فهرست مطالب

Research in Health Sciences - Volume:17 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:17 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Jalal Poorolajal* Page 1
  • Manoj Sharma, Hannah Priest Catalano, Vinayak K. Nahar, Vimala C. Lingam, Paul Johnson, M. Allison Ford Page 2
    Background
    A substantial proportion of college students to not drink enough water and consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dental carries, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use the multi-theory model (MTM) in predicting initiation and sustenance of plain water consumption instead of sugar-sweetened beverages among college students.
    Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, a 37-item valid and reliable MTM-based survey was administered to college students in 2016 via Qualtrics at a large public university in the Southeastern United States. Overall, 410 students responded to the survey; of those, 174 were eligible for the study and completed it.
    Results
    Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 61.8% of the variance in the initiation of drinking plain water instead of SSBs was explained by behavioral confidence (P
    Conclusions
    Multi-theory model of health behavior change is a robust theory for predicting plain water consumption instead of SSBs in college students. Interventions should be developed based on this theory for this target population.
    Keywords: Water consumption, Water intake, Health behavior, Theoretical model
  • Ungsinun Intarakamhang, Patrawut Intarakamhang Page 3
    Background
    WHO focuses on developing health literacy (HL) referring to cognitive and social skills. Our objectives were to develop a scale for evaluating the HL level of Thai childhood overweight, and develop a path model of health behavior (HB) for preventing obesity.
    Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    This research used a mixed method. Overall, 2,000 school students were aged 9 to 14 yr collected by stratified random sampling from all parts of Thailand in 2014. Data were analyzed by CFA, LISREL.
    Results
    Reliability of HL and HB scale ranged 0.62 to 0.82 and factor loading ranged 0.33 to 0.80, the subjects had low level of HL (60.0%) and fair level of HB (58.4%), and the path model of HB, could be influenced by HL from three paths. Path 1 started from the health knowledge and understanding that directly influenced the eating behavior (effect sized - β was 0.13, P
    Conclusions
    HL Scale for Thai childhood overweight should be implemented as a screening tool developing HL by the public policy for health promotion.
    Keywords: Health literacy, Health behavior, Childhood obesity, Overweight children, Health scale
  • Beatriz Nistal Nuno Page 4
    Background
    In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 lowered the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for impaired drivers from 0.1% to 0.08% and the BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.05% to 0.03%, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of this enactment on road traffic injuries and fatalities in Chile.
    Study design: A retrospective cohort study.
    Methods
    Data were analyzed using a descriptive and a Generalized Linear Models approach, type of Poisson regression, to analyze deaths and injuries in a series of additive Log-Linear Models accounting for the effects of law implementation, month influence, a linear time trend and population exposure. A review of national databases in Chile was conducted from 2003 to 2014 to evaluate the monthly rates of traffic fatalities and injuries associated to alcohol and in total.
    Results
    It was observed a decrease by 28.1 percent in the monthly rate of traffic fatalities related to alcohol as compared to before the law (P
    Conclusions
    Positive results followed from this new ‘zero-tolerance’ law implemented in 2012 in Chile. Chile experienced a significant reduction in alcohol-related traffic fatalities and injuries, being a successful public health intervention.
    Keywords: Poisson, Public health, Blood alcohol concentration, Fatalities, Injuries
  • Amin Doosti, Irani, Hamid Mokhaeri, Ali Chegini Sharafi, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Morteza Hajimiragha, Mohammad Saki, Mohammad Hassan Kayedi, Ehsan Mostafavi Page 5
    Background
    Homeless people are at a higher risk of blood-born infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and related risk factors among male homeless people.
    Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    This study was conducted in Khorramabad City, western Iran from January to June 2015. A pre-designed validated questionnaire was used to collect the data on behavioral and other potential risk factors. Blood samples were taken in order to diagnose HIV, hepatitis B and C infections. The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, C and related risk factors was reported with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
    Results
    The participants were 307 male homeless people with a mean (±SD) age of 35.86 (±9.62) yr. The prevalence of HIV, HBs Ag, and HCV Ab positive cases was 6.51% (95% CI: 4.23, 9.90), 0.98% (95% CI: 0.31, 3.00), and 31.27% (26.31, 36.71), respectively. The prevalence of co-infections of HIV and HCV Ab was 5.76% (95% CI: 1.34, 8.51). The most common recently used drugs were heroin, methamphetamine, and opium with a prevalence of 44.30%, 41.04%, and 24.76%, correspondingly.
    Conclusions
    According to this study, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C among homeless people was considerable. Abusing heroin, methamphetamine, and industrial drugs was also significant. Considering the association between drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C infections, planning for effective control and preventive interventions is important in homeless people.
    Keywords: Homeless People, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Prevalence, Iran
  • Fatemeh Zarei, Mansour Rezazadeh Azari, Sousan Salehpour, Soheila Khodakarim, Leila Omidi, Elahe Tavakol Page 6
    Background
    Foundry workers are occupationally exposed to hazardous substances such as silica dusts and toxic gases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of simultaneous exposure to complex mixtures of silica dust, formaldehyde, and triethylamine on lung function parameters.
    Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    This study was conducted on 55 male workers of core making unit of a foundry plant (the case group) and 55 workers in a food industry were enrolled as a control group in 2015. Workers were monitored for personal exposure to crystalline silica respirable dust, according the NIOSH method No.7602. The concentrations of formaldehyde and triethylamine were measured using a PID instrument. Lung function tests were performed according to the ERS/ATS standards.
    Results
    The mean concentrations of personal exposure to silica dust, formaldehyde, and triethylamine in the core making workers were 0.23 mg/m3, 2.85 ppm, and 5.55 ppm and respective exposures of control subjects were less than the LOD (limit of detection). There were significant associations between exposure to silica dust and decreases in FVC (Forced vital capacity) values (P
    Conclusions
    The mean exposure of all studied substances was higher than occupational exposure limits. Synergistic effects of exposure to silica dust and triethylamine on some lung function parameters were observed. Simultaneous exposure of foundry workers to silica dust and triethylamine could impair lung function.
    Keywords: Workers, Lung Function, Exposure, Occupational
  • Fakhradin Ghasemi, Omid Kalatpour, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Iraj Mohammadfam Page 7
    Background
    High-risk unsafe behaviors (HRUBs) have been known as the main cause of occupational accidents. Considering the financial and societal costs of accidents and the limitations of available resources, there is an urgent need for managing unsafe behaviors at workplaces. The aim of the present study was to find strategies for decreasing the rate of HRUBs using an integrated approach of safety behavior sampling technique and Bayesian networks analysis.
    Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    The Bayesian network was constructed using a focus group approach. The required data was collected using the safety behavior sampling, and the parameters of the network were estimated using Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Using sensitivity analysis and belief updating, it was determined that which factors had the highest influences on unsafe behavior.
    Results
    Based on BN analyses, safety training was the most important factor influencing employee's behavior at the workplace. High quality safety training courses can reduce the rate of HRUBs about 10%. Moreover, the rate of HRUBs increased by decreasing the age of employees. The rate of HRUBs was higher in the afternoon and last days of a week.
    Conclusions
    Among the investigated variables, training was the most important factor affecting safety behavior of employees. By holding high quality safety training courses, companies would be able to reduce the rate of HRUBs significantly.
    Keywords: Behavior, Accident Prevention, Safety Management, Construction Industry, Data Mining, Occupational Injuries
  • Mina Hoseini, Abbas Bahrampour, Moghaddameh Mirzaee Page 8
    Background
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer after lung cancer and the second cause of death. In this study we compared Weibull and Lognormal Cure Models with Cox regression on the survival of breast cancer.
    Study design: A cohort study.
    Methods
    The current study retrospective cohort study was conducted on 140 patients referred to Ali Ibn Abitaleb Hospital, Rafsanjan southeastern Iran from 2001 to 2015 suffering from breast cancer. We determined and analyzed the effective survival causes by different models using STATA14.
    Results
    According to AIC, log-normal model was more consistent than Weibull. In the multivariable Lognormal model, the effective factors like smoking, second -hand smoking, drinking herbal tea and the last breast-feeding period were included. In addition, using Cox regression factors of significant were the disease grade, size of tumor and its metastasis (p-value
    Conclusions
    Based on different methods for survival analysis, researchers can decide how they can reach a better conclusion. This comparison indicates the result of semi-parametric Cox method is closer to clinical experiences evidences.
    Keywords: Cure Model, breast cancer, Cox regression, Lognormal