that the ME of the A. gilliati in the lower doses has a protective effect on both histology and function of liver.
    Keywords: Plumbaginaceae, Acantholimon gilliati Turril, kew. Bull, methanolic extract, hepatoprotective effect, formaldehyde induced liver injury
  • Jasna Canadanovic Brunet, Jelena Vulic *, Tatjana Cebovic, Gordana Cetkovic, Vladimir Canadanovic, Sonja Djilas, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac Pages 142-152
    Raspberry waste, obtained from two cultivars, Meeker (ERM) and Willamette (ERW) was subjected to evaluation antioxidants and antitumour activities as a potential source of phenolics. Some phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified and quantified by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was tested by measuring ability to scavenge DPPH• and •OH by ESR spectroscopy. IC50DPPH• varied from 0.67 for ERM to 0.54 mg/ml for ERW, while IC50•OH values varied from 3.73 for ERM to 1.23 mg/ml for ERW. Cytotoxic activity was investigated using in vivo model of Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells (EAC) in mice. Pretreatment with extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against EAC cells (up to 60%) and both extracts inhibited the tumour growth. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD) was extremely increased in pretreated animals, while the activity of enzyme complex glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) was significantly increased. This study suggests that raspberry pomace could be used as nutraceutic resource and functional food ingredient.
    Keywords: raspberry, pomace, HPLC, antioxidants, enzymes
  • Maryam Jahandideh, Homa Hajimehdipoor *, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi, Ahmadreza Dehpour, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh Pages 153-163
    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) manuscripts contain prescriptions that have long been used for healing of wounds. The present study evaluates the healing effect of a poly herbal paste (PHP), retrieved from ITM sources, containing Aloe vera, Commiphora myrrha and Boswellia carteri using rat excision wound model.
    Excision wounds were induced in six groups consisting of six rats each. Group 1 received no treatment, while groups 2-6 received tetracycline ointment, Alpha ointment, PHP 40%, PHP 10% and paste base every day, respectively. The percentage of wound contraction on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and histopathology parameters of healed wounds on 14th and 21st days were evaluated. Moreover, antioxidant activity of PHP was evaluated using DPPH method.
    There was a significant improvement in wound healing in PHP 10% group on the 7th day of the treatment (p
    Keywords: Boswellia carteri, Aloe vera, Commiphora myrrha, wound healing, Iranian Traditional Medicine
  • Selda Telo *, Ihsan Halifeoglu, Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan Pages 164-170
    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.,) is a medicinal herb commonly used by humans. The role of reactive oxygen metabolites on cancer etiology is known. There are some studies about the antioxidant effects of Urtica Dioica (UD) on therapy of some cancer types. This study aimed to investigate the effects of UD on antioxidant enzyme activities and mammary gland cancer induced by in rats-N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) carcinogenesis.
    Rats were divided into four groups: a untreated group (Group 1), a NMU group (Group 2) given 50 mg/kg NMU by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, a NMU group (Group 3) treated with UD, a control group (Group 4) fed with 50g/kg UD. After 5.5 months, rats were decapitated, and mammary tissue and blood samples were obtained. There was a significant (p
    Keywords: Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Breast cancer, Urtica dioica, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea
  • Faraz Mojab * Pages 171-177
    Primary dysmenorrhea refers to painful cramps during menstruation with no organic reason. With respect to its high incidence and adverse outcomes in quality of life and some evidences regarding the sedative and antispasmodic effects of Melissa officinails on smooth muscles as an herb, this double-blind clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of its capsules on severity of dysmenorrhea in students of Islamic Azad University at Zanjan in 2014.
    110 students were matched in terms of dysmenorrhea severity and experience; age; menarche; body mass index (BMI); occupation as well as educational level of parents; and duration, interval as well as amount of bleeding. Then, they were randomly divided into 2 herb (55 subjects) and placebo (55 subjects) groups. The former was given capsules 330 mg of the herb 3 times a day over 3 days at the onset of hemorrhage while the latter was given placebo in similar capsules containing corn starch with the same protocol. Pain severity was evaluated with a visual analogue scale (0 to 10 cm) .Different statistical tests were used for data analysis with SPSS package.
    No significant difference was found between the means of pain severity in the groups before the intervention. However, the severity was reduced in both groups after the intervention (P
    Keywords: Primary dysmenorrhea, Melissa officinalis, Spasm, Pain, Clinical trial
  • Didem Sohretoglu *, Yasin Genc, Ummuhan Sebnem Harput Pages 178-187
    Cranesbill (Geranium species) are used traditionally as tonic, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antihemorrhoidal, diuretic and for the treatment of cough, fever, tonsillitis, urticaria, kidney pain and gastrointestinal ailments. The leaves of some Geranium species are consumed in traditional Turkish cousin as salad or added to pastry. In the present study, different extracts from G. psilostemon and G. stepporum of the plants were prepared and their SO, NO and ABTS radical scavenging activites were tested. Also, cytotoxic activities of extracts against KB human epidermoid carcinoma cell line tested by MTT method. While EtOAc extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity against SO, NO and ABTS radicals (IC50 of EtOAc extracts of G. psilostemon 29.4, 98.4, µg/ml for SO and NO respectively and TEAC value 0.371 ± 0.29 µM TE) cytotoxic activity against KB cell line was observed for the water extracts of tested species. In order to evaluate phytochemical content of the species; total phenolic, total flavonoid and total flavonol contents of the extracts were estimated and major compounds of the extracts were determined as gallic acid, methyl gallate and pusilagin using HPLC-DAD system. Taken together, the results showed that gallic acid derivatives are important for the bioactivities of Geranium species, and it may be promising possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations.
    Keywords: Cranesbill, Antioxidant, cytotoxic, Geranium, Geraniaceae
  • Shiva Masoudi *, Jila Abbassi Pages 188-196
    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD) and solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) from the stems and flowers of Tanacetum tenuisectum (Boiss.) Podl., which is endemic to Iran,
    were analyzed by GC and GC/MS.
    Camphor (26.9 %, 27.2% and 25.5%), borneol (12.6%, 11.5% and 7.6%) and 1, 8-cineole (7.9%, 13.2% and 11.3%) were the main constituents of the HD, SD and SFME oils of Tanacetum tenuisectum respectively.
    All three oils were rich in regard to monoterpenes and small percentage of sesquiterpenes and non terpenoid compounds.
    Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of the plant was determined against six Gramm positive and Gramm negative bacteria. The results showed that this oil was active against all of the tested bacteria.
    Keywords: Tanacetum tenuisectum, Compositae, Essential oil, Hydrodistillation, Steam distillation, Microwave extraction, Antibacterial activity
  • Tae Won Kim *, Hyeun Kyoo Shin, Young Jung Kim, So Ra Park, Chang Seob Seo, Hyekyung Ha, Ju Young Jung Pages 197-206
    Dendrobium genus was reported to contain alkaloid, bibenzyl, fluorenone, phenanthrene, sesquiterpenoid, and phenolic acid, which have biological properties. Our aim was to investigate the protective effect of an aqueous extract of Dendrobium nobile Lindl (DNE) against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Quantification of four phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and ferulic acid) in DNE was determined using the HPLC-photodiode array method. Possible protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were investigated using in vitro (porcine kidney cells; PK15) and in vivo (Sprague Dawley rat) studies. Among the four phenolic acids, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was the most abundant. In the in vitro study, DNE pretreatment partially prevented decrement of viability after cisplatin (15 μg/mL) treatment in the both the MTT and crystal violet assays. Moreover, relative to cells treated with cisplatin alone, the DNE (50 μg/mL)-pretreated cells showed a ~30% increase in glutathione levels and a ~15% decrease in reactive oxygen species. The expression of p53 was also decreased in DNE-pretreated cells (p
    Keywords: Dendrobium nobile Lindl, Acute kidney injury, Cisplatin, p53, Apoptosis
  • Mohammad Reza Delnavazi, Maryam Soleimani, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Narguess Yassa* Pages 207-215
    Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. (Apiaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Mediterranean regions, Caucasia and southwest of Asia. In the present study phytochemical constituents of the extract obtained from the aerial parts of P. ferulacea were investigated using various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Essential oil of the plant aerial parts was also analyzed using GC-MS. Five phenolic derivatives, isoimperatorin (1), ferudenol (2), caffeic acid glucosyl ester (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of P. ferulacea and their structures were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, EI-MS and UV spectral analyses. Twenty seven compounds were also identified in the essential oil of plant aerial parts, of which β-pinene (43.1%), α-pinene (22.1%) and -δ3-carene (16.9%) were characterized as main compounds. The results of this study introduce P. ferulacea as a source of potentially bioactive phenolic compounds and suggest it as an appropriate candidate for further studies.
    Keywords: Prangos ferulacea, Apiaceae, coumarin, flavonoid, Essential oil
  • Mahbobeh Afzali, Javad Baharara *, Khadijeh Shahrokhabadi, Elah Amini Pages 216-226
    Leukemia is a blood disease which is caused by the inhibition of differentiation and an increased proliferation rate. Nature has been known as a rich source of medically useful substances. High diversity of bioactive molecules extracted from marine invertebrates, makes them ideal candidates for cancer researches. The study has been done to investigate cytotoxic effects of dichloromethane brittle star extract and doxorubicin on EL4 cancer cells. Blood cancer EL4 cells were cultured and treated by different concentrations of brittle star dichloromethane extract for 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell toxicity was studied using the MTT assay. Cell morphology was examined using an invert microscope. Further, apoptosis was examined using Annexin V-FITC, propodium iodide, DAPI and Acridine orange / propodium iodide staining. Eventually, the apoptosis pathways were analyzed using measurement of caspase-3 and -9 activities. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, ANOVA test, Tukey post test. p
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Leukemia, Marine, invertebrates, cytotoxic effect
  • Amir Jaladat *, Fatemeh Atarzadeh, Reihane Moeini, Ali Ghobadi, Omid Sadeghpour, Lrm Pages 227-228
    this is a letter to editor.
    There is growing interest in the health benefits of botanical diuretics. (1-2) ýAvicenna (980-1037 AD), the foremost Iranian physician,ýþ þintroduced ýnumerous herbs as diuretics in his renowned book of Canon of Medicine. (3)ý
    Avicenna and his followers have recommended herbal diuretics for most ýailments accompanied by fluid superabundance like lassitude, oedema, and ýascites. (4) It was believed that diuretic herbs cause the excretion of the body’s ýwaste through the urine and cleanse body fluid from putrefaction. (3) ý
    In the concept of Avicenna diuretic botanicals act as a specific carrier for ýurogenital drugs which facilitate drug delivery to the urinary system. He has ýmentioned that some herbal diuretics are lithotriptic and can expel deposited ýmaterials through urine, thus preventing kidney calculi. (5) ý
    Keywords: Temperaments, herbal, diuretics, Avicenna