فهرست مطالب

معماری و شهرسازی آرمان شهر - پیاپی 17 (پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • پیاپی 17 (پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/01/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 32
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • سحر باقری *، علیرضا عینی فر صفحات 1-10
    معماران در طراحی های خود، اهداف متعددی را دنبال م یکنند. یکی از مهم ترین این اهداف، فراتر از پاسخ به عملکردها، تجلی مفاهیم عمیق و تامل برانگیز در محیط زندگی می باشد. چراکه وجه تمایز انسان از سایر موجودات قوه ناطقه او و نیازهای مربوط به آن است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش تبیین مفهوم نشانه و ارتباط آن با معنا در حوزه معماری و تعیین محدوده شمول و نمود نشان ه ها در مباحث طراحی معماری است. فرض بر این است که «مفهوم»،«ارزش»،« معنا» و «باورها»، با گذر از لایه های متعدد و به واسطه ابزارهای کالبدی قابل دریافت می شوند. در واقع آنچه به عنوان معماری نمود پیدا می کند، بر مفاهیمی دلالت دارد که معماری برای بیان آن شکل گرفته است. این رابطه دلالتگری و شیوه های متجلی شدن آن در بنا، به واسطه انتخاب های معماران های است که موجب تفاوت در جلوه نهایی یک اثر معماری می شود. پرسش اصلی این است که دلالت های معمارانه نشانه، چگونه قابل دسته بندی هستند و مرز بین انواع نشانه ها در معماری چگونه قابل تشخیص و تمییز است؟ در این مقاله، برای پاسخ به این پرسش، شیوه های مختلف دلالت های معمارانه و شیوه های نمود کالبدی آن در آثار معماری در چارچوب مباحث علم نشانه شناسی، به عنوان یکی از مرتبط ترین علوم با مفاهیم دلالتگری، مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. روش تحقیق کیفی و رویه عملی آن، استفاده از مطالعات مکتوب در زمینه نشانه شناسی و معماری بوده است. ابتدا داده ها و نظریه های مرتبط با این مباحث، گردآوری و در جداول استخراجی خلاصه شدند. سپس با مطالعه و تحلیل مقایسه ای آنها، روابط جدیدی حاصل شد که در ادامه در جداولی گردآوری شدند. نکات حاصل از مطالعه مقایسه ای مصداق های معماری، به طبقه بندی جدیدی از نشانه ها در معماری و تحدید و تدقیق حوزه شمول و نمود مباحث نشانه شناسی در معماری انجامید. بدین ترتیب نشانه ها در معماری در یک طیف چهارتایی از شمایل، نمایه- شمایل، نمایه و نماد، طبقه بندی شدند و جایگاه انواع استعاره در معماری در این طبقه بندی تعیین و تبیین شد.
    کلیدواژگان: نشانه، نماد، شمایل، استعاره، دلالت های معمارانه
  • مهناز پیروی، محمدباقر کبیرصابر* صفحات 11-24
    حفاظت جامع یکی از رویکردهایی است که در پی اعتبار یافتن پارادایم پایداری و متاثر از تفکرات ملهم از این پارادایم، در مغرب زمین ظهور پیدا کرده است. این رویکرد پس از چندین دهه تجربیات نوین در زمینه حفاظت از بافت های با ارزش شهری، به عنوان راهکاری مطلوب مورد توجه متخصصان قرار گرفت؛ زیرا این قابلیت را داشت که ضمن توجه به ارزش های مادی و معنایی محیط های تاریخی، متوجه به تامین نیازهای شهر و شهروندان نیز باشد. در این رویکرد، کسب شناخت از پیشینه مکان، شرط لازم برای یک اقدام معرفت پایه و ثمربخش می باشد. در این مقاله برای تبیین اهمیت این امر و همچنین تذکر تبعات غفلت از آن، نتایج یک مطالعه که بررسی فرجام محوطه تاریخی مسجد کبود تبریز در دهه هفتاد شمسی می باشد، ارائه شده است. در آن زمان مداخلات ناسنجیده و شتاب زده در این محوطه تبعات جبران ناپذیری را بر هویت آن وارد نمود و منجر به فقدان همیشگی بخشی از ساختار تاریخی محوطه و در نتیجه تاریخ شهر شد. با درک آنچه گفته شد، پژوهش حاضر متوجه این پرسش است که غفلت از بررسی های علمی برای حصول شناخت نافذ از پیشینه مکان، منجر به چه تبعاتی برای محوطه پیرامون مسجد کبود شده است؟ این پژوهش به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام یافته است. از نتایج پژوهش، تبیین این موضوع است که سایت مورد مطالعه که قدمتی برابر با عصرآهن دارد و در طول تاریخ، بارها استقرار جوامع انسانی در آن برقرار بوده است؛ هویت و منزلتی دارد که تاکنون متناسب با شان آن رفتار نشده است. همچنین تصمیمات متفرق حوزه های مختلف مدیریت شهری، برای سرنوشت این محوطه زیان بار بوده است. اگر در مداخلات دهه هفتاد شمسی مدیران و کارشناسان تصمی مگیرنده برای این محوطه، متوجه رسالت و مسئولیت اجتماعی خود می بودند و الزام به برخورد عالمانه و معمارانه با چنین محیط ارزشمندی را می داشتند؛ پیش از هر عملی، نسبت به اتخاذ یک راهبرد طراحی متناسب با شان محیط اقدام می نمودند و از بروز بحران های بعدی جلوگیری به عمل می آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: حفاظت جامع، پیشینه تاریخی، لایه شناسی، مسجد کبود
  • سعید حسن پور لمر * صفحات 25-36
    گره چینی ایرانی یکی از رشته ها و حروف سنتی است که به نقوش هندسی تکیه دارد و بیننده در اولین برخورد با این هنر، ناخود آگاه تحت تاثیر نظم آن قرار می گیرد. طرح های هندسی، که منشاء هنر گره چینی هستند، معمولا شامل یک شمسه چند ضلعی در وسط بوده و چند شکل هندسی دیگر در اطراف به نحوی ترسیم شده تا بتوانند فضا را پر نمایند. گره چینی صرفا به منزله یک تزئین خاص و یا بیان احساس هنرمند نیست، بلکه هدف از ساخت آثار هنری گره چینی از جانب هنرمندان سنتی دو چیز بوده است؛ حرکت بر اساس معرفت خود آن ها و هدایت دیگران به سوی این معرفت. هنگامی که یک بیننده به آثار گره چینی می نگرد در ابتدا تحت تاثیر زیبایی و به خصوص نظم آن قرار می گیرد ولی پس از تامل بیشتر درآن به سمت معانی عرفانی خواهد رفت. در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده است تا تزئینات به کار رفته (گره چینی) در محله کشه سر علیا ماسوله دسته بندی شود. همچنین عوامل تاثیرگذار بر تزئینات نیز مورد بررسی قرار گرفته شده اند. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان می دهد که 13 نوع الگو گره چینی وجود دارد و بیشترین الگو مورد استفاده در تزئینات، الگوی هشت و چهار می باشد. همچنین نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که چهار قسمت اصلی تشکیل دهنده گره چینی های ماسوله، از عناصر فرهنگی، مذهبی و طبیعی الگو گرفته است. چهار الگو مشترک گره چینی های شهر ماسوله عبارتند از: شمسه (خورشید)، گل هشتپر (نماد چرخه طبیعت)، چلیپا (نماد چهار عنصر اصلی، هستی) و دایره (نماد جاودانگی، البته دایره در این طرح نماد درخت و طبیعت می باشد). روش پژوهش بر مبنای میدانی و مشاهده مستقیم از بناها، بصورت مطالعه پیمایشی بوده است. در بررسی تزئینات (گره چینی)، از روش کتابخانه ای استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: گره چینی، شهر تاریخی ماسوله، استان گیلان، تزئینات، معماری اسلامی
  • ندا رفیع زاده* صفحات 37-51
    در سال های اخیر، اقداماتی در کشور جهت بهبود وضعیت مسیرهای پیاده به منظور تسهیل تردد افراد دارای محدودیت حرکت، به ویژه نابینایان توسط شهرداری ها انجام شده است. اما به دلیل غیراصولی بودن این اقدامات و عدم اجرای دقیق ضوابط و استانداردهای موجود، این اقدامات مشکلاتی را برای افراد دارای معلولیت، به ویژه نابینایان در پی داشته است. جهت ارزیابی دلایل ناکارآمدی و را هحل های تحقق پذیری مناسب ساز ی های مسیرهای پیاده شهری، پژوهشگر بر اساس شیوه توصیف- تحلیلی، با تکیه بر مطالعات نظری، مبتنی بر جم عآوری اطلاعات و با بهره گیری از مطالعات میدانی، بازدید کارشناسی و تکمیل چ کلیست ممیزی ایمنی مسیرهای پیاده در تطابق با ضوابط و مقررات شهرسازی و معماری برای افراد معلول جسمی- حرکتی به ارزیابی نمون ه هایی از مسیرهای پیاده بدون مانع در سطح جهان و ارزیابی چالش ها و موانع موجود در مسیرهای پیاده اجرا شده منتخب در شهر تهران م یپردازد تا امکان ارائه راهکارهای موثر و مرتبط با این رویکرد را در انطباق با وضعیت فعلی مناسب سازی مسیرهای پیاده شهری با رویکرد تقویت تعاملات اجتماعی و طراحی همه شمول مسیرهای پیاده فراهم نماید. در انتها بر اساس نتایج حاصل از پژوهش، جزئیات اجرایی مشخص برای جلوگیری از برداشت های سلیقه ای مجریان و پیمانکاران از ضوابط موجود و نیز ایجاد هماهنگی در طراحی و نحوه اجرای مقررات در مسیرهای پیاده شهری که عاملی برای دستیابی به استقلال فردی و حقوق اجتماعی افراد است، ارائه می شود. یافته های حاصل از پژوهش حاضر بیانگر این مطلب است که علی رغم توجه اخیر مسئولین و طراحان، هنوز تردد بدون مانع، مستقل و ایمن برای همه فراهم نمی باشد. این امر بازخورد کم توجهی مجریان به رعایت دقیق ضوابط است. عدم اجرای صحیح مسیرهای پیاده، منجر به عدم تمایل افراد معلول به ویژه نابینایان به تردد در مسیرهای پیاده و محیط های شهری و در
    نهایت منجر به عدم تعامل اجتماعی آنان خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: مناسب سازی، مسیر پیاده، دسترسی بدون مانع، افراد معلول، محدودیت حرکت
  • ابراهیم سلگی*، بهروز محمدکاری، ریما فیاض، بهشید حسینی، هلیا طاهری صفحات 53-62
    تهویه شبانه یک روش شناخته شده غیر فعال و پایدار برای کاهش بار سرمایشی در سیستم های تهویه مطبوع و تامین آسایش حرارتی از طریق تخلیه گرمای ذخیره شده در طول روز، با دمیدن هوای خنک خارج در ساعات شب می باشد که با شرایط و ویژگی های جرم حرارتی به کار برده شده در جدار های ساختمان رابطه مستقیم دارد. از آنجایی که استفاده از مواد تغییر فازدهنده (PCM) در تهویه شبانه یک راهبرد قوی برای کاهش بار سرمایشی ساختمان به شمار می رود، در این مقاله به بررسی تاثیر مواد تغییر فاز دهنده، به عنوان جرم حرارتی با وزن سبک و در عین حال کارآمد در کاهش بار سرمایشی در سیستم های تهویه مطبوع یک مدل اداری با مصالح سبک واقع در شهر یزد پرداخته شده است. به منظور مشخص نمودن ساعت های نیاز به بار سرمایشی توسط سیستم های تهویه مطبوع، یک مدل ساده دارای سیستم تهویه مطبوع در طول روز و تهویه شبانه آزاد در طول شب به صورت جزء به جزء مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. ابتدا عوامل اصلی تهویه شبانه مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته و شرایط بهینه برای شروع تهویه شبانه و نرخ مطلوب تعویض جریان هوا توسط فن ها مشخص شده است. سپس به انتخاب PCM با دمای ذوب مناسب و مقایسه PCM مطلوب با سایر مصالح رایج پرداخته شده است. همچنین میزان بار سرمایشی کاهش یافته توسط سیستم تهویه شبانه همراه با PCM نسبت به سایر حالات رایج موجود در این سیستم مقایسه شده است. نتایج حاصل از بررسی های انجام شده در این مقاله نشان می-دهند که در صورت استفاده از PCM مناسب همراه با تهویه شبانه مطلوب حدود 47 درصد مصرف انرژی برای سرمایش ساختمان های اداری شهر یزد در مقایسه با مدل مرجع کاهش می یابد. این تحقیق حاصل مطالعات کتابخانه ای برگرفته شده از تحقیقات میدانی می باشد که با استفاده از راهبرد شبیه سازی رایانه ای و تحلیل های استدلال منطقی به نتایج مورد نظر رسیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تهویه شبانه، مواد تغییر فازدهنده، ساختمان های اداری، یزد
  • امیر سمیعی *، سحر خدابخشی، منوچهر فروتن صفحات 63-78
    نقاشی و معماری همیشه در کنار هم بوده اند و با ویژگی های انحصاری در مبانی و صور به دیگری کمک کرد هاند.گاهی نقاشی ایده اولیه معماری بوده و گاهی معماری موضوع نقاشی شده است. بنابراین درک فضایی از هر کدام، از زاویه دید هنرمند، به گونه ای مددرسان خلق فضا به شکلی متفاوت است.حلقه ای گمشده که در تنها عنصر غیر قابل حذف آن ها یعنی فضا مشترکند، فضایی که در نقاشی دو بعدی و سه بعدی، مجازی و در معماری عینی آفریده می شود. این مقاله جستاری پیرامون بازنمایی فضای معماری سنتی در نقاشی و معماری معاصر ایران است که در آثار نقاشی کلانتری و میرمیران دیده شده است. این نوشتار نظر دارد با مقایسه رابطه مفهوم فضا در نقاشی و معماری در دوران معاصر به بررسی پیوندهای مفهومی میان این دو هنر بپردازد. هدف از انجام پژوهش نیز دستیابی به درک مشترکی از هنرمند نقاش و معمار از فضای معماری سنتی ایران است. برای این منظور دو هنرمند که در آثارشان به بازنمایی و برداشت خود از فضای معماری سنتی پرداخته اند و در این زمینه پیشرو و مطرح هستند انتخاب شده اند و بدین منظور سه مقوله اصلی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. گام نخست: بررسی بازنمایی فضای معماری سنتی و مفهوم آن در آثار نقاشی پرویز کلانتری؛ گام دوم: بررسی بازنمود فضای معماری سنتی ومفهوم آن در آثار معماری سیدهادی میرمیران؛ گام سوم: بررسی «رابطه و پیوند فضای نقاشی و معماری» در این دو هنرمند معاصر.
    روش پژوهش، براساس مطالعه تطبیقی، تحلیل تفسیری وبا تحلیلی شکل گرایانه و شمای لنگارانه انجام شده است. روش کار به گونه ای تنظیم شده که عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری فضا در نقاشی ها و معماری های منتخب تحت بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته و آثار نقاشی با روش های مذکور مورد ارزیابی واقع شده است. در نهایت ویژگی های مشترک بازنمایی فضاهای سنتی ایران در آثار دو هنرمند بیان شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری معاصر ایران، نقاشی معاصر ایران، فضا، پرویز کلانتری، سیدهادی میرمیران
  • فاطمه شبخ اسدی *، مرضیه کاظم زاده، هاشم هاشم نژاد صفحات 79-90
    هر میزان که توافقات ذهنی میان تجرب هکنندگان از فضای معماری بیشتر باشد، تعبیر مشترک از معماری و مطلوبیت معماری در میان آن گروه امکان پذیرتر است. برای کشف توافقات ذهنی می توان از روانشناسی محیط بهره جست. در حیطه روانشناسی محیط و به طور خاص تصویر ذهنی از محیط، با محور قرار دادن معیارهای کالبدی سازنده فضاهای خوانا و خاطره ساز در مقیاس شهر، پژوهش های بسیاری انجام شده است. در مقابل پژوهش های اندکی وجود دارد که به اهمیت این معیارها در مقیاس جز (بنا) پرداخته باشند. هدف این مقاله شناسایی و مقایسه عوامل سازنده تصاویر ذهنی افراد از باغ شاهزاده ماهان می باشد. به همین منظور به تدوین تصاویر ذهنی جامعه آماری از نمونه موردی پرداخته و سپس با تحلیل داده ها به شیوه دلفی اصول سازماندهی موثر فضا برای ماندن تصویر ذهنی در خاطره افراد مشخص شده است. در این مقاله سعی می شود به دو پرسش اساسی پاسخ داده شود. الف: تصویر ذهنی چیست؟ ب: اصول سازماندهی فضا بنای باغ شاهزاده که موثر بر ایجاد تصاویر ذهنی مشترک بینندگان است، کدامند؟ روش تحقیق این مقاله کیفی و کمی می باشد و جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. جمعیت آماری این مقاله، 30 نفر از دانشجویان دختر ترم اول معماری می باشد که از آن ها خواسته شد تصاویر ذهنی شان را از باغ شاهزاده ترسیم کنند. سپس طبق روش دلفی به تحلیل تصاویر پرداخته شد. در نهایت نتایج حاصل تحلیل شد. این نتایج نشان دهنده این است که، اصول سازماندهی فضایی موثر بر تصویر ذهنی افراد در باغ شاهزاده به ترتیب اولویت و میزان تاثیرگذاری عبارتند از: 1-توجه به تقارن، ریتم و تکرار موجود در بنا 2- هندسه کلی فضا و جانمایی ها 3- توجه به محور غالب باغ و سایر اصول تاثیر گذار بر تصاویر ذهنی از این بنا در رده های بعدی اهمیت قرار می گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: روان شناسی محیط، تصویر ذهنی، ادراک فضا، باغ شاهزاده ماهان
  • مریم طباطباییان *، ساناز عباسعلی زاده رضاکلایی، ریما فیاض صفحات 91-102
    تاثیر محیط های طبیعی بر ذهن و روان کودکان، از مهم ترین مسائلی است که توجه محققان را به خود جلب کرده است. به خصوص با افزایش شهرها و صنعتی شدن جهان این محیط ها و ویژگی هایشان بیش از پیش مورد توجه روانشناسان به عنوان عاملی موثر در جهت شکل گیری شخصیت کودک و افزایش سلامت جسمی و روحی او قرار گرفته است. در این راستا می توان به تاثیری که طبیعت و ویژگی های آن بر شکوفایی خلاقیت کودک دارد، اشاره کرد.هدف از مطالعه حاضر مروری است بر شناخت ویژگی های محیط های طبیعی که بر خلاقیت کودک موثر می باشند و بهره گیری از آن ها به عنوان الگو در جهت طراحی محیط های ساخته شده برای کودکان؛ با طرح این پرسش که راهکارهای طراحی در محیط های ساخته شده برای کودکان به منظور شکوفایی خلاقیت آن ها با الگوبرداری از ویژگی های محیط های طبیعی چیست؟ در این نوشتار با استفاده از روش تحقیق کیفی و تحلیلی، به بررسی پژوهش های انجام شده در این زمینه و مقایسه نظریه های مرتبط و یافتن ارتباط میان آن ها در حیطه های روان شناسی محیط و طراحی معماری پرداخته شده است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد، محیط های طبیعی با داشتن ویژگی هایی ساختاری چون انسجام، خوانایی، رمز و راز و پیچیدگی که بر روان کودک موثر است و نیز خصوصیاتی چون تنوع، تغییر، تحرک، چشم انداز، مسیر و غیره می توانند بستر مناسبی را جهت رشد و پرورش خلاقیت کودکان فراهم آورند. همچنین بر اساس این ویژگی ها می توان راهکارهایی را در طراحی محیط های انسان ساخت برای کودکان درجهت شکوفایی خلاقیت آن ها ارائه داد.
    کلیدواژگان: طبیعت، محیط، خلاقیت، کودک، رشد
  • علیرضا مستغنی، شهرزاد اعتمادی* صفحات 103-113
    حس مکان، عاملی است که در شک لگیری هویت انسان تاثیر به سزایی دارد. بخش مهمی از هویت هر فرد در دوران کودکی و با توجه به تصویر های ذهنی و خاطرات جمعی و مکانی وی پایه ریزی می شود؛ به گونه ای که زمینه ساز بسیاری از روحیات و ویژگی های فردی و اجتماعی همچون کاهش اضطراب، دستیابی به عزت نفس و روحیه جمعی و تعاملی و غیره در افراد جامعه خواهد بود. بنابراین بررسی مفهوم حس مکان و عوامل شک لدهنده آن به ویژه در دوران کودکی، امری ضروری است که در این پژوهش به آن پرداخته خواهد شد. این مقاله به روش تحلیلی– توصیفی و برپایه مرور منابع کتابخانه ای در زمینه روانشناسی محیط و روانشناسی کودکان نگارش شده است. از این رو ابتدا به معرفی مکان، حس مکان و عوامل شک لدهنده آن به طور کلی پرداخته شده و سپس ضرورت ایجاد این احساس تعلق به مکان، در کودکان مورد مطالعه قرار م یگیرد. در ادامه با بیان ویژگی های کودکان از درک مفهوم دلبستگی در سنین مختلف، به جایگاه دلبستگی به مکان در شکل گیری هویت آن ها اشاره خواهد شد. در نهایت با معرفی مکان های مورد علاقه کودکان و ویژگی های شکل دهنده آن، به ارائه راهکارهای عملی و الگویی جهت ایجاد حس مکان در کودک م یپردازد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی ها و تطابق ها، حاکی از تاثیر به سزای عوامل فعالیتی و تعاملی در غالب بازی- مشارکت، برای دخل و تصرف در مکان توسط کودک و مشارکت او در طراحی فضاها و ایجاد قلمروهای شخصی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: حس مکان، تعلق خاطر، دلبستگی، هویت، مشارکت
  • صلاح الدین مولانایی*، سارا سلیمانی صفحات 115-127
    هویت یکی از مهم ترین مسائل امروز جامعه جهانی است. رنگ باختن مفهوم هویت، مختص حوزه معماری نمی باشد؛ همچنان که این ضعف درحوزه های مختلف مشهود است. همسو با این نظریه، صاحبنظران معماری معتقدند، بحران هویت، معماری معاصر ایران را در برگرفته و تلاش های فراوانی جهت یافتن راه های خروج از این بحران صورت گرفته است. یکی از مهم ترین راهکارهای خروج از بحران، باز شناخت مولفه های هویت بخش معماری ایرانی می باشد. بخش مهمی از سابقه معماری و شهرسازی ایران، در نوار غربی کشور شکل گرفته است. در این مقاله، شاخص هایی از هویت معماری و شهرسازی ایران در منطقه اورامان استان کردستان در ناحیه غربی ایران، بررسی شده است. تطبیق الگوهای معماری مناطق شکل گرفته در این ناحیه با سایر نواحی کشور، اصولی را تبیین می کند که با توجه به این اصول، می توان مولفه های هویت بخش در معماری دوران معاصر را تعریف نمود. در این نوشتار به روش تحلیلی تطبیقی ویژگی های خاص معماری با هویت ایرانی در منطقه کردستان و با نگاهی ویژه در زمینه معماری ناحیه اورامان، معرفی و تحلیل شده است. در این زمینه با رویکردی به معماری، تاثیر اصول و ارزش های اسلامی در شکل گیری و هویت معماری اورامان مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار می گیرد. نتایج مطالعات نشان می دهد در کنار شاخص های ساختاری و ویژگی های اقلیمی و تاریخی، بسیاری از ارزش ها و اصول معماری اسلامی نظیر محرمیت، درون گرایی و خودبسندگی به همراه اصول و ارزش های دینی، در ساختار معماری اورامان و ایجاد هویتی شاخص، متجلی شده است. عوامل فرهنگ، اعتقادات اسلامی و نحوه وضعیت اجتماعی مردم، در کنار شرایط اقلیمی و جغرافیایی تفاوت های بنیادین در الگوهای معماری منطقه به وجود آورده و در نهایت منجر به شکل گیری معماری با ارزش در منطقه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت، معماری اسلامی، نماد، اورامان، کردستان
  • محمد جواد مهدویان جاد* صفحات 129-138
    معماری بخشی از میراث فرهنگی است که از نسلی به نسل دیگر انتقال می یابد، همان طور که آثار معماری گذشتگان به عنوان میراثی فرهنگی به نسل امروز انتقال یافته، آثار معماری معاصر نیز می توانند به نسل آینده انتقال یابند. بر اساس چنین رویکردی، آثار درخشان معماری معاصر بخشی از تاریخ معماری جهان است و به اندازه آثار گذشتگان، لیاقت ثبت شدن به عنوان یک میراث ملی و جهانی را دارا می باشد و می تواند بی کم و کاست در اختیار نسل های بعدی قرار گیرد. بر اساس چنین نگرشی می توان سهمی برای معماری معاصر در تکمیل میراث فرهنگی هر کشوری قائل شد. میراثی که لازم است به دقت از آن حفاظت و نگهداری شده، به نسل های بعدی انتقال یابد. چارچوب نظری پژوهش بر
    اساس مهمترین مشخصات و ویژگی های شناسایی شده در میان آثار منتخب و ارزشمند آثار معماری معاصر که ثبت جهانی رسید هاند طراحی شده است. این ویژگی ها عبارتند از: لول- حوزه معماری به معنای اخص کلمه: 1- شاخص بودن معمار 2- طراحی معماری 3- فناوری روزآمد 4- موضوع و کاربری دوم- حوزه عوامل موثر در طراحی: 1- کارفرما -2 قانون گذار 3- استقبال عمومی 4- منظر فرهنگی سوم- حوزه تصمیم سازی و تصمیم گیری: 1- رویکرد بینارشته ای و عملکرد گروهی 2- مشارکت 3- انعطا فپذیری 4- تکمیل مجموعه معماری به وسیله دیگر طرح ها. اثری از معماری معاصر که واجد ارزش های فوق باشد، یک معماری «فاخر » نامیده می شود؛ و اگر بتواند به میراثی برای آینده تبدیل شود، یک «معماری سرآمد » است. به منظور ظرفیت های معماری معاصر ایران برای تبدیل به میراثی برای آینده، تعداد دویست اثر از آثار معماری معاصر ایران بر اساس نظر متخصصین انتخاب شده، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته اند. دستاوردهای پژوهش نشان دهنده آن است که همانطور که در بسیاری از آثار معماری معاصر ایران می توانند به عنوان بخشی از معماری سرآمد و میراثی برای آینده مطرح شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری سرآمد، معماری فاخر، معماری معاصر ایران، میراث فرهنگی، میراث معماری
  • محمد مهوش*، رضا مرادپور صفحات 139-149
    مذهب، اساسی ترین نقش را در حیات فردی و اجتماعی انسان در تمام دوران های پیش از مدرن )معاصر( داشته است. از این رو بناهای مذهبی تمدن ها، همواره مهم ترین و باارزش ترین آثار معماری هر تمدن و فرهنگی به شمار می رود. در دوره معاصر، معماری مسجد نیز همچون سایر بناها، دچار دگرگونی شده است. اهمیت مسجد و تحولات آن در دوره
    معاصر، دغدغه بسیاری از پژوهشگران معماری بوده است. موضوع پژوهش هایی که تاکنون در این باره انجام شده است، بیشتر تبیین مبانی نظری و مفاهیم، و یا توصیف کالبدی بناهای مذهبی بوده است و کمتر پژوهشی به ذهنیت مردم از کالبد مسجد پرداخته است. در پژوهش حاضر، پنداشت های ذهنی مردم بجنورد درباره تصویر مطلوب مسجد امروزی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. این پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع پیمایشی بوده و ابزار گردآوری داده ها، پرسشنامه ای 36 گویه ای است. جامعه آماری، شامل کلیه افراد ساکن در شهر بجنورد است. حجم نمونه آماری 311 نفر است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که بیشتر پرسش شوندگان، مسجد مطلوب را بزرگ و باشکوه، با گنبد و مناره های متوسط یا بزرگ، دارای خوانایی در مقیاس محله ای و با فاصله حداکثر 10 دقیقه پیاده روی تا محل کار یا زندگی دانسته اند. صحن، گنبد و مناره، مهم ترین عناصر کالبدی مسجد برشمرده شده اند. بیشتر افراد، شبستان مطلوب را دارای ارتفاع متوسط یا بلند، تعداد ستون های کم، پنجره های با تعداد و بزرگی در حد معمول، و سقف گنبدی شکل توصیف کردند. همچنین از نظر پرسش شوندگان، میزان موفقیت مساجد معاصر بجنورد، نسبتا پایین بود. در نظرات مردم نسبت به میزان موفقیت معماری مساجد معاصر بجنورد، در میان دو گروه مردان و زنان، همچنین در میان گروه رشته های تحصیلی و سنی مختلف، تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. نظر مردم در مورد میزان موفقیت معماری مساجد معاصر بجنورد، با میزان تحصیلات آن ها و با شکل مطلوب گنبد، ارتباط معناداری داشت. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند به عنوان یکی از عوامل موثر در طراحی مساجد، مورد استفاده معماران قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری مسجد، مسجد معاصر، مسجد مطلوب، تصویر ذهنی جامعه، شهر بجنورد
  • علی یاران، حسین بهرو * صفحات 151-162
    باگذشت قرن ها و تحول شکل زندگی بشر، فضای سبز و طبیعت همچنان به مثابه عنصری جدایی ناپذیر از زندگی انسان قلمداد می شود. عنصری که همیشه در طول زندگی انسان، موثر و حیاتی بوده است. در نوشتار حاضر، به بررسی بیش از پیش این عنصر حیاتی پرداخته شد. در گام نخست این پژوهش، به مطالعه و شناخت تاثیرات حاصل از فضای سبز بر زندگی انسان پرداخته شد که نتایج حاصله، حاکی از تاثیرات بسیار تعیی نکننده ای است، که عبارتند از: تاثیرات روانشناختی- تاثیرات جامع هشناختی- تاثیرات فرهنگی. در ادامه، دو نمونه از مجتمع های بلند مرتبه مسکونی در شهر تهران، مورد پژوهش قرار گرفتند که این مجتمع ها عبارتند از: 1- مجتمع مسکونی اکباتان 2- مجتمع مسکونی نواب. در گام پایانی، تمامی مولفه ها و آثار یاد شده حاصل از فضای سبز در نمونه های موردی انتخاب شده، مورد آزمایش قرار گرفتند که نتایج حاصله عبارتند از:-1 افزایش مساحت فضای سبز با میزان رضایتمندی ساکنان مجتم عهای مسکونی، رابطه مستقیم دارد.
    -2 با توجه به شکل زندگی گروهی و جمعی در مجتمع های مسکونی، عامل فضای سبز، به عنوان یک عنصر کلیدی در افزایش تعاملات و ارتباطات اجتماعی بین افراد ساکن در این نوع ساختمان ها به شمار می رود.
    -3 فضای سبز نه تنها بر روان انسان تاثیرات مثبت دارد، بلکه بر شیوه زندگی و نوع برخورد افراد نیز، تاثیرات مثبت قابل توجهی دارد. این تاثیرات، افزایش کیفیت زندگی ساکنین و رضایت آنها را در پی دارد.
    -4 شاخص تاثیرات حاصل از فضای سبز، بر رضایتمندی ساکنین در مجتمع مسکونی اکباتان بیشتر از مجتمع مسکونی نواب است. این مطلب حاکی از این نکته می باشد که در ساختمان سازی سال های اخیر، به بحث فضای سبز، که جزء جدایی ناپذیر فضای زندگی آدمیست، حداقل به لحاظ کمی، کمتر بها داده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای سبز، مجتمع های بلند مرتبه مسکونی، رضایتمندی، تهران
  • جهانشاه پاکزاد، کاوه عین اللهی* صفحات 163-172
    اهمیت چشمگیر رنگ ها در محیط زندگی انسان ها امروزه امری بدیهی است. این اهمیت تا جایی است که می توان ادعا کرد که رنگ فضاهای شهری نمودی از فرهنگ شهروندان محسوب شده و یکی از عوامل تاثیرگذار در طراحی فضاهای شهری که مقفول ماندن آن می تواند کیفیت های عرصه های عمومی را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد، می باشد. بدین ترتیب منظر رنگی شهر یکی از اصلی ترین عوامل جذابیت محیط و فضاهای شهری بوده و سمبلی برای شخصیت آن به حساب می آید. بر این اساس استفاده صحیح از رن گها در شهر و فضاهای شهری قادر است، ما را در ارتقاء خوشایندی شهر در نظر شهروندان و گردشگران یاری رساند. برخی معتقدند که هر شهر باید یک بوم رنگی باشد که شخصیتش را انعکاس دهد. متاسفانه امروزه در کشور ما به منظر رنگی شهر اهمیت چندانی داده نمی شود. منظر رنگی شهر نه تنها با چهره بیرونی شهر در ارتباط است؛ بلکه کیفیت محیطی فضاهای عمومی را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار میدهد. به رغم اهمیت بالای رنگ در شهرها و مکان های شهری، شهرهای کشور با افول کیفیت منظر رنگی روبه رو شده اند. با وجود پژوهش های جسته گریخته ای در این زمینه انجام پذیرفته، اما ابزاری برای مدیریت کاربرد رنگ در مکان های شهری ارائه نشده است. جهت دستیابی به یک منظر رنگی مناسب و معقول، باید در منظر رنگی فضاهای شهری تجدیدنظر شده و ساماندهی و باز طراحی شوند. آنچه در مقاله پیش رو مورد نظر است، ارائه یک فرآیند یا روش جهت استفاده از رنگ در جهت ارتقاء کیفی فضاهای همگانی می باشد. بدین منظور نظریه ترجیحات محیطی کاپلا نها ملاک عمل قرار داده شده است. متعاقبا مفهوم پالت رنگی و چگونگی استفاده از این تکنیک با توجه به گوناگونی فضاها، توقعات از آن ها، مقیاس و غیره شرح داده می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: رنگ، منظر رنگ، پالت رنگی، فضاهای شهری
  • محمدرضا پورجعفر *، منصور یگانه، مریم فراهانی صفحات 173-183
    موضوع این مقاله بررسی تاثیر اندیشه ها بر شکل گیری آثار معماری و شهرسازی است. اندیشه های حکمی وفلسفی تاثیر بنیادینی در تاریخ معماری شهرسازی دنیا داشته اند. به عبارتی، هنر و معماری هر ملتی در طول تاریخ، نمود بیرونی و مادی شده اندیشه های مختلف، به عنوان تبلوردهنده درونمایه های فکری و فرهنگی مردمان آن سرزمین بوده است. به عبارتی هنر و معماری دارای حقیقت تاریخی ای است که در هر دوره به اقتضای الگوواره های غالب بر اذهان، افهام و قلوب به نحوی ظهوردارد. شکل گیری فضاهای کالبدی و آثار هنری در هر شرایطی متاثر از اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی بوده است. در تحلیل اندیشمندان به طور عام و اندیشمندان شرقی به طور خاص تمایز مشخصی بین این اندیشه ها و تاثیرات آن ها به چشم نمی خورد. این مقاله با هدف بررسی دقیق تر مفاهیم فلسفه و حکمت و بیان ویژگی های اندیشه های نشات گرفته از مفاهیم و مبانی فلسفی و حکمی سعی در تبیین ویژگی های هنر، هنرمند و آثار هنری برخوردار از این اندیشه ها دارد. روش تحقیق مقاله، بررسی اسنادی و تحلیل های توصیفی- تفسیری متون و آثار معماری مختلف است، که با بهره گیری از استدلال منطقی و تحلیل های کیفی بررسی شده اند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان دهنده آن است که اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی تاثیرات بنیادینی بر شکل گیری آثار مختلف معماری گذاشته است. نوع تاثیرگذاری و خاستگاه این دو نوع اندیشه دارای تفاوت های جوهری بوده و آثار هنری و معماری غرب و شرق به ترتیب بیشتر متاثر از اندیشه های فلسفی و اندیشه های حکمی می باشند. حکمت همان فلسفه غربی نیست، بلکه دارای تفاوت های جوهری و اساسی با آن بوده و به تبع آن نیز اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی دارای تفاوت های ماهوی می باشند. معماری شرقی به خصوص معماری ایرانی بیشتر متاثر از اندیشه های حکمی الهی است و مبتنی بر تجربه استحسانی و شهود. هر نوع شناخت از آن، با شناخت عوالم آن جهانی و این جهانی آفریننده آن قابل درک و استنباط خواهد بود. در حالی که هنر و معماری غرب عمدتا، تبلور اندیشه های فلسفی و تجربه و تعقل است.
    کلیدواژگان: بیان، زبان، تمایز و تشابه، صورت، معنا، آفرینشگری، شرق، غرب
  • آرش ثقفی اصل *، اسفندیار زبردست، حمید ماجدی صفحات 185-197
    طراحی شهری به عنوان یک تخصص و یک رشته آکادمیک از اهمیت قابل توجهی برخوردار است. این امر از یک طرف به دلیل حاد شدن مسائل گوناگون شهرها و تنزل کیفیت آن ها و از طرف دیگر تلاش طراحان شهری برای فعال تر و غنی تر کردن دانش آن به منظور پاسخگویی موثرتر به نیازهای روزافزون جوامع کنونی در ارتباط با محیط های انسان ساخت می باشد. در کشور ما علیرغم نیاز شدیدی که در شرایط کنونی به خدمات این حرفه در مقیاس ها، زمینه ها و برای اهداف گوناگون احساس می شود، متاسفانه حرفه طراحی شهری نتوانسته است جایگاه، موقعیت و هویت مناسب خود را بیابد. نتیجه مشخص این امر عدم موفقیت پروژه های مختلفی است که تحت عنوان طراحی شهری طی سالیان گذشته در کشور به اجرا در آمده است. از سوی دیگر ارزیابی چندانی از وضعیت این قبیل پروژه ها انجام نگرفته است. بدین جهت مساله اصلی این تحقیق، ارزیابی میزان تحقق پذیری پروژه های طراحی شهری، به عنوان یکی از طرح های توسعه شهری در ایران می باشد و اینکه طراحی شهری در عمل تا چه اندازه موفق بوده است. بدین منظور با مروری بر متون نظری و به منظور دستیابی به چارچوب ارزیابی تحقیق، رویکرد، معیارها و شاخص های ارزیابی شناسایی شدند. بدین صورت که معیارها و شاخص های مذکور با استفاده از روش تحلیلی - تطبیقی و مرور مستندات و آراء مشابه سایر اندیشمندان، مشخص شد و سپس به منظور بومی سازی و انطباق با زمینه ایران، معیارها و شاخص ها با روش مصاحبه با صاحب نظران تدقیق و تکمیل شد. در نهایت میزان اهمیت و میزان توجه و کاربست هر یک از معیارها و شاخص ها به وسیله پرسشنامه توسط بازیگران اصلی، در پروژه های طراحی شهری منتخب (اجرا شده در تهران) تعیین و عمل ارزیابی انجام شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که پروژه های طراحی شهری در ایران، از نظر میزان تحقق پذیری، در وضعیت نیمه مطلوب تا نامطلوب قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، تحقق پذیری، پروژه طراحی شهری، تهران
  • سارا دانشمند*، مهران علی الحسابی صفحات 199-213
    درحوزه مطالعه احساس هر عبارت توصیف گر مکان می تواند در یک مدل دوار و توسط دو بعد «انگیختگی» و «خوشایندی» تعریف شود. به منظور ایجاد و حفظ احساس مناسب در فضا، فرضیات پژوهش به چگونگی ایجاد محدوده ای برای مقادیر متغیرهای احساسی اختصاص دارد. در این تحقیق از روش شبه تجربی استفاده شده و نمونه موردی بازار سنتی شیراز توسط پرسشنامه مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است. پژوهش شامل چند مرحله است: پس از مقدمه ای کوتاه با توجه به ادبیات موجود، چارچوب تحقیق و سوالات پژوهش بیان می شود. سپس با تعریف واژه های کلیدی به شرح موضوع پرداخته خواهد شد. در مرحله اول، پس از سنجش میزان احساس شرکت کنندگان در هر دسته از مسیرهای بازار سنتی شیراز به اثبات رابطه بین دو متغیر انگیختگی و خوشایندی جهت تایید استفاده از شبکه احساسی راسل و همکاران پرداخته می شود. در مرحله دوم، با طبقه بندی مسیرهای شناخته شده در بازار سنتی شیراز و تعیین موقعیت هر مسیر در این شبکه دوار، تعریفی از «محدوده بهینه» برای هر مسیر صورت می گیرد. در مرحله سوم روشی برای بیان شماتیک این محدوده بر روی نمودار دوار ارائه می شود. تمامی این مراحل با هدف تعیین مقادیر مناسب «انگیختگی» و «خوشایندی» به منظور ایجاد و حفظ احساس مناسب در فضا صورت می گیرد. در نهایت اولویت بندی فضاها به منظور بهبود شرایط احساسی صورت خواهد گرفت. با انجام این روش ارزیابی بر روی یک سامانه (مجموعه ای از انواع فضاهای عملکردی) مشخص می شود که هر مسیر (خط محوری) از نظر احساسی در چه جایگاهی نسبت به عملکرد خود قرار دارد. آنچه نتایج این تحقیق را از دیگر مطالعات مشابه متمایز می کند، در نظرگرفتن مجموعه (بازار) به عنوان یک سامانه، شیوه بیان شماتیک محدوده مقادیر احساسی مجاز و تعیین اولویت های اجرایی جهت بهبود شرایط احساسی کل سیستم است.
    کلیدواژگان: اثر احساسی، شبکه احساسی، اختلاف بهینه، دیاگرام ورونوی، محدوده موقعیت بهینه
  • کامران ذکاوت *، یاسمن سادات دهقان صفحات 215-224
    در گذار از شهر مدرن به پسامدرن و تغییر قابل توجه از شهر اتومبیل مدار به شهر پیاده مدار تحولات اساسی در فضاهای شهری به وجود آمد. در این راستا مفهوم نوین عرصه عمومی با محتوایی متفاوت به ادبیات حقوق شهروندی افزوده شد. به طوری که کیفیت عرصه های عمومی نمود بلوغ جامعه مدنی شهرها قرار گرفت. دستاورد این تحولات نشان داد، ارتقاء بعد کالبدی و عملکردی با وجود آن که بسترساز مطلوبیت در عرصه عمومی است، لیکن جهت خلق مکان کافی نمی باشد. عرصه های عمومی محل تبلور مفاهیمی چون «قابلیت زیست1»، «سرزندگی2 »، «حس مکان3» و شکل گیری خاطرات جمعی، رویدادهای اجتماعی و تبادلات اجتماعی است. این مقاله درصدد است تا ضمن بازتعریف مفهوم کیفیت در عرصه عمومی نگاهی نوین به مولفه های سازنده کیفیت در آن ارائه نموده و به چگونگی تحقق پذیری آن در قالب مدیریت مستمر طرح محور بپردازد. نوشتار حاضر که مستخرج از پایان نامه می باشد، بخشی از دستاورد پژوهشی است که در مروری تطبیقی از نظرات متاخر در این زمینه و در تعامل با رویکردها و نمونه های موفق جهان شاخص سازی شده است. تجارب نشان داده اند که برای ارتقاء کیفیت عرصه های توجه به ابعاد یاد شده تنها در مرحله طراحی و مدیریت ابتدایی فضا کافی نیست. چرا که تجلی کیفیت در زمان و مکان متغیر است. تعادل بخشی به آن، نیازمند مدیریتی است که جای جای مکان عمومی چیدمان گونه های متفاوت فعالیت متناسب با خواص فیزیکی و بصری مکان بوده و مولد ارزش های متفاوتی از مفاهیم ادارکی مکان در طول زمان باشد. تنها با وجود مدیریت مستمر و طراحی محور در مراحل مختلف ایجاد، تغییر و قابل نگهداری است. به طوری که حفظ و ارتقاء کیفیت های عرصه های عمومی در ابعاد مختلف تنها در این محتوا محقق می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان سازی، قابلیت زیست، سرزندگی، حس مکان، تجسم پذیری و مدیریت طرح محور
  • لیلا رحیمی*، مجتبی رفیعیان، محمد باقری صفحات 225-236
    مقاله حاضر در برخورد با مساله تضعیف پیوند انسان- مکان، در تلاش است تا ضمن بررسی نظریات و چارچوب سه گانه مدل «دلبستگی به مکان» (فرد، فرآیند، مکان)، به دو سوال اصلی زیر پاسخگو باشد: 1- نحوه سنجش مدل دلبستگی به مکان چگونه هست؟ 2- برای ارتقاء دلبستگی ساکنین به محله های مرکزی، کدام بعد دلبستگی بیشتر تاثیرگذار است؟ هدف تحقیق، ارائه مدل دلبستگی به مکان، نحوه سنجش ابعاد آن و تاکید بر ارتقاء میزان دلبستگی ساکنین به محله های مرکزی بیشتر از مقیاس شهر می باشد. مدل دلبستگی به مکان، در سه شکل (افراد، ابعاد و مناطق) متفاوت و تعمیم ناپذیر و در آیتم های موجود در ابعاد آن (سه بعد شناختی، عاطفی و رفتاری)، تعمیم پذیر می باشد. تحقیق به روش پیمایشی و تطبیقی در دو مقیاس محله و شهر، به شیوه پرسشنامه در میان ساکنین محله مرکزی تاریخی (سرخاب) شهر تبریز انجام گرفت. یافته های آزمون نشان داد که میزان شناخت، عاطفه و در کل دلبستگی در مقیاس شهر بیشتر از محله می باشد. یافته های این تحقیق تاکید بیشتری بر مقیاس محله نسبت به مقیاس شهر با هدف ارتقاء دلبستگی ساکنین به محله مرکزی دارد. بررسی ها در میان ابعاد مدل دلبستگی به مکان آشکار کرد که برای هر دو مقیاس محله و شهر، میزان بعد شناختی بیش از میزان بعد عاطفی می باشد. برای ارتقاء دلبستگی به محله، شناخت محله بیشتر تاثیرگذار است. در این میان عوامل فردی نیز همچون گروه های سنی، جنسیت، وضعیت تاهل و میزان تحصیلات ارتباط سازگاری را با میزان دلبستگی به محله و شهر ارائه می دهند. نتایج این یافته ها علی رغم نظریات رایج بیشتر مطالعات، با هدف ارتقاء میزان دلبستگی به محله های مرکزی و پایداری آن، توجه بیشتر متخصصین و برنامه ریزان شهری به بعد کالبدی محله و تقویت تصویر ذهنی ساکنین از محله می طلبد.
    کلیدواژگان: دلبستگی به مکان، تعمیم پذیری، عوامل فردی، محله، شهر
  • پویان شهابیان*، سیده فرزانه لاریمیان صفحات 237-248
    مردم، فضاها را نه تنها با حس بینایی بلکه با حواس دیگر از جمله شنوایی نیز تجربه می کنند. در نتیجه منظر صوتی فضاها از عوامل موثر در شکل گیری تصویر ذهنی مردم می باشد. منظر صوتی تمامی صداهای موجود در محیط از جمله صداهای مطلوب در کنار صداهای نامطلوب می باشد. هر فضای شهری منظر صوتی خاص خود را دارد. با توجه به قدمت و شهرت خیابان ولیعصر، صدای جوی آب و پرندگان، از عوامل هویت بخش منظر صوتی این خیابان محسوب می شود. اما گذشت زمان و ورود وسایل نقلیه، باعث کم رنگ شدن این خصوصیات مطلوب شد، و بررسی منظر صوتی آن در جهت ارتقاء کیفیت این خیابان، می تواند تلاشی برای بازگردندن مفاهیم گذشته باشد. سوالات اصلی این مقاله را می توان این گونه مطرح کرد که «وضعیت منظر صوتی خیابان ولیعصر از دیدگاه مردم چگونه است» و «چه راهکارهای طراحی به ارتقاء منظر صوتی خیابان ولیعصرکمک می کند». در این مقاله، ضمن شناخت منظر صوتی و بررسی نظریه های اندیشمندان، برای سنجش وضعیت موجود خیابان ولیعصر، از تلفیق سه روش پیاده روی صوتی، نقشه صوتی و پرسش نامه با تکیه بر ادراک مردم استفاده و راهبردهایی جهت کمک به ارتقاء منظر صوتی خیابان ولیعصر ارائه شده است. بررسی ها از وضع موجود منظر صوتی خیابان ولیعصر به از دست رفتن صداهای طبیعی و جایگزینی صداهای مصنوعی به عنوان صداهای کلیدی اشاره دارد. در حالی که با ارائه راهکارهایی که برخی از آن ها به سادگی قابل اجرا است، می توان تغییرات قابل ملاحظه ای در وضعیت منظر صوتی خیابان ولیعصر ایجاد کرد که در دید مردم نیز، مقبول واقع شود.
    کلیدواژگان: منظر صوتی، نقشه صوتی، پیاده روی صوتی، ادراک مردم، خیابان ولیعصر
  • منوچهر طبیبیان، میرجلال موسوی* صفحات 249-262
    احساس آرامش خاطر، نشاط و وجود حس سرزندگی یکی از نیازهای روحی انسان و مهم ترین شاخص کیفیت فضاست. انبوهی از فضاهای دل مرده، سرد و بی روح در شهرها تحت تاثیر ناهمگونی و آلودگی های بصری مشاهده می شود که به دور از هر گونه زیبایی و مطلوبیت، هیچ گونه معنا، مفهوم و عملکردی را القاء نمی کنند. امروزه سیما و منظر شهرها تحت تاثیر این اغتشاشات بصری، چهره ای ناخوشایند و نامطلوب یافته اند که هیچ گونه جذابیت و زیبایی در آن ها وجود ندارد. این پژوهش در راستای بررسی نقش زیباسازی و ارتقاء کیفیت محیط بر سرزندگی فضای شهری شکل گرفته است. در چارچوب فرآیند طرح مبانی نظری، مفاهیم زیباسازی، هنر شهری، ابعاد آلودگی بصری(رنگ، نور، دیداری، نمادی)؛ کیفیت و سرزندگی شهری تبیین و با ایجاد روابط علی و معلولی، مدل تحلیلی پژوهش تدوین و در ادامه نمونه موردی (باغ شهر تاریخی مراغه)1 بررسی و محدوده مورد مطالعه انتخاب شد. پس از طرح پرسشنامه جهت بررسی اهداف، فرضیات و سوالات پژوهش و تجزیه و تحلیل آن نتایج حاکی از وجود رابطه بین آلودگی بصری و سرزندگی شهری و هم چنین اثبات فرضیات تحقیق داشت و کیفیت محدوده مورد مطالعه با استفاده از نقشه های آماری مرکز آمار ایران کمی سازی شده و خروجی به صورت نقشه های GIS ارائه و بر مبنای این نقشه ها محدوده مورد نظر جهت برنامه ریزی و سیاست گذاری انتخاب گردید. پس از جمع بندی نهایی مدل تحلیلی سرزندگی بر اساس مولفه های آسایش بصری تدوین و پیشنهادات تحقیق در سه سطح خرد، میانه و کلان به صورت طرح اهداف، راهبرد و سیاست جهت ساماندهی آلودگی بصری و ارتقاء کیفیت زیبایی شناسانه محیط و هم چنین ارتقاء سرزندگی، مطرح و نمونه ای از پلان سیاست گذاری در محدوده موردمطالعه ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: زیباسازی، آلودگی بصری، سرزندگی شهری، کیفیت، هنر شهری
  • هومن فروغمند اعرابی*، مریم خبازی، هوشنگ فروغمند اعرابی صفحات 263-271
    بومی سازی دانش طراحی شهری همواره یکی از دغدغه های متخصصان طراحی شهری در ایران بوده است. وجود محیط های ساخته شده بر اساس فرهنگی متفاوت از کشورهای تولیدکننده دانش، لزوم بومی سازی را پررنگ تر کرده است. بومی سازی دانش به دو گونه پاسخگویی برای شرایط خاص بومی و تولید دانش بومی مطرح شده است. توجه به مسائل خاص بومی و ارائه روش های یکسان برای آن ها گونه متداول تری است، اما با وجود تلاش برای تولید دانش بومی مساله ای که نادیده گرفته شده است که ارزیابی میزان موفقیت آن است. پیش فرض مقاله حاضر بر این است که بر پایه نظریه های بومی، بهتر و آسان تر می توان به محیطی موفق و متناسب با بستر فیزیکی و فرهنگی دست یافت. بنابراین با ارزیابی تلاش هایی که تاکنون صورت گرفته، موفقیت گام های بعدی در ایجاد نظریه بومی و در پی آن ایجاد محیطی خوب تسهیل خواهد شد. بر اساس اهداف کلی دانش طراحی شهری و خصوصیات زمینه ای پنج معیار اصلی ارائه شده است. داشتن روش به منظور بازنگری و اعتبار سنجی، تحقق پذیری به معنای عملیاتی بودن، درس گرفتن از تجربیات به مسائل خاص شهرهای ایرانی و اهمیت دادن به ارزش های فرهنگی و بومی معیارهای اصلی برای ارزیابی بومی سازی دانش طراحی شهری در نظرگرفته شده است. نتایج تحقیق انجام شده نشان می دهد که در میان کتاب های طراحی شهری در ایران، برخلاف توجه به مفاهیم بومی، روش معینی برای حصول به این اهداف ارائه نشده است. از طرف دیگر رابطه این نظریه ها با تجربیات گذشته دارای ضعف ساختاری است که در نتیجه تجربیاتی که بر اساس همین نظریه ها در آینده به دست می آیند هم امکان بازنگری و بهبود در راستای ایجاد محیطی مطلوب را فراهم نمی کنند. در نهایت نیز در بخش نتیجه گیری به ارائه پیشنهاداتی در زمینه چگونگی مطالعات و پژوهش های آتی پرداخته می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: نظریه های طراحی شهری، نظریه بومی شده، ارزیابی نظریه بومی، روش تدوین نظریه
  • محمود قلعه نویی، مجید صالحی نیا، سپیده پیمانفر* صفحات 273-284
    بحران مکان به مفهوم بحران معنی اجتماعی از فضا و زمان، از بارزترین مشکلات شهرسازی معاصر است. بحرانی که در ایجاد فضاهای شهری فاقد هویت، فاقد تاریخ و ارتباط تبلور یافته است. معنا هم مولود واقعیت مادی و هم، زاده ذهن فرد است و دین به عنوان یکی از اصلی ترین مولفه های سازنده اسکیمای فرد در ادراک و معنادهی به فضاهای شهری نقشی موثر ایفا می کند. این پژوهش پس از تدوین چارچوب نظری به وجوه افتراق یا اشتراک معنای فضای شهری در دو طیف مسلمان و یهودی می پردازد؛ تا فرضیه پژوهش را مبنی بر اینکه معنای دریافت شده از فضای شهری در دو طیف مسلمان و یهودی با هم تفاوت هایی دارند را مورد سنجش قرار دهد. به این منظور، محله جوباره اصفهان که از دیرباز محل همزیستی مسلمانان و یهودیان بوده، انتخاب شد. پژوهش میدانی با آزمون افتراق معنایی و با تکنیک حضور در محل، صورت گرفت. در آزمون افتراق معنایی از کلمات که معمولا صفات دوقطبی هستند، برای درک و شناخت معانی تداعی شده استفاده می شود. داده های به دست آمده در این مرحله به شیوه آمار توصیفی (نمودار صفات دوقطبی) و آمار استنباطی (آزمون من- ویتنی) با نرم افزار SPSS 19 تجزیه و تحلیل شده اند.
    نتایج زیر از پژوهش نظری و میدانی استنتاج شد:- بین دین و معنای فضای شهری ادراک شده در حالت کلی (مجموع جزء فضاها) رابطه معناداری دیده نشد، اما در مورد جزء فضاها، تاثیر مولفه دین بر معنای ادراک شده، قابل توجه بود.
    - طیف یهودی غالبا جزء فضاهای شهری را پویا، زشت و تکراری ادراک نمودند و فقط به کانون هایی متعلق به اجتماع یهودیان مانند فضای اطراف کنیسه ها علاقه نشان دادند.
    - مسلمانان جزء فضاهای شهری مورد مطالعه را دارای احساس سکون، زیبا و متنوع دانستند و دلبستگی بیشتری به فضاهای شهری چون پارک و بازار، نشان دادند.
    کلیدواژگان: معنا، فضای شهری، مسلمان، یهودی، جوباره
  • حمید اتقایی*، علی اصغر پیله ور صفحات 285-301
    عملکرد بخشی سازمان های متولی امر مدیریت شهری، برنامه ریزی و تقسیمات بودجه بندی دقیق و علمی شهری را با مشکلات عدیده ای رو به رو ساخته است که با ایجاد حالتی ناپایدار و ناهمگون، هزینه های هنگفتی نیز در مجموعه مدیریت شهری به وجود آورده است. بررسی های نظری پژوهش حاضر، برای حل این مساله، نشان از وجود یک اجماع نظر قوی برای گذار از ساختار تصمیم گیری جزیره ای و تفرق1 عملکردی قلمرویی به ساختار مدیریت یکپارچه شهری دارد. اما طراحی چنین ساختار پیچیده ای در شرایطی که مدیریت شهری در وضع موجود، ابعاد متفاوت داشته و نهاد واحدی نیز نمی باشد، نیازمند یک الگوی برنامه ریزی با بازه های زمانی مشخص خواهد بود. این پژوهش به منظور تدوین الگوی تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه در مادرشهرها، از سه مدل کیفی و کمی دلفی2 ،VIKOR 3 وSWOT 4 در قالب مطالعات توصیفی-تحلیلی استفاده کرده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که جهت تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه شهری5، برخی سازمان ها همچون شرکت گاز، برق، آب و فاضلاب، پست، مخابرات و نیروی انتظامی از اولویت برخوردارند و سازمان های دیگری همچون کمیته امداد، بهداشت و درمان و ثبت اسناد و املاک با توجه به معیار تقسیم بندی، به سهولت می توانند تقسیمات خود را با شهرداری هماهنگ نمایند. سازمان های آتش نشانی، اتوبوسرانی، آموزش و پرورش، تامین اجتماعی و دادگستری، با توجه به نوع فعالیت و معیار تقسیم بندی، انعطاف کمتری جهت هماهنگ شدن با شهرداری دارند. براساس مطالعه وضع موجود تقسیمات و عملکرد سازمان های متولی مدیریت شهری در محدوده شهر مشهد، فرآیند پیشنهادی جهت رسیدن به مدیریت یکپارچه شهری و نظام منطقه بندی هماهنگ، در قالب سه سناریو کوتاه مدت، میان مدت و بلند مدت ارائه گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت شهری، مدیریت یکپارچه شهری، برنامه ریزی شهری، تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره، مشهد
  • حمیدرضا پارسی*، بهراد فرمهینی فراهانی صفحات 303-315
    در دهه های اخیر، تلاش های فراوانی در جهت رفع بحران انگارگانی برنامه ریزی، در قالب گفتمان «خلاقیت» و تحت عناوینی همچون «شهر خلاق»، «طبقه خلاق»، «برنامه ریزی فرهنگی» و غیره شده است که به بحث خلاقیت به اتکاء طبقه متوسط خلاق، از زاویه بازآفرینی فرهنگی می نگرند. اما به نظر می رسد که عموم محققان، موضوع خلاقیت را از دریچه روند شکل گیری خلاقیت در ارگانیسم انسان ها مورد مطالعه قرار نداده اند. درنتیجه ، موضوع فرهنگ را به عنوان ابزار رشد صرفا اقتصادی به کار گرفته اند. این پژوهش در پی پاسخ به این سوالات است که، خلاقیت به عنوان محصول فرآیند آگاهی و اندیشیدن انسان، چگونه شکل می گیرد و چگونه در رابطه با محیط، تحدید یا تقویت می شود و فضای شهری، چگونه بر این فرآیند اثر می گذارد. بنابراین هدف این مقاله، شفافیت بخشیدن به رابطه میان موضوع خلاقیت و فضای شهری، به عنوان مهم ترین عرصه عمومی آزادی اندیشه، بیان، اجتماع و عمل بالنده آحاد جامعه بر اساس علم روان شناسی شناختی و جامعه شناسی است. فرضیه تحقیق آن است که اولا شخصیت غیرخلاق وجود ندارد و تفاوت افراد در میزان پشتکار و جستجوگری افراد است؛ ثانیا یک فضای شهری خلاق، بستر رشد، تبلور و تجلی خلاقیت آحاد جامعه است که امکان آزادی بیان و عمل و حیات مدنی دارند و انگیزه لازم برای کنش خلاق افراد هنگامی دائمی و پایدار است که شرایط متعادل اقتصادی، اجتماعی و حیات مدنی به گونه ای باشد که ارزش کار اجتماعا تولید شده انسان ها به خودشان تعلق گیرد. روش این مطالعه، تحلیل و استنتاج ترکیبی از گزاره های دانش روان شناسی شناختی است که در مرحله ترکیب، فضا به مثابه عین و خلاقیت به مثابه امر ذهنی در ربط دیالکتیکی قرار می گیرند و روش جدلی قیاس و استقراء توامان در گفتمان بحث حاکم است. نتایج این پژوهش، موید آن است که فضای شهری، عرصه ای عمومی و متکی به دموکراسی است که تجلی رابطه روان شناختی اندیشه ورزی و کنش اجتماعی است که می تواند بستر خلاقیت باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: خلاقیت، ویگوتسکی، فرهنگ، فضای شهری، شهر خلاق، شناخت
  • محمد تقی زاده* صفحات 317-328
    امروزه در عمده شهرهای جهان، تهیه برنامه های کاربری زمین شهری به منظور ایجاد تعادل و تعامل در توسعه بخش های مختلف شهر امری ضروری به حساب می آید. چنین برنامه هایی با تکیه بر دانش برنامه ریزی شهری برای دوره های زمانی مشخص و معینی تعریف می شوند. دوره زمانی تعیین شده برای برنامه های توسعه، بعضا سبب می شود این برنامه ها در طول مدت اجرای خود با چالش هایی مواجه شوند. مواردی که در زمان تهیه برنامه مطرح نبوده و یا با توجه به مقیاس گسترده برنامه از قلم افتاده اند از مهمترین چالش های تحقق پذیری برنامه های کاربری زمین محسوب می شوند. چگونگی مواجهه با این چالش ها بخش مهمی از برنامه ریزی توسعه فضایی را تشکیل می دهد. برخی از این چالش ها الزامات اعمال تغییراتی را در برنامه های مصوب، به ویژه در ارتباط با کاربری زمین مشخص می کنند. در این راستا، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نظام مدیریت تغییرات کاربری زمین پس از تصویب برنامه های توسعه در کشورهای بیشتر و کمتر توسعه یافته و تحلیل قیاسی با شرایط کشور ایران، تدوین شده است. روش پژوهش آمیخته شامل روش کمی دربرگیرنده شیوه توزیع و تکمیل پرسشنامه میان متخصصین حوزه برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین و نیز روش کیفی شامل شیوه تحلیل محتوای اسناد مدیریتی تغییرات کاربری زمین درکشورهای مورد بررسی بوده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که در هریک از اصول مرتبط با مدیریت تغییرات کاربری زمین شکاف میان سازوکارهای تغییرات کاربری زمین میان ایران و کشورهای مورد مطالعه به ویژه در زمینه رعایت قوانین محیط زیستی، مشارکت همگانی و دستیابی به همرایی میان کنشگران ذی نفع وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: کاربری زمین، مقایسه ای، تغییر کاربری، برنامه ریزی شهری، توسعه فضایی
  • سید محسن حبیبی*، سیده کهربا سید برنجی صفحات 327-342
    امروزه، هویت شهری انسان ها و خاطرات جمعی آن ها با بی توجهی روبه رو شده و انسان ارتباط خود را با مکانی که در آن زندگی می کند از دست داده است. فقدان هویت مکان و خاطره انگیزی آن در فضاهای شهری مشکلاتی در هویت فردی و جمعی شهروندان ایجاد کرده است. لذا می توان فضاهای شهری را طوری طراحی و برنامه ریزی نمود، که علاوه بر احیاء هویت و حفظ خاطرات گذشته، در شکل گیری خاطرات جدید نیز موثر باشد و بستر لازم را برای وقوع رویدادهای شهری فراهم سازد. میدان شهرداری رشت یکی از غنی ترین عرصه های عمومی شهر رشت است که با توجه به قرارگیری آن در مرکز جغرافیایی، تاریخی، تجاری و ترافیکی شهر، از ابتدای شکل گیری آن به عنوان محل تفرج، تفریح، تعامل و حیات اجتماعی مردمان شهر محسوب می شده است. اما در دهه های اخیر به دلیل تحولات اجتماعی و فرهنگی، افزایش جمعیت و جابه جایی ساکنان قدیمی و اصیل این منطقه در سطح شهر، این فضای شهری مرکزی و با هویت شهر به سوی از دست دادن ارزش های کالبدی و اجتماعی خود پیش می رود. بازیابی این مفاهیم در میدان شهرداری و گستره اطراف موضوع این پژوهش بوده و سعی بر آن است که با بازآفرینی ارزش های گذشته در کنار پاسخ گویی به ارزش های امروزی، از توانمندی های میدان شهرداری و جذب و تقویت حضور مردم سود جسته و با ایجاد محیط های خاطره انگیز و حفظ و تقویت عناصر هویت بخش، مرکز شهر را باز تعریف کند. براین اساس، سه عامل هویت مکان، خاطره انگیزی و مشارکت اجتماعی متغیرهای اصلی تحقیق را تشکیل دادند. روش تحقیق حاضر از نوع آمیخته اکتشافی بوده و از ابزار پرسشنامه برای جمع آوری داده ها استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد، هرچند بین خاطره انگیزی و مشارکت اجتماعی با متغیر وابسته هویت مکان رابطه مستقیم و مثبتی وجود دارد، اما شاخص خاطره انگیزی در افزایش هویت مکان تاثیر گذارتر می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی شهری، هویت شهری، خاطره جمعی، میدان شهرداری رشت
  • رامین ساعد موچشی*، کرامت الله زیاری، حسین حاتمی نژاد، رحمت الله فرهودی صفحات 343-353
    جهانی شدن اگرچه در کنار مزیت های اقتصادی، تکنولوژیک و غیره، کاستی هایی نیز در ابعاد مختلف دارد، اما در مجموع روندی ناگزیر است. شهرها به عنوان مرکز مدیریت جهانی، هم دستخوش تغییرات زیادی در جریان این فرآیند می شوند و هم اثرگذاری زیادی بر سرعت و ابعاد جهانی شدن دارند. پژوهش پیش رو با اهتمام به اثرات فضایی فرآیند جهانی شدن و متعاقب آن ضرورت های کالبدی- فضایی ساختار بندی مجدد شهری در پیوند با آن، در گام نخست به تحلیل بنیان های کالبدی- فضایی جهانی شدن و در ادامه با دسته بندی بخش خدماتی دانش بنیان به عنوان کارکردهای اصلی عصر جهانی، به بررسی و تحلیل شاخص ها در مورد تهران پرداخته است. در این راستا پژوهش در دو گام طراحی شده است. گام اول وضعیت توزیع خدمات برتر(APS)، شکل استقرار و گام دوم، بررسی شاخص های مکان گزینی و تطبیق وضعیت برخورداری کالبدی – فضایی این شاخص ها نسبت به شهرهای جهانی انجام شده است. محدوده مورد مطالعه، شهر تهران در درون محدوده شهری و جامعه آماری، در حدود هفت هزار شرکت ارائه دهنده خدمات برتر به تفکیک 7 دسته شرکتی می باشد. نتایج پژوهش در بخش نخست نشان از استقرار تک هسته ای و متمرکز این کارکردها داشته و در بخش دوم بیانگر بیشترین اثرگذاری دسترسی به خدمات مکمل (کارکردهای اداری و در کارکردهای خدمات برتر) در پیکربندی کالبدی کارکردهای این بخش، بوده است. همچنین به دنبال این شاخص، شرکت های خدمات برتر عمدتا در مناطقی استقرار یافته اند که کیفیت زندگی و هویت اجتماعی مکان در سطح بالایی بوده است. علی رغم این شکل استقرار، پیکربندی کارکردهای خدمات برتر در شهر تهران منطبق بر ضرورت های بازساخت در ارتباط با جهانی شدن نیست. تاکید بر بسترسازی فضای شهری به عنوان بخشی از ضرورت های اثرگذاری شهر در فرآیند جهانی شدن به عنوان بیانیه این پژوهش در پایان مطرح شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: جهانی شدن، بازساخت فضایی، شهرجهانی، خدمات برتر، تهران
  • حسن سجادزاده*، عادل شریفی، سعید سلیمانی، مجتبی خانیان صفحات 355-364
    شهر یا محله دارای جریانات اجتماعی و فرهنگی متنوع و مختلفی است که بی توجهی به آن ها، سبب شکست و یا توفیق اندک در تجارب و پروژه های بهسازی و نوسازی در ایران شده است. هدف از این مقاله، بررسی میزان تاثیر طرح ها و تجارب بهسازی و نوسازی در ارتقاء کیفیت محیطی محله های فرسوده و سنتی می باشد. محله جولان همدان، نمونه موردی مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش است. محله جولان همدان را خیابانی که از دل این بافت عبور کرده به دو نیم تقسیم کرده است که طرح های بهسازی و نوسازی در بافت شمالی اجرا شده است. این مقاله به دنبال آن است تا کیفیت محیطی بافت شمالی را با بافت جنوبی آن مقایسه کرده و تاثیرات اجرای طرح بهسازی و نوسازی را در کیفیت محیطی بافت شمالی ارزیابی نماید تا با آسیب شناسی علل توفیق اندک طرح های نوسازی و بهسازی، بتوان گره گشای بسیاری از مشکلات در تهیه طرح های آتی در بافت های سنتی شود. نوع تحقیق، پژوهشی–کاربردی و روش کار پیمایشی و از طریق پرسش نامه می باشد. حجم نمونه 393 نفرکه به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شده اند و اطلاعات از طریق نرم افزار Amos، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. تحلیل داده ها بیان گر این واقعیت است که کیفیت محیطی از دیدگاه عینی در فرایند بهسازی و نوسازی محله ارتقاء پیدا کرده است. اما در بخش ذهنی در دو شاخص سرزندگی و امنیت تغییر کیفیت چندانی مشاهده نمی شود و همچنین افت قابل توجهی را در شاخص پیوندهای اجتماعی نشان می دهد. بنابراین به دلیل آن که در بافت شمالی خانه های با هویت به آپارتمان های خشک و بی روح تبدیل شده اند، تسلط نظام ماشین بر پیکره بندی این بافت دیده می شود. بنابراین می توان عنوان کرد که میزان اثرگذاری طرح های نوسازی و بهسازی محله جولان در شناخت توقعات و تصویرهای شکل گرفته در ذهن ساکنان، موفقیت چندانی کسب نکرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: بهسازی، نوسازی، کیفیت محیطی، شاخص های عینی، شاخص های ذهنی، محله جولان
  • صدیقه لطفی*، گلنوش حریری، مجتبی شهابی شهمیری صفحات 365-373
    افراد در فضاهای شهری، به واسطه تنوع محیطی، به صورت خودآگاه یا ناخودآگاه قادر به کسب تجربیاتی می شوند که بسیاری از آن ها توسط حواس ادراک می شوند. اما سال هاست که برنامه ریزان و طراحان شهری، کیفیات این فضاها را انحصارا بر اساس ادراک بصری آن طبقه بندی و ارزیابی می کنند. خواه هدف از این توجه، تعریف فضاهای معمول با کنترل ارتفاع، جنس مصالح و رنگ ها باشد یا خواه توجه به تضادها و تفاوت ها در چشم اندازی جذاب از محیط شهری، حس بینایی همواره در اولویت قرار داشت. اما در سال های اخیر، توجه مطالعات مختلف به سوی حواس بویایی و شنوایی و در نتیجه فضاهای نامرئی معطوف شده است. درحالی که اغلب این مطالعات تمرکز خود را بر روی جنبه های منفی بویایی و شنیداری یا پدیدارشناسی بو یا صدا گذاشته اند. این مقاله نقش توقع افراد از محیط شهری را از دو جنبه بو و صدا، بر اساس تجربیات مردم و درک آنها از محیط شهری و تاثیر تجربیات و توقعات افراد از شناسایی این دو حس در زندگی شهری آنها بررسی کرده و آن را براساس فرآیند «ادراک با گذر کردن از مکان»1 تحلیل می کند. در بررسی تحقیق، توقعات حسی در درک فضایی در محیط و ارتباط انسان با فضاهای شهری بسیار تاثیرگذار تلقی شده و لایه های متفاوتی از درک از فضا را فراهم نموده اند. همچنین، درک بوها و صداها به خودی خود تحت تاثیر بافت محیطی که در آن قرار گرفته اند، تشخیص داده می شود. بنابراین، همان طور که در اغلب فرآیندهای طراحی و برنامه ریزی ترسیم سازمان های فضایی-ادراکی شهروندان با تاکید بر فضای مرئی امری متداول شده، توجه به فضای نامرئی نیز باید در این فرآیند نه تنها به عنوان غنای فضای حسی بلکه برای تقویت حس مکان درنظرگرفته شود. لذا توجه بیشتر، مکرر و جزئی تر به جنبه های حسی محیط شهری به عنوان بخشی اصلی در طراحی و برنامه ریزی شهری امری ضروری است.
    کلیدواژگان: توقع ادراکی، محیط شهری، فرآیند ادراک با گذر کردن از مکان
  • ابوالفضل مشکینی*، اصغر تیموری صفحات 375-387
    رشد شتابان شهرنشینی طی چهار دهه اخیر سبب شده است که فضای فیزیکی- کالبدی شهرها گسترش یافته و زمین های پیرامونی خود را که اغلب اراضی کشاورزی مرغوب و باغات می باشند را از بین ببرد و در بافت و کالبد خود قرار دهند. گسترش تدریجی کالبد شهر به پیرامون و دست اندازی شهر به اراضی کشاورزی و باغات، محدودیت ها و زیان های زیست محیطی خاص خود را تحمیل می کند. با توجه به اینکه ارزیابی روند گستردگی شهری و آگاهی از الگوهای تغییرات کاربری اراضی و به کارگیری نتایج آن در برنامه ریزی های آینده شهر ضروری می باشد، بنابراین ارزیابی اصولی را در این زمینه می طلبد که در این تحقیق سعی شده است این کار انجام پذیرد. روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و با به کارگیری تکنیک های به روز و کارآمد، گستردگی فضایی کلانشهر کرج مورد ارزیابی و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. اطلاعات موردنیاز از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای و استفاده از اسناد و مدارک، همین طور پیمایش های میدانی از محدوده مورد مطالعه گردآوری شده است. طبق نتایج حاصله از بررسی تصاویر ماهواره ای طبقه بندی شده مساحت اراضی ساخته شده کلان شهر کرج از 4904 هکتار در سال 1363 به 11305 هکتار در سال 1391 رسیده است. با این روند رشد طبق پیش بینی های صورت گرفته بر اساس مدل تلفیقی زنجیره های مارکوف و سلول های خودکار مساحت اراضی ساخته شده تا سال 1401 به 12954 هکتار خواهد رسید. نتایج حاصل از بررسی گستردگی شهری کرج با مدل هلدرن نشان می دهد که عامل جمعیت بیشترین تاثیر را در طی 28 سال گذشته در گسترش فیزیکی شهر کرج داشته است. به طوری که نقش عامل رشد بی قواره شهری را خنثی کرده است. همچنین مقدار آنتروپی شانون این شهر که به مقدار حداکثر نزدیک بوده، نشان از رشد بی قواره این شهر در مقطع زمانی مورد مطالعه دارد. عواملی چون رشد طبیعی جمعیت به همراه مهاجرت و تبدیل شدن شهر کرج از شهرکی به شهری صنعتی و خدماتی چنین، رشد شتابانی را به این شهر داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سنجش، گستردگی شهری، کلان شهر کرج، تصاویر ماهواره ای، آنتروپی شانون
  • زینب سادات مطهری*، مجتبی رفیعیان صفحات 389-401
    بحران ها رویدادهایی هستند که موجب بروز اختلال در کارکرد طبیعی جامعه و دورشدن افراد و گروه ها از نظام برنامه ریزی شان می شوند. این وقایع با توجه به ماهیتشان، می توانند به دوطیف طبیعی و انسان ساخت تفکیک شوند. اغلب حوادث غیرمترقبه (بحران ها) اثرات منفی و ناگواری بر جوامع انسانی، محیط طبیعی و اقتصاد می گذارند. همواره اجتماعات محلی اولین کمک کنندگان به آسیب دیدگان بلافاصله پس از وقوع زلزله بوده اند. بنابراین باید به توانمندسازی هرچه بیشتر آن ها مبادرت ورزید. با توجه به این مهم در این پژوهش مدلی به منظور سنجش ارتباط میان مولفه های اجتماعی تاب آوری و مولفه های مدیریت خطر پذیری بحران ارائه شده است. بنابراین مدل بعد اجتماعی تاب آوری در چهار لایه فردی، گروهی، سازمانی و شبکه ای در اجتماع محلی تحت عنوان سرمایه اجتماعی مرتبط با بحران مفهوم سازی و در هر سطح به صورت مجزا دو مفهوم ادراک خطر1 و مهارت های مقابله با آن بررسی شد. در سطح فردی نیز نوع دوستی، مشارکت و تعاون، اعتماد، باورها و ارزش های دینی و تعلق به محله مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در سطح گروهی فرآیندهای شکل گیری و مدیریت گروه های داوطلب واکنش اضطراری محله و در سطح سازمانی عملکرد نهادهای محلی بررسی شد. در سطح چهارم به مفهوم شبکه های اجتماعی محله توجه و مواردی مانند شبکه همسایگان، دوستان، خویشاوندان، بسیج، مساجد و هیات های مذهبی در تحلیل مدنظر قرار گرفت. توجه به مولفه های مذکور در هر لایه برای افزایش تاب آوری اجتماع در برابر بحران ضروری است. در نهایت با طراحی چهار پرسشنامه متناسب با سطوح چهارگانه، در یکی از محله های منطقه 20 شهر تهران داده های مورد نیاز برای تحلیل کمی فراهم شد. روش تحقیق از نوع تحلیلی- توصیفی و روش همبستگی است که ابزار اصلی مورد استفاده مطالعه ادبیات نظری، پرسشنامه و مصاحبه می باشد. به طور کلی می توان گفت میان میزان سرمایه اجتماعی مرتبط با بحران در سطوح چهارگانه اجتماع محلی و مولفه های مدیریت خطرپذیری بحران در سطوح مختلف رابطه معناداری وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت خطرپذیری بحران، سرمایه اجتماعی، تاب آوری، اجتماع محلی
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  • Sahar Bagheri, Alireza Einifar Pages 1-10
    The objective of architectural design, beyond responding to functions, is the expression of deep and thought provoking concepts in life and meeting perceptual need of man. In the process of architectural design, architects confront the scourge of transforming a concept to an architectural body. It is assumed that “concepts”, “values”, “beliefs” convert
    into matter by passing through several layers and means of functional linguistic or physical means, so it will obtain the affordance of converting into a physical body, and it is the same in architecture. Final architectural body includes different form and shape according to the architect’s decision making, his/her knowledge of sign-making and ability
    to apply them in his design. The purpose of this study is to explain the concept of the sign and its relationship with semantics in architecture domain and limiting the coverage and manifestation scope of signs in architectural design issues. The key question is “how the architectural implication of signs can be classified in the field of architecture and how can the boundaries between different kinds of signs in architecture be recognized and distinguished”. The content of this study is qualitative while literature review and theoretical studies on this topic were gathered through the library method. Then the data was processed and evaluated and the lack of transparency and borders in sign classifications
    in the field of architecture was clearly explained. This understanding led to defining a new relationship between different levels in architectural symbols. Regarding to that , we referred to different ways of architectural signifying. As this concept is rooted in semiotic science, reviewing some points to obtain an overall understanding of semiotics was useful
    for rooting exploration of architectural implications. In the following, sample works of architectural signifying were studied. The results of these studies are presented in extracted tables. Through these tables and the result of performed studies, some results are obtained as theoretical achievements of this research in the beginning and are summarized in deductive tables at the end. Many studies in the field of semiotics, in abundance, consider sign symbol in the same way. Moreover, in many cases, the lack of clear separation and distinction between index and symbols in the field of architecture causes many contradictions in architecture examples from the perspective of semiotics. In fact the boundaries between types of signs as well as clear and precise definition of the symbol are not provided. On the other hand, some theorists expressed the metaphors as signs in architecture but the exact location of metaphor in the context of architectural semiotics has not been expressed. All these studies led to offering a new classification of signs in architecture and the delimitation and clarification of manifestation and the inclusion domain of semiotics in architecture through an inductive table. So that, signs in architecture were classified in a range of foursome in the order of icon, Index- icon, Index and symbols. The exact boundary that makes it easy to differentiate symbol from other signs was defined. On the other hand, the relationship between signifier and signified in each of these four categories and their subcategories are mentioned and concrete examples are presented for the better understanding of these divisions. The other outcome of this article is defining and clarifying the position of metaphor in architecture in the same classification. When architecture is supposed to meet the performance and perception at the same time, it is manifested in one of three forms which are: 1. Iconic signs (Tangible metaphor), 2. Index-icon (Intangible metaphor) and, 3. Index (combinatorial metaphor). In addition, the hierarchy of sign importance in architecture is showed in this table according to the discoverability of meaning in architecture through different choices of signs. Furthermore, the meaning of symbolic architecture and symbol, as of one of the signs’ divisions in the field of architecture, was elaborated. Generally, Symbolic Architecture is referred to as Intangible Metaphoric Architecture by mistake. Symbolic Architecture is clarified in this article as a quite distinct architecture that is only responsive to the perceptual needs which is divided into two types of Mediated and non-mediated in its semantic aspect. Theoretical outcome of this article is useful for more accurate understanding of symbols in architecture. For instance, it can be used as criteria to identify and classify examples of architecture and as a guide in design stage to choose the appropriate strategy by the architect, as well.
    Keywords: Sign, Index, Icon, Metaphor, Architectural Signifying
  • Mahnaz Peyrovi, Mohammadbagher Kabirsaber * Pages 11-24
    During the recent years and following several decades of modern experiences in valuable urban texture conservation, Integrated Conservation approach has been considered as a more favorable solution by urban restoration experts. This viewpoint which covers extensive material and spiritual dimensions takes into account the commitment to supply current needs of the city and citizens along with the commitment to support the historical values. But having full knowledge of historical and site structure evolutions is one of the requirements for adopting this approach. The purpose of having such knowledge is to provide a background for a knowledge-based action in line with promoting the quality of the proposed plans; an issue that has unfortunately gained little attention in most of the contemporary interventions in the historical textures of Iranian cities. Historical texture of Iranian ancient cities is one of the main fields affected by the thoughtless and tactless developments. The measures that have been taken in these valuable regions, have often affected the historical and even functional identity of them. An obvious example of this claim is the inadvertent interventions in Tabriz Blue Mosque historical site, resulted in irreparable consequences for the historical prestige of the Two decades ago, i.e. in the early 70s (Hijri Shamsi), simultaneous to civil actions after war, the city governors with the consultation, cooperation and investment of a cultural institute in Tehran tried to destruct interwoven texture around the Blue Mosque. The purpose of this group in destructing the historical structures, was to bare, or in other words, clarify the physical appearance of the
    Blue Mosque in urban landscape; in addition, another goal was designing and constructing trading complexes around it in order to return the capital and interest. This project that had a high process speed at first and it was expected to end soon, suddenly faced with a crisis and got stop for several years. The situation was another manifestation of “development and conflict” discussion in the third world societies. Although project managers insisted on work continuation and completion, resistance and opposition of public opinions especially the cultural sympathetic strata of the city became a barrier to it. Generally, it should be mentioned that although this non-expertise actions did not merely focus on destruction of architectural buildings and heritage around the Blue Mosque, but it totally destructed a
    wide section of subsurface works hidden in lower layers. The present research has an environmental consideration and reflection while “Integrated Conservation” approach has become the basis of discussion in this. By understanding the mentioned issues we try to find an answer to the question: what is the role of layer study analysis in remaining traces from the excavation at surrounding site of Tabriz Blue Mosque in promoting the quality of the proposed plans for this site. This study has used a descriptive-analytical method of research and the findings indicate that more attentions should be paid by the programmers to this site which has a considerable antiquity dating back to Iron Age as a place in which human societies were settled during several millennia. The findings of this study further reveal that haphazard decisions in different districts of urban designing management have been harmful and evil for the fate of this site. If Integrated Conservation approach had been adopted to save and organize it from the beginning, the aforesaid site could now be an active and attractive cultural pole while preserving its true dignity. Now, for saving this historical site, it is necessary to provide a reasonable and long-lasting protection opportunity, from the viewpoint of Integrated Conservation approach.
    Keywords: Integrated Conservation, Historical Precedent, Layer Study, Blue Mosque
  • Saeid Hasan Pour Loumer * Pages 25-36
    Geometric designs (both normal and abnormal) and purely geometric interlaced patterns involve mental imaginary forms which are essentially superior to the perception- based naturalistic images. The patterns were not aimed to capture the reality perceived through the eyes, but they were supposed to create a glimpse of astonishing beauty in the artist’s creative mind or soul. Due to avoiding utilization of human figures and abstaining from idolatry, decorations have specific geometry in Islamic art and architecture. One of the striking characteristics of the knots (girih) that has caused to dynamicity throughout its thousand-year history is its regeneration and diversification of the diverse geometric properties. Girih tiles are used in Islamic art and architecture. Iranian Chinese Knotting is one of is one of traditional fields and professions that depends on geometrical patterns and on the first encounter, the spectator, is subconsciously affected by its discipline. Geometrical patterns, which are the source for the art Chinese Knotting, usually contain a polygon star in
    the middle (the Shamseh) and some other geometrical figures so that they can cover the remaining space. Chinese knotting is not specifically a certain decoration or a means of conveying the emotions of the artist, but also the point of making them regarding to two ways: acting on the basis of their own knowledge and guiding others towards this knowledge. When a spectator looks upon the works of Chinese Knotting, they’re first affected by its beauty and especially its discipline, but after some more contemplation they are driven into the art’s mystical meanings. Girih tile is a part of Islamic architecture and art while its different types are used in the following arts: Wood carving, tiling, plaster, Khātam , brick work, mirror work, stone work and in carpentry as fences, door and window, wooden decorations and wood carving of Minbar and in blacksmith Iranian architecture. Girih tile is an intelligent interaction of aesthetics and function. Islamic artists have applied local materials in accordance to the functional requirements and cultural issues of each region. The valuable examples of this art are observed in historical city of Masoule located in the mountainous area of Masoule in Gilan (Iran). Wood is one of the highly applied materials in traditional architecture of Gilan with its different types. One of the greatest arts is seen in the historical city of Masoule with Girih tiles. Wood is used in this region due to its climatic condition and the need to a good thermal isolation against heat and cold weather. Also, wood is the first material being
    applied in openings. Girih tiles decorations in this historical city are abundant in the buildings while their main façade is to the south. One of the advantages of using Girih tiles in openings of this historical city is to control the direct light in
    different seasons of year. The aesthetic aspect is on the second priority. The beauty of Girih tiles, their coordination and part to total tendency in all openings have improved the unity and beauty of the historical buildings of Masoule. Sash window, other meshes and Telar with combination of decorative plants in the façade of buildings in Masoule have increased the aesthetics of this city. Historical city of Masoule is a good model for sustainable architecture and its final aim is respecting the culture and friendly relationship with nature and improving the life style of its residents. In the current study, the effort was concentrated on categorizing the designs (Chinese Knotting) used in the neighborhood of upper Kash-e Sar in Masouleh. The factors that affect the designs have also been inspected. The results show that 13 types of Chinese Knotting exist and that the most used pattern in this decorations is the pattern of eight-and-four. These results also show that the four fundamental parts of Chinese Knotting of Masouleh have been modeled on cultural,
    religious and natural elements. The four common elements of the Chinese Knotting of Masouleh are as follows: The Shamseh (the sun), the eight leaved lotus (symbol of the circle of nature), Chalipa (the symbol of the four main elements, existence) and the circe (symbol of eternity, although in this particular design it is the symbol of trees and nature). The methods of the study were a field-based and direct inspection of the structures. Also the inspection of the decorations (Chinese Knotting) was done using library research methods.
    Keywords: Girih Tile, Historical City of Masoule, Gilan Province, Decorations, Islamic Architecture
  • Neda Rafizadeh* Pages 37-51
    Main objective of this paper, derived from a research conducted at the Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center, is to provide practical guidelines for “Design criteria for Handicapped-2nd Edition”. There are persons with disabilities in all over the world with different levels of disabilities. The number of persons with disabilities in the world is large and growing. The term “disabled person” means any person who is unable to meet the necessities of a normal individual and/or social life by himself or herself, wholly or partly, as a result of a deficiency, either congenital or not, in his or her physical or mental capabilities. Adequate space should be allocated for persons using mobility devices, e.g. wheelchairs, crutches and walkers, as well as those walking with the assistance of other persons. Universal design refers to broad-spectrum ideas to produce buildings, products and environments that are inherently accessible and comfortable
    for users of all abilities, ages and sense, including older people, blinds, children, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities. An accessible environment is one which a disabled person can enter and make use independently or with help from a partner or assistant, including being able to escape in sudden emergency accidents like fire. Nowadays,
    accessibility and universal design for urban environment is an important issue for the governments. The barriers for different disability groups varied greatly. Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. The pedestrian environment includes sidewalks, curb ramps, crosswalks, bus stops, signs, and street furniture. Designing the pedestrian for universal access enables persons with disabilities to live independently and lead full, enriched lives; they are able to go to work and to school, to shop, and otherwise engage in normal activities. Moreover, walking environments that accommodate people with disabilities improve walking conditions for everyone. In the recent years, the Municipality of Tehran has actively capitalized to pedestrians which are adapted for people with physical and movement disability, especially the blinds but the success rate is not high. Disabled people with requires level, clearly need easy access
    and careful attention in the design and placement of pedestrians. Therefore the walking environment should be safe, inviting and accessible to people of all ages and physical abilities and seamlessly connect people to places. It should be continuous, with complete sidewalks, well-designed curb ramps, and well-designed street crossings. Providing these requirements would also satisfy the needs of all other users, especially older people, people with heavy shopping/young children, and people with temporary impairments or low levels of fitness.Therefore, the following two questions arise:1- What are the reasons to undesirability of the adapted urban pedestrians?
    2- Which are the practical or suitable solutions for improving measures?
    To answer the above questions, based on the descriptive-analytical methods supported by theoretical studies, data collecting, case studies (Regions 2,3 and 6), and evaluation of the challenges and obstacles in the urban pedestrians available in Tehran we try to explore the possibility of providing effective and relevant solutions for the current design
    and adaptation of urban walkways. Finally, based on the research results, specific operational details were presented to prevent any personal preference perceptions of the existing regulations by executives as well as to provide coordination in the design and implementation of regulations on urban pedestrians, which is a factor to achieve personal independence and social rights. The results of this study revealed that despite the recent attention by authorities and planners, unobstructed, independent, safe and comfortable pedestrians are not yet accessible for all disabled people.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Pedestrian, Accessibility, Disabled People, Mobility Limitations
  • Ebrahim Solgi *, Behrouz Mohammad Kari, Rima Fayaz, Behshid Hoseini, Helia Taheri Pages 53-62
    Night ventilation is a well-known passive method for reducing cooling load of buildings with HVAC systems and providing thermal comfort by storing coldness of night in buildings’ fabric. This method is related to the properties of the thermal mass which are used in the building elements. While the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in night ventilation is a powerful method for reducing cooling load in buildings, in this article, the effect of PCMs as a lightweight thermal mass for reducing buildings’ cooling load is discussed. This research is carried out to compare the results of this experimental study with those obtained from simulation and logical analysis arguments. The studied building is an office building located in Yazd with hot-dry climate. In order to define warm period of the year with cooling load, a simple model with HVAC system is simulated while providing cooling during the day and free night ventilation during the night. At first, the main parameters that are related to night ventilation are analyzed and optimum conditions for starting night ventilation and fans ventilation with different ventilation rates are defined. Then, the effect of PCMs melting points are calculated, to select the optimal PCM melting point while cooling loads of the alternative models are compared with those of a model using common construction materials. Similarly, the amount of reduced cooling load for PCMs coupled with night ventilation is compared with common conditions in this system. PCM materials are those that melt and solidify at a certain temperature, and due to this phase change property, they can store a great amount of energy. The heat stored in these materials, related to their phase change characteristics, is more than that stored through temperature change (sensible heat). Then PCMs are more ideal as thermal mass in new constructions due to their weight compared with traditional heavy weight masonry thermal storage elements. In this study EnergyPlus 1 software was used as the simulation tool. To validate the software, the results of an experimental model in Phoenix, Arizona were compared with those obtained by simulation. The coefficient of determination between the results of the experimental model and simulated model was 0,93. Therefore, regarding to the weather data of these two locations, Yazd and Phoenix are very similar, then this model can be used for validation. According to the published researches, the best time schedule for night ventilation in Yazd office buildings is 24 pm to 7 am. In other words night ventilation is utilized, when outdoor temperature is lower than the set point temperature. In this regard the entrance of warm air into the interior spaces is prohibited and its negative effect on thermal comfort is avoided. Here we studied the effect of two PCMs with 27 and 29 degrees melting point temperatures and 10, 20 and 30 ventilation air change rates per hour during the working hours (8 am to 18 pm) on annual cooling load of the building. We found that when the set point temperature of the fans was adjusted above 30 degrees centigrade, the cooling load would be increased, therefore the results showed that 30 oC is the most appropriate set point temperature for the fans, which is the highest outdoor temperature for starting night ventilation. In the next step simulation was carried out using various PCMs with 19 to 29 degrees melting point temperatures. It was observed that PCM 27 has the best thermal performance in combination with night ventilation in Yazd office buildings. The phase change materials used in this research are Organic Paraffins. In the next step, the effects of various air change rates were analyzed on the cooling load. We examined the effects of 0 to 30 ventilation air change rates in 5 steps intervals. We found that the increase in ventilation rate will decrease the energy consumed for cooling during the working hours. The reason is the cooling down of the thermal mass in the model under study with regards to increase in night ventilation rate. The cooling load of the model including the energy consumed by fans shows that with the increase of the ventilation rate, the energy consumed by fans also increases, and resultantly more than 15 ach per hour increase of ventilation rate does not have a significant effect on reducing energy consumption which will cause draught inside the office building. The results show that through using appropriate PCM with desired night ventilation rate, we can reduce up to 47 percent of energy consumption for cooling load in the office buildings in dry-hot climate.
    Keywords: Iranian Contemporary Architecture, Iranian Contemporary Painting, Space, Parviz Kalantari, Seyyed Hadi Mirmiran
  • Amir Samiei *, Sahar Khodabakhshi, Manouchehr Foroutan Pages 63-78
    Iranian painting, without merely imitating the nature, has been trying to create ideal spaces for a long time. These spaces were exactly what the artist had in mind. Thus, except the periods influenced by Western traditions, no signs of naturalism can be found in Iranian painting. Instead, from ancient times, stylization, symbolism and decoration were common in the visual art of this land. The space derived from the mind of the artist is the fixed and unchangeable element of painting evolution which cannot be neglected in studies. This space is formed, processed and finally objected on the canvas. Space is the result of the relationship between the audience and the motif. It is a vehicle for conveying the inner structure of the motif which takes the viewer to a ride on the mental world of the subject, the painter. Whenever the space of the motif captures the audience and makes him synchronized with it, one can conclude it has played its role well and then this sweep will continually be repeated. A similar attitude toward the space has been differently demonstrated in poetry. A poem written by George Trakl, which describes a winter evening, uses concrete images that we all know them in our routine world. However, these images also imply on more general structures as the main title of the poem holds everything in this natural context. The importance of this research can be tracked in modern notions and understanding of different architectural and painting spaces in a given period. This research is done through examining the common deepest conceptual layer of these two arts; that is the relationship between the spaces of the two, the goal of the research can be achieved. This paper aims to shed light on the fact that in Iran the conceptual relationship between painting and architecture has been established and in the contemporary era, these two arts which were fed by one source transferred the same spatial concepts. Painting and architecture were always been together and, with exclusive features, helped each other out on the foundations and forms. Sometimes, painting becomes the initial idea of architecture and vice versa. Thus, spatial perception of the artist has helped to create space in a different way. The missing ring in their only irreducible common spaces is a space created in objective architecture, two-dimensional space, three-dimensional space, and virtual painting. This article investigates the representation of traditional architecture space in Iranian contemporary painting and architecture which can be seen in Mirmiran and Kalantari paintings. Through comparing the relationship of the concept of space between painting and architecture in the contemporary era, this paper intends to study the conceptual links between the two arts. The aim of the research is to achieve a common understanding of the painter and architect of Iranian traditional architectural space. Therefore, two artists who focused on the representation and interpretation of traditional architecture in their works and are considered as pioneers in this area are selected. To this end, three main categories have been examined:• The examination of the representation of traditional architecture and its concept in the paintings of Parviz Kalantari
    • The examination of the representation of traditional architecture and its concept in the paintings of Seyed Hadi Mirmiran
    • The examination of “the relationship and the link of painting and architecture spaces” in the works of these two contemporary artist
    This research utilized a perceptual and philosophical approach to study the space, in which the term “space” is used as the equivalent of “quality”, “expression” or “space impact”. The paper is based on a comparative study and a formal and iconographic, commentary analysis. In terms of artworks, the iconographic approach focuses on the meaning of the subject. It can be said that iconographic research focuses on content rather than form. The method has been arranged so that the influential factors on the formation of the space in selected paintings and architectures is examined and analyzed. Finally, the common features of Iranian traditional spaces representation will be expressed in the works of the mentioned artists. Comparative analysis of spaces in other Iranian arts in order to gain a better understanding and providing a more accurate picture of space perception in contemporary Iranian art is suggested for future research.
    Keywords: Iranian Contemporary Architecture, Iranian Contemporary Painting, Space, Parviz Kalantari, Seyyed Hadi Mirmiran
  • Fatemeh Sheikh Asadi *, Marzieh Kazemzadeh, Hashem Hashem Nejad Pages 79-90
    In modern architecture there is a sort of visual disorder. It lacks identity. The need is highly felt to turn to eclecticism to establish appropriate literature and designing principles. To achieve it, a sort of consensus among users are needed because what architects create is a potential environment for human behavior which can influence them. The users’ role is so great and their attributes can be the establishment of the architecture principles. It can be said that these patterns and principles are the factors that contribute to identify and distinguish the environment and turn it into a specific locality and neighborhood and form its place identity. Constituent elements and their combinations have the capability to associate meaning, create mental image, and form sense of place and identity. On the other hand, these features can be deemphasized or excluded. Planner as a person who deals with city or place anatomy, first directs his attention to external factors that influence on observer and then forms it in his/her mind. It is evident that everyone perceives the images that the planner forms in the environment. However, it seems that there is a great deal of similarities between perceptions of the same groups. These similar and common images which result from a great number of individuals’ agreement on the importance of a specific image are what attract a planner’s attention since the environment created by a planer is used by many. In fact, space users agree on what elements and patters are desirable and undesirable, what elements are bold in their collective memories and what are not be used to trace desirable behavioral and anatomical patterns. Environmental Psychology can be used to answer such questions. Many studies in Environmental Psychology have been done on issues like individuals’ cognitive – mental images of environment by focusing on constituent anatomical criteria of memorable, readable and understandable spaces in a holistic view of city. Lynch’s study can be named as a remarkable example in which he collected individuals’ mental images and by focusing on individuals’ plans, he attempted to understand their mentality of place and select the elements that lead to legibility and durability. In fact, in the area of environmental psychology and in particular mental image of the environment, by focusing on physical criteria of legible and memory maker spaces on an urban scale, many studies have been done, butthere are few studies on the importance of the criteria in scale of a building. Since the aim of this study is identification and comparison of effective elements in making the mental image of Shahzade gardeg in Kerman, the mental images of Statistical Society were gathered and analyzed by Delphi method. As a result, the effective organizing principles on mental images of visitors were recognized. The findings are analyzed and compared accordingly. Finally, we tried to develop the anatomical criteria which influence on mental images. This paper tried to answer two questions:1) What is the mental image?
    2) What are the organizing principles that effect on common mental images of visitors?
    This research used qualitative and quantitative methods and data was collected in a library and survival ways. Statistical population of this study was 30 female students of architecture that are in the first semester. They were asked to draw their mental images of Shahzade Garden. Then the Delphi method was used to image analysis. Finally, the results were analyzed. These results indicate some effective organizing principles on mental images of visitirsin the Shahzadeh Garden are: 1) the symmetry, rhythm and repetition in the building; 2) overall geometry of space and layout; 3) relationship between the main building, entrance pavilion and the linear path between them; 4) the difference in level existing in garden and the relationship between ponds and also water movement during its; 5) Some details such as stairs, rails and divisions doors and windows And other effective principles on mental images of this building are in next categories of importance. The result of this paper is just related to a case study of linear organization buildings. These results help to develop more appropriate and efficient design criteria as a link between architectural design and environmental psychology.
    Keywords: Mental Map, Environmental Perception, Traditional Architecture, Cognitive Map
  • Maryam Tabatabaian *, Sanaz Abbasalizadeh Rezakolai, Rima Fayaz Pages 91-102
    The effect of natural environment on child’s mind is one of the main issues in his/her life. Studies show that the childhood is the best time for the formation of personality and this time plays an important role in human life. Besides, Children’s environment is an effective factor on children development formation. It is suggested that through interaction with physical and social environment, children learn different knowledge and experiences. A review of findings also shows that physically and non-physically, environment influences on child’s creativity. According to the studies, Human beings considerably have creative ability which can be flourished by encouraging, providing opportunities and training while natural or built children’s environments are the most important factors in developing their creativity. Environment effects on children, their personality and creativity in different forms. Many researchers argued that children’s ability, developed perceptual skills, imagination and expressive skills is greatly improved by their relations with nature. Studies also found a link between play in natural environments and developed creativity. Many studies also support this idea that linking with nature can have positive effect on mental health and stress reduction. This relation may extend from plants and animals to inanimate objects such as streams, beaches, and wind. Also, link with nature occurs at many built environments scales, such as planting in buildings, windows views, biophilic building design, community gardens, and parks and green spaces. The purpose of this study is to review the recognition of natural environmental features which are effective for children’s creativity, and also to use them as a model to design the built environment for children. Built environment can influence on children’s creativity by not only the physical aspects, but also through its psychological organizations. The importance of this issue is noticed in the cities which emphasis advancing technology and living conditions without paying attention to the benefits of relations with nature. Meanwhile, this paper tries to find out: which features of the natural environment have positive effects on children’s creativity and which solutions can be derived from natural environment in designing the built environment for children, to enhance their creativity? This paper has been performed, based on a descriptive – analytical method and new research findings in the field of environmental psychology and architecture. The environmental psychological field profoundly studies the human psychological relations with the natural environment.
    This research area is based on numerous experimental studies and less speculative than the just-mentioned modularity thesis. One of the main topics of environmental psychology is the study of different emotional states in individuals. So, this paper reviews the opinions of prestigious researchers, and the relationship between them. To gather the required information, articles, studies, reports and related documents (the library documents) were used. The extracted results of the studies indicate that there are characteristics in childhood which increase creativity in children by stimulating. The literature suggests that imagination, curiosity, and play have an important role in the child’s creativity. It is said that child’s imagination is the basis of his creativity. Children have amazing imagination that child’s imagination is the basis of his creativity. Children have amazing imagination that reaches its peak at the age of 4-7 years, and with this imagination, they can change facts according to what is inside them. Curiosity, which is the dynamic key in learning, is another feature that can increase creativity in person. This feature causes children to explore and understand the space and stimulate their imagination. Playing is also effective for promoting children’s creativity. It is the primary mechanism through which children become familiar with their environment. Also the extracted results of the studies indicates that natural environments with structural features such as Coherence, Legibility, Mystery and Complexity influence on children’s mental health and their creativity. Also, regarding to the children and their environment, it can be concluded that, natural environments with features such as a variety of shapes, lines, textures, colors, high contrast, complicated details, stimulating the senses and motivation are the best environment for development of children’s creativity. Then, based on these features, environmental factors that enhance children’s creativity can be derived. These environmental factors can be used in children built environment to foster children’s creativity.
    Keywords: nature, Environment, Creativity, Child, Growth
  • Alireza Mostaghni, Shahrzad Etemadi * Pages 103-113
    Sense of place, is a factor that has a great impact on shaping human identity. An important part of individual`s identity in the society is established in childhood and is based on collective and spatial memories as well as subjective images which underlies many social and personal characteristics such as, anxiety reduction, self-esteem achievement and collective and interactive morale. As a result, sense of place concept and the factors contribute to creation of the sense, particularly in childhood years, are important subjects which will be discussed in this paper. One of the values of place attachment that are widely expressed is that it helps children to obtain their personal identity. In addition, attachment to a place provides an evolutionary advantage for children to achieve social and cognitive outcomes emotional aspects. The huge amount of children place attachment takes place through socio-cultural factors and in the context of family and community interaction. Also, according to today’s lifestyle and occupation parents, children usually spend hours of a day in communal spaces such as kindergartens and educational centers. Therefore, this study tries to provide practical solutions to design spaces such as designing cumulative and childish place which provide possibility of intervention with space for children. This article through reviewing literatures and by analytical -descriptive method has analyzed presented data and finally gave guidelines. The main purpose of this research is introducing factors that affect in shaping children’s sense of place. Then, by expressing the features of children in understanding the concepts of friendship at different ages, position of attachment to the place in formatting the identity will be discussed. Finally, by introducing the characteristics of places interesting for children, practical solutions to create a sense of place in children has been provided. Children show their dependence to a place when they are happy in that place and feel remorse or discomfort when leave it. So that place is not just for the satisfaction of physical needs, but also for its inherent qualities. At an earlier age, children have positive and negative emotions about their environment which ultimately lead to the formation of strong positive or negative images in their minds. As the activity is a major factor of growing and learning in children, while that is associated with the space and environment, it can provide complete development for children; therefore place should consist of enough support for the child’s optimum growth. One of the most important activities that have a great impact on the children’s friendship is game. Children like exploration to explore their surrounding world, so their environment should stimulate curiosity. According to the proposed solution, place and children during an interactive relationship with each other, share many factors to create place attachment. On the other hand, through the individual, social, cultural factors for children and action-interaction and physical factors for a place, sense of place can be provided. This process through the time and with the formation of memories and experiences in place increases satisfaction of child’s environment. The degree of satisfaction with the development of feelings of loyalty, commitment and sharing of their interests and activities can be detected in the environment and with peers groups which finally gives the children a sense of place. Also, by promoting the participation of children in care and maintenance of the place, they will be allowed to freely create and express their control of territory and special places. So they feel more responsibility for their own space, and even such conditions can provide children with playing a main role in designing of their place, such as creating decoration and furniture. In this case, they are not only as a consumer of space, but also a Resident. Through the participation of children it is created, in a game format to change their space like partnership in growing of plants, painting on the walls, and cooperation in desired change of space, sense of a place can be created. The purpose of the play-participation is not only entertainment, but also the meaningful participation of children in the form of the game is concerned. The results of the studies and correspondences, suggest a tremendous impact of active and interactive factors in form of play-partnership, on manipulating the place by child himself and his contributions for designing and creating spaces and individual territories.
    Keywords: Sense of Place, Fixation, Attachment, Identity, Partnership
  • Salaheddin Molanaei *, Sara Soleimani Pages 115-127
    Identity Crisis is one of the most important issues in today’s global society. Fading sense of identity is not limited to the field of architecture as it is evident in social and cultural areas. Architectural experts believe that, there is the Identity Crisis in Contemporary Architecture. Architecture is one of the symbols identities of each civilization. Iran has great traditional architecture. In this paper, the indices of the Islamic architecture and urbanism identity in Uraman Kurdistan region, at the western region of Iran, have been studied. Uraman, as one of the most important sections of Kurdistan is the origin of architecture in Iran (because of its special architecture). This study is performed by insisting on the ground, valuable mountain architecture structure and effective factors on theoretical basics, construction and traditional building materials at rural section. In the west and north sides of Iran in the mountain range branching from Zagros, there are structures which are counted as art and architecture experience of Iranian. This art are from the ancient age and shows the beginning of great history in Uraman. The simple technique and art which are created by the human behaviors with Islamic ideologies are recognized as architectural features in this district. In Kurdistan, There are simple amazing context which can be counted as real features architecture of this district. The features have contained the identity of the architecture while they need to be recognized. The framework of this research is Uraman village in Kurdistan province located in the west district of Iran, close to Zagros range. In traditional and rural societies, the pattern is guaranty of continuation of traditional architecture. This Pattern is outcome of cooperation between different generations in continuum years. The existing cooperation and common spiritual needs and many other related problems have caused creation of privet houses, public and social buildings with the special patterns. Knowing patterns and their continuation will elaborate the architectural principals and characteristic of the region during years. The correct knowledge of this type of architecture with the combination of new structural development will recognize the national and religious identity and prevent the recent identity crisis in architecture. Practical orientations on needs are the main characteristics of this village architecture and because of lacking enough fields for building, the houses have constructed in many steps. The dispute between human and nature is visible in these areas. The beautiful, firm and elevated structure of houses have been built by cutting mountain stones. Other features of the Islamic architecture in Uraman is the value and placement of the mosque while based on the Islamic texture planning, mosque is known as a valuable center of spiritual and has been built in city or village in some city spaces like Bazaar and public building around it. In the small texture the mosque amazingly has played such a role. Although the lack of flat ground in the village which led to a linier structure, it has been built in the best central location of the village. In the Uraman region construction architecture has less interference with the nature forms and all buildings have been built according to the slope and topography of the region. Architectural identity of the area reflects the principles and values of the fundamental principles of Islamic architecture and Persian effects in architecture and urban planning. In this paper special architectural features of the Iranian identity of the region of Kurdistan and especially rural architecture in Uraman are presented. In this context, the approach is to analyze the impact of the architecture principles and Islamic values and recognize of identity formation in Uraman architecture with an emphasis on residential structures. Results show that: new patterns of native and traditional materials, new materials and building products in construction industry can be achieved by combining technology and art Residential houses are designed and constructed consistent with the climate while this is the appropriate model of architecture over times. Today, sustainable architecture can be used in line with the principles of the new materials and traditional architecture. Regarding to our findings, some suggestions for future studies in this field were presented.
    Keywords: Uraman, Identity, Traditional Architecture, Symbol, Kurdistan
  • Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad * Pages 129-138
    Architecture as a socio-cultural matter has a lot to do with past as well as future. Therefore contemporary architecture is a matter of tradition as well as modernity. It is implicit and what we know about contemporary architecture is a result of what we have learnt from traditional architecture, architectural heritage and what were written about architectural monuments; while it is a catalyst to lead to a prosperous future. It is understandable that traditional architecture of Iran is a collection of talented designers who crafted these notable monuments and valuable buildings which survived through centuries and became a part of human history, intangible traditions and tangible international heritage. ICOMOS and UNESCO do lots of researches and development plans to safeguard traditional architectural monuments or natural heritage sites which have roots in past and let us know about their values and functions. To complete this task, Docomomo International (International Working Party for Documentation and Conservation of Buildings, Sites and Neighborhoods of the Modern Movement) as an international body, is to respect contemporary architecture, sites and monuments. Moreover there are some contemporary buildings which are listed in World Heritage List because of their distinctiveness, uniqueness and singularity. Literature review of the paper shows that “future legacy” plays a significant role in describing future architecture. Theoretical Framework of the paper is based on interaction of architectural performance and architectural monumentality in search for future architecture as a mean to meet future legacy in architecture. High-performance architecture might be recognized through following framework:I- Architecture: 1- distinguished architect, 2- uniqueness in architectural design, 3- high-technology and 4- uses and activity.
    II- Architectural Design Process: 1- client, 2- building codes and legislation, 3- public popularity and 4- Socio-cultural landscape.
    III- Programming and Planning: 1- team work and multi-disciplinary approach, 2- participatory, 3- flexibility and 4- comprehensive character.
    Based on proposed framework, a building might be recognized as a high-performance building, and then it might be seen as a candidate to become a “Legacy Architecture”. This paper aims to analyze and study contemporary Iranian architecture regarding to architectural performance in order to outdraw the silhouette of contemporary Iranian architecture and its relations to future legacy. The most important questions of the research are: 1- What is the framework of understanding performance of architectural monuments and level of their prosperity to become a legacy for future? 2- Which buildings in contemporary Iranian architecture might be seen as a future legacy in architecture? The methodology of the paper is based on quantitative as well qualitative approach. The selected methodology is to examine a theory – interaction of high-performance architecture and future legacy in architecture. The main frames of the paper are contemporary Iranian architectures from 1916 till 2016, as case studies. In order to answer the research question, two hundred of famous contemporary Iranian buildings and complexes which were built in 1916 until 2016 were selected purposely regarding to snowball sampling (chain-referral sampling). The results were strong enough to satisfy possible disadvantages such as community bias, non-random, anchoring, unknown sampling population size (while the samples were decreased from 204 to 200 in order to better categorization). The cases were examined to understand the level performance while they were known as a sample of high-performance architecture and their chance to become future legacy. The results of the paper show that some intervening issues like building owners, regularities and design guidelines, civic infrastructures and technical issues influence the level architectural performance. Quantitative analysis indicates that there are fifteen contemporary architectural monuments those who have opportunity to be called high-performance architecture and might be seen as close candidate of future legacy in architecture. It is demanded from recent generation to leave valuable legacy behind. The buildings which earn higher ranking in the examined list are those whish enjoy creative, timeless, exceptional, contextual, contemplative, mindful and meaningful design. The results confirm the desire and commitment to meet high-quality design in contemporary Iranian architecture to provide socio-culturally responsible buildings and to earn a world-wide reputation while other trends are such as temporary architecture, popular architecture, fashion design and signatory architecture do their business in recent decades as well. Success of contemporary Iranian architecture has been recognized with several regional and international awards.
    Keywords: High-performance Architecture, Contemporary Iranian Architecture, High-technology, Future Legacy in Architecture, Architectural Heritage
  • Mohammad Mahvash *, Reza Moradpour Pages 139-149
    Religion has played the most important role in individual and social life of human beings in all of pre-modern (contemporary) periods. Religious buildings always were known as the most important and valuable works of architecture in every civilization. During the modern era, architecture of mosques just like other buildings got great changes. The importance of the mosque and its transformation in the contemporary architecture, has become the concern of many architecture researchers. The subject of researches in this field, have been further explanation of the theoretical and conceptual issues, or physical descriptions of religious buildings rather than the mentality and subjective image of the people about the form of mosques. In the present study, subjective assumptions of the Bojnord people about favorable image of today’s mosque is examined. The questions of this study were as follows: 1) is there any significant difference between the opinions of different groups of people on ideal mosque? 2) Whether the existence and shape of the dome in a mosque, from public viewpoint, effect on the success of mosque? 3) How far the architecture of Bojnord contemporary mosques is successful and attractive, from the city peoples’ viewpoint? The hypotheses based on the questions, have shaped as follows:1) The public opinion on “the success rate of the Bojnord contemporary mosques” is significantly different in: a) different sex groups; b) different academic fields and different levels of education; c) different age groups. 2) People opinions about “the success rate of the mosques” is significantly related to their opinions about “the ideal shape of the dome”. This study was a descriptive survey and the tool in data gathering. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire, the ideas and comments of experts and professors have been served. The questionnaire reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Review, analysis and statistical inference of the replies, are done using SPSS17 software. The population includes all people living in Bojnord. The sample size was estimated 370, according to Morgan and Cochran formulas, 95% confidence level and margin of error of 5%. 311 questionnaires returned after distribution. The questionnaires has been distributed, as much as possible, in public places (such as markets, mosques, universities, offices, etc.) that includes all age groups, educational and ethnic as well as different points in the city; to ensure uniform distribution of the sample. The research results showed that: 1) most of respondents have a neighborhood scale subjective image, and a great mosque in an urban scale has been considered relatively less. The majority of respondents believe that there is a optimal distance between the mosque and the places of work and live, a maximum of 10 minutes’ walk. 2) Most people believe that ideal mosque would be “great and glorious” and the entrance of mosque had to be “taller than the adjacent buildings”; the prayer hall of mosque should have a height of “medium” or “high” and the ceiling should be “domed”. Most people, believe that a prayer hall with a “less columns (and by far)” is ideal, but the optimal diameter of the pillars of the prayer hall, according to the responses, cannot lead to a result. Also most of respondents believe that “usual and average” number and size of windows in the main prayer hall is better. 3) About the height of the dome, from the viewpoint of most respondents, a dome with a height of “medium” or “high” is ideal. Also, nearly half of respondents believe that the dome of mosques should still be built “like traditional domes”. Other respondents also believe that the domes had to be “in imitation of the traditional domes, but different”. Also most of respondents believe that “high” or “medium” minaret are ideal for a mosque. 4) “Courtyard (Sahn)”, “Dome” and “Minaret” have the most important elements of mosque, and “Garden”, “Pulpit” and “fountain” has been considered as the least important. More respondents believe that the success rate of Bojnord contemporary mosques were average, low, or very low. 5) Regarding to their opinions about “the success rate of contemporary mosques of Bojnord”, no significant difference was seen among two “sex groups”, (men and women), among “different academic disciplines groups” and among the “different age groups”. Also a significant weak relationship was seen between the opinions about “success rate of mosques” and “education level”. A significant relationship was seen between the opinions about “success rate of mosques” and the opinions about “ideal form of dome”.
    Keywords: Mosque Architecture, Contemporary Mosque, Desired Mosque, Subjective Public Image, Bojnourd City
  • Ali Yaran, Hossein Behroo * Pages 151-162
    By passing time and changing human’s life style, green spaces and nature are still considered as inseparable elements of human’s life, which have played an effective and necessary role in their lives. The aim of this study is examining these necessary elements. The first step is studying the impact of green spaces in the human lives and the result determines that green spaces are really effective while the effects include: psychological effects, cultural effects and sociology effects. The psychological effects consist of mental and emotional, physical and aesthetic impacts. In addition to spiritual, psychological and relaxing effects of being in nature or green spaces, Peterborough Gary, scientifically pointed an issue called “fitoneseid”. Trees such as walnut and pine release this substance into the atmosphere, which can make people happier while it is able to keep the two sides of the brain in a balance and make it calm and relaxed. In addition to pointed factors, the impact of colours of places on the users cannot be ignored. The colours are able to effect on human’s emotions and their different cognitive aspects. Red colour probably attracts much more attention than other colours so it makes people feel more activate, while green colour probably attracts less attention and can keep people calm and relaxed. About the physical effects of colours, there is an explanation: People who are working in industrial societies do exercise much less than others. Therefore for increasing physical activities, it is necessary to encourage people to exercise more. Attractive places, such as green spaces can encourage people to take part in these useful activities. For example, “Rajer Olrikh” based on a research on psychological effects of trees and green spaces on the patients’ recovery period at hospitals has realized that it is impossible to shorten the period of hospitalization by using the impact of green spaces. In the relation between those items, studies have presented that living in nature and natural spaces can create a positive impact on human’s cardiovascular function and decrease the stresses while being in nature will decrease the heart rate and make the body tissues relax, reduce blood pressure and increase the electrical conductivity of skin. Also, sociology and cultural effects lead to improve the social interaction and social relations of people living in residential complexes. This part requires a short explanation:Green spaces prepare the sense of social spaces and let people learn from each other, also let them show their personal and social talents and improve their spiritual aspects. Totally the green spaces prepare an atmosphere for the users to feel freedom and independence, while it is not provided at home or at office. Green spaces bring the natural environment into the urban environment and are able to change the harsh and artificial context of the city to a relaxing and pleasure atmosphere. Green spaces make a deep relation between people of society and natural environment, therefore make the city more habitable and more tolerable, which are basic factors for a sustainable society. In this article two samples of high residential complexes in Tehran are going to be studied, such as: Ekbatan residential complex and Navvab residential complex. Because of increasing the amount of buildings in this years and the lack of paying attention to human’s needs in high residential buildings and the effect of it on the user’s life quality and the importance of caring about residence’s spiritual needs, the green spaces must be considered more than before. Analyzing the satisfaction of these two building users with different amount of green spaces expresses:- There is a relation between increasing the amount of green spaces and satisfaction of people living in residential complexes.
    - Due to the style of group life or collective life in residential complexes, the green space is considered as an important element in increasing the social interaction and connection between the residences in this residential buildings.
    - Not also the green spaces positively effect on human’s spiritual aspects, but also they effect on their life-styles and behaviours, so the life quality and people satisfaction will increase.
    - The index of satisfaction of green spaces impact in Ekbatan residential complex is more than Navvab residential complex. It means that in the last years, people in these built and designed complexes have paid less attention to green spaces which can be an inseparable part of human lives.
    Keywords: City, Accessibility, Commute Mode, Babolsar City
  • Jahanshah Pakzad, Kaveh Einollahi * Pages 163-172
    Since the human perception of urban landscape components and the relations between them plays a determinant role in people’s valuation of environment, urban landscape has been become one of the most considerable issues of urban designers from many years ago till now. It can say that we have different kinds of factors which are influencing urban landscape directly or in an indirect ways. Through this field, color as a formal and impartible characteristics of environment, highly effect the pleasant of the place for citizens. Nowadays our cities and its various places present themselves as black, white and gray places. We forgot to count on how much colors can bring vitality and life to our urban places. Therefore, most of the times, colors which have been used for urban space elements, are neutral and uncoordinated, or at least they selected without any sense of meaning to each other and to the place they located in. in the other words, we do not use any kind of planning or designing for color scape in our cities. Meanwhile the city and its places bring some specific expectations in citizen’s mind, each color, related to its hue, brightness and intense, provides a deferent theme of the spaces and influences the audience in various ways. If the efforts of designing these spaces have no adaption to such features and expectations, confusion in the character of the place will be the result. Obviously this kind of confusion will decrease the tendency of standing in those places. In addition, it is obvious that in every culture and climate, there are some kinds of symbolic meaning for specific colors which means something deferent in other cultures and climates. Unfortunately, in Iranians cities this fact hasn’t been considered and we faced with imitation the foreign patterns in our cities. It brings many damages and challenges to the identity of urban places in our country. Also because of the unawareness of urban designers and implementers about the chemistry of color structure science, most of the colors which have been used in our urban spaces are inconvenient, and they do not have any connection to the meaning of the selected colors. That’s why sometimes our urban places become more and more unpleasant. One of the other dilemmas of applying color in our urban spaces is the variety of valid color products in quality and type at the market. Choosing an inappropriate color brings us many problems only after a short time, such as damages in surface and cracking or loosing ones real color because of the weather changes likes raining and sunshine. According to what is mentioned above, among the urban design guidelines which urban designers are using toward promoting the quality of places, a place oriented Urban Design guide is the goal this investigation . This design guidance includes most of the leads about the application of the colors in the cities and urban spaces with emphasizing on places and the colors features. The importance of colors in human’s living environment becomes more and more obvious. Urban color scape is one of the main attractions of city which is considered as a symbol of its character. Some believes that the city should be a colored canvas that reflects its character and identity. But unfortunately, the subject of urban color scape has been neglected most of the time. Urban color scape is not only in relation with outer urban scape, but also it has undeniable effects on quality of public spaces. Considering the importance of color in cities and their public spaces, the cities of our country are facing retrogression in this subject. Despite of some researches which have been done in this area, the blank space of urban color scape management is steel truly clear. This essay is going to provide a useable process or methodology to improve the quality of public spaces by designing their color scape. Towered this object, we need to introduce the “color palette” concept and the way to use this technique to suit a variety of spaces, expectation, and other aspects. It will give every urban space a specific guidance for color designing. Given the importance of color city scape in order to encourage citizens toward using that spaces and percept them, it is necessary to organize color scape design. In this research we will present the color pallet as a practical technique for designing urban color scape. Color pallet will give us an appropriate amount of each criterion for different urban places by studding urban color platforms and the expectations of urban places. Keywords: City, Accessibility, Commute Mode, Babolsar City.
    Keywords: Color, Color Scape, Color Pallet, Urban Design, Urban Place
  • Mohammad Reza Pourjafar *, Mansour Yeganeh, Maryam Farahani Pages 173-183
    The subject of this paper is comparative analysis of wisdom and philosophical thoughts and their effects on architecture and urban design. Wisdom and philosophical thoughts had great impacts on well-known buildings throughout the history. Artistic and architectural products are the appearance and materialized of various philosophical and wisdom thoughts, as an illustration of cultural and belief properties of nations in their history. In other words, art and architecture are historical authenticities which appear according to the influenced myths, nation’s recognition and hearts of ages. Research method of this paper is documental and descriptive- interpretative. Logical argument and quantitative analysis are used for documents and texts. Wisdom and philosophy as thoughts and west and east architecture are analysis units in this study. Results show that philosophical and wisdom had fundamental affects on forming architectures in all areas although the nature of the affects and origins of these thoughts have differences. The investigation of various philosophers’ thoughts in general and eastern ones in particular does not indicate any specific separation between these thoughts and the influences they created. The aim of this article is to study concepts of philosophy and wisdom and elaboration on the specifications of thoughts eradicated in philosophical and wisdom concepts of Principles in more details. We also try to indicate the peculiarities of art, artists, and artistic works influenced by these thoughts. These two types have differences in their aspects: attainment condition to the truth, method of attainment to the truth, conditions of attainment, affect kind on subjective, kind of value, audiences, attributes, rate of immunity, main origin, kind of perception, related knowledge, inclined perceptive kind, method of expression, recognition tool, origin source, area, kind of plan, approach, attitude, subject, method, objective, desired object. Wisdom is not a philosophy, but there is a relationship between them. As they have common parts, we can say theoretical part of wisdom and Islamic part of philosophy are the same. Regardless of human thoughts’ kinds, they are related to recognition of existence and accompanied by religious believes. So, the oldest philosophical thoughts are searchable within eastern religious thoughts. Results indicate the essential differences between philosophical and wisdom thoughts, and also artistic and architectural works in west and east, are that they are more influenced by philosophical and wisdom thoughts. Art from the viewpoint of west- east has orderly these features: art - profession, realistic- symbolic, modern- tradition, industry -craft, new science- tradition knowledge, quantitative- qualitative approach, learning techniques based on new science- learning mystery based on tradition knowledge. Features of west- east artists are: artists- craftsman, innovation based on creativity- innovation based on origins and roots, physical ability- spiritual merit, rebellion- succession of good, collective interest- individual impression, globalist- regionalist. Based on these features, artistic works in west- east world has these characters: unsacred- sacred, non –religious- religious, materialistic- spiritualistic, terrestrial –heavenly, superficial- deeply, no origin- origin, subsistence- eternal. Eastern art and architecture especially Iranian art and architecture have been affected by theology thoughts and founded on intuitional and praising experiences. Western art and architecture are appearance of philosophical thoughts and experiment and reasoning. From the viewpoint of wisdom, perception of architecture and its elements have two dimensional aspects. One dimension is materialistic appearance of architecture and the other one is recognition of spiritual, mystical and intuitional world of designers and users. In other words, any perception of this kind of art architecture is only possible by perception of heavenly and this world of artistes and audiences. Perfection architecture in each period have been affected by superior thoughts which lead fortune speech to form permanent face. In Iranian architecture, shaping of physical spaces has been affected by wisdom and philosophical thoughts in several ways. In one side, physical space has formed based on cultural context, thoughts, customs, traditions, and life values. In other side, collection of signs, symbols, concepts and images raised form myths, customs, and ideal have formed Iranian thoughts in physical spaces.
    Keywords: Expression, Wisdom, Philosophy, language, Differentiation, Similarity, Meaning, East, West
  • Arash Saghafi Asl *, Esfandiar Zebardast, Hamid Majedi Pages 185-197
    Urban design approach to prepare and implemente an urban general planning scheme leads to uncoordinated city form and pattern in terms of packaging spontaneously a series of detailed planning schemes of various and diverse environmental neighborhoods such as residential, industrial, commercial, institutional and etc. Urban design involves the arrangement and design of buildings, public spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities. Urban design is the process of giving form, shape, and character to groups of buildings, to whole neighborhoods, and the city. Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many trends of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. On the other hand, Implementation tools offer different mechanisms for the delivery of proper quality in urban design outcomes whileare used by a range of professionals to manage, motivate and organise urban design projects. Unlikly, the implementation tools focus on the means of making good quality for urban design projects. Implementation tools can be considered through all stages of an urban design project. A number of the tools focus on discussing and resolving design issues before the construction of a project. Implementation tools can help clear roadblocks in the design process, provide collaborative management structures, and develop creative design solutions. Also, Project implementation (or project execution) is the phase where visions and plans become reality. This is the logical conclusion, after evaluating, deciding, visioning, planning, applying for funds and finding the financial resources of a project. After you have carefully planned your project, you will be ready to start the project implementation phase, the third phase of the project management is life cycle. The implementation phase involves putting the project plan into action. In this phase the project manager will coordinate and direct project resources to meet the objectives of the project plan. As the project unfolds, it’s the project manager’s job to direct and manage each activity, every step of the way. That’s what happens in the implementation phase of the project life cycle: you follow the plan you’ve put together and handle any problems that come up. The implementation phase is where you and your project team actually do the project work to produce the deliverables. The word “deliverable” means anything your project delivers. The deliverables for your project include all of the products or services that you and your team are performing for the client, customer, or sponsor, including all the project management documents that you put together.The steps undertaken to build each deliverable will vary depending on the type of project you are undertaking, and cannot therefore be described here in any real detail. For instance engineering projects will focus on using equipment, resources, and materials to construct each project deliverable, whereas computer software projects may require the development and implementation of software code routines to produce each project deliverable. The activities required to build each deliverable will be clearly specified within the project requirements document and project plan. Project implementation must be carefully planned, managed and monitored if activities are to be successfully implemented on schedule and produce the intended outputs and outcomes. Along with the movement in the world, recently, some projects are called “urban design projects” which are running in different parts of Iran, especially in Tehran. These projects aim to improve the quality of our urban environment and urban spaces. Urban design projects with the aim of improving the quality of urban spaces have been considered as Iran’s urban development plans since the early 80s of Hejri Shamsi and different experiences have been passed. However, no assessment has been made for their conditions. The present study aimed to evaluate implementation of urban design projects as one of the urban development plans. For this purpose, we reviewed several documents and relevant literature to initially develop an evaluation framework and then, identify primary criteria and indicators using analytical- comparative methods, review of documents and similar opinions of other scholars. These criteria and indicators were elaborated and fulfilled through an interview with experts so as to localize and conform to Iran’ context. Finally, the significance and contribution of each criterion and indicator was determined via a questionnaire for the main actors of urban design projects in Iran (especially Tehran) and then evaluation was performed. The findings of the present study indicated that under the current circumstance of urban design projects in Iran, the degree of implementation is semi-appropriate to poor.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Implementation, Urban Design Project, Iran, Tehran
  • Sara Daneshmand *, Mehran Alalhesabi Pages 199-213
    All of the studies which focused on the relationship between humans and the environment, state that both of them influence on each other. Sometimes these affects are physical, functional, cognitive, or sensitive. These subjects are the topics for many studies. For example way finding problems in space led researchers to evaluate the spaces in order to improve wayfinding performance. Some of these methods are objective which surveying the fabric of physical environment, and the others are subjective, which discuss one’s mind (cognition and emotion) in wayfinding. Because of the difficulty of obtaining the sensitive data, few studies have fallowed this topic. In this field, there are some good basic theories that could be useful for researchers. According to the one of most useful theories which is used in many environment studies, there is a spectrum of similar words which totally shape personal sensation in each place. These words are used to express person’s emotions in the environment and also the interaction between them. So, there are many different terms to express emotions. Similarities and differences between them are considerable. A good performance in the environment needs optimal values of the emotional factors. Literatures state that in the field of emotion studies any words to describe places can be defined by two dimensions, “arousal” and “pleasure”, in a circular model. In order to create and maintain a good sense of place, the hypotheses are allocated to show that how an optimal range of values for emotional variables create. Because of the limitation for random sampling, in this study method of quasi-experimental research is used and the case study of Shiraz traditional bazaar has been tested by asking the participants to participate in paper- pencil tests. The research involves several steps: after a short introduction, based on the research literature, the research questions are stated. Then defines the key words and describes the topic being discussed: First, by non-random sampling, samples are collected from architecture students. 30 students spend about 2 hours in the bazaar’s environment. After 1 hour way finding and exploration in all of the bazaar’s paths using a list of bazaar’s paths names, they asked to draw a mental map of the bazaar by drawing and naming its nodes and paths. After data collection, by those drawn maps, a map of the bazaar’s known nodes and paths is drawn. This map is used as a basis for the evaluations. Secondly, with the help of “Space Syntax” theory, by means of its software (depth map) analysis, axial lines are created for each path. Based on the Similarity which appears in physical environment, bazaar’s paths are divided into 14 groups. In each category of Shiraz traditional bazaar’s axial line, the students are asked to answer the same questionnaires. Based on these questionnaires, the results are extracted from the statistical method. Therefore the amounts of participants’ emotional variables (arousal and pleasure) are measured. Then to use a network of emotion, adopted from Russell et al., the relationship between these two variables is evaluated by means of the correlation method. Afterwards the study states that using the “affect grid” becomes possible. In third step, the bazaar’s paths which are recognized by students are categorized and their positions are determined by the network. After that based on the researchers’ studies a new term, “the optimal positioning range”, is defined and a Geometric method is presented to express this range schematically. After performing this method on the network (affect grid) convex polygons appear, separate the networks and fill all of the two-dimensional emotional spaces which have positive pleasure. All these steps perform to determine the appropriate values for “arousal” and “pleasure” in each bazaar’s path, in order to create and maintain a good sense of place. After all priority areas are addressed to help improve the emotional conditions. According to this paper 4 priority areas are defined. Their definitions are closely associated with the proximity to the convex polygons cores.
    By means of this kind of evaluation on a system (A set of functional spaces), it will be clear that each path (axial line) is in which emotional position toward its function, emotionally. So this evaluation can show if it is in a good emotional condition or not. Finally, it should be stated that factors that makes the results of this study different from the others are considering the complex (bazaar) as a system, also introducing a schematic emotional way to show the allowable range of values, and determining operational priorities to improve the emotional state of the whole system.
    Keywords: Emotional Affect, Affect Grid, Optimal Discrepancy, Voronoi Diagram, the Optimal Positioning Range
  • Kamran Zekavat *, Yasaman Sadat Dehghan Pages 215-224
    A city’s public realm is territories and urban spaces which facilitate people’s presence while are benefited by individual and social activities. For a comprehensive definition, public realm is the inclusive, accessible urban places during the 24 hours of the day that provides a ground for social interaction and association. Designing and shaping a public realm is one of the main attentions of urban design. From the beginning of 60’s, many architectures and urban design pioneers such as Jane Jacobs, Francis Tibbalds, Tridib Banerjee,…have talked about the decline of the public realm and even the death of public spaces, mentioning the constant reduction of quality as a cause. With a brief look at the results of modern cities and opinions about improving the public realm, we can distinguish the qualitative factors affecting the quality improvement of public realm. Facilitating the presence and movement of automobiles cost a lot for the modern city. As a result, urban spaces were invaded and dominated by cars and pollution. Jane Jacobs believes that urban planners failed to accommodate cities and cars. Le Corbusier, one of the pioneers of modern architecture and urban planning tried to make car-oriented planning as an inseparable part of his designs by creating large scale express ways and fast physical changes in response to functional needs. But according to Jane Jacobs the result wasn’t anything but the loneliness and uselessness of open spaces. Similarly Tibbalds considered too much attention towards cars as a cause of cities and urban environmental decline. Extinction and decline of the public realm as the spaces for people’s public and civic life results in anti-social behavioral, unwillingness to association and social cooperation, reduction of social diversity, social abnormalities, frustration and indifference towards the public realm, environmental pollutions, physical and psychological health reduction, fragmentation of spaces and placelessness. So apparently the famous modernism motto “form follows function” had faced a serious defeat because the improvement of the quality in the two dimensions of form and function although it was not enough to create a place in the public realm and it seemed other dimensions should be taken into account. With the emerge of concepts such as semantics and semiotics in literature and linguistics and their introduction to other disciplines, architecture and urban planning and design did not stay away from these concepts either. Accordingly people like Robert Venturi, Scatt Brown, and Kevin Lynch believe that every phenomenon has a third component named as ‘meaning’ besides form and function which was forgotten or denied completely by functionalists completely. On the other hand people like Jon Gehl, William Whyte, Jacobs and others emphasized greatly on the social content of the public realm since its people who are the embellishment and constructors of the public realm. So it is hard to percept space without its social content. Therefore improving the quality of a public place is dependent on quality improvement of social and semantic components of the public realm which has two components of function and form. A public realm that considers the improvement of every quality aspect plays an important role in different aspects of human life and vivacity and favorability of citizenship. In social dimension while civil life provides a context for social interaction it can improve social abilities, sociability and decrease antisocial behavior and even crime. On the other hand such a realm encourages social events, conviviality and tourism. Since a quality public realm provides the possibility of daily physical movement, cycling and running, in the health related aspects, it entails a longer life span, decreases in stress levels and depression, shows lower risk of heart attack, diabetes, cancer, and bone problems. The fulfilled civil life requirement from an environmental point results in the development of a sustainable public transport which is followed by improvement of air quality, opportunities of different species life quality, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, pollutions and acidic rains. Regarding the economic aspects, urban vitality causes progress in the implementation of regional economy, land value and investment increase, business and occupation success and tourist attraction. This article intends to present a comprehensive model of the qualitative components of public realm by analysis an uprising the opinion of theoreticians and the existing literature. The model demonstrates that in order to improve and achieve the quality of public realm there is a need for a sustainable process with the contribution of a constant design led management.
    Keywords: Place Making, Vitality, Sense of Place, Image Ability, Design Management
  • Leila Rahimi *, Mojtaba Rafieian, Mohammad Bagheri Pages 225-236
    Three main components of a place form this construct: evaluations, activities, and physical attributes. Place attachment involves positively experienced bonds, sometimes occurring without awareness, that are developed over time from the behavioral, affective, and cognitive ties between individuals and groups and their socio-physical environment. Weakening of human- place transaction is related to globalization, place mobility and environmental problems, bond and attachment to place (General Psychology) and behavioral issues. A general model of neighborhood attachment undoubtedly requires analyzing person-environment transactions by considering a larger amount of neighborhoods, in order to control the effect of specific areas. The research method is a descriptive-adaptive survey based on the study of documents that has been recently published in the context of measurement of places attachment. At the same time, a preliminary study has been performed in order to further recognize the location of the target place as well as to analyze the physical and social issues of that place for sample selection. The sampling of residents has been done with the method of clustering in which one hundred people have been chosen. In this study, the dependent variables are the place attachment (cognitive and emotional aspects) and the scale of the location (region and city). The neighborhood attachment is embedded in the relationships between physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects of people-residential environment transactions. The cognitive component of neighborhood attachment is multi-faceted, being related to architectural, social and functional features. The affective component of neighborhood attachment increases with a growth of pleasant and arousing places, and the decrease of gloomy places in the neighborhood and the behavioral aspect has to do with the possibility to find places for socialization and leisure activities. Understanding the relationship between place attachment and place identity and activity characteristics is useful for planners, urban designers in making livability the meaningful urban places. The main aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between people and their residential environment by construct of place, in order to get indications for neighborhood improvement coming from real experiences for residents. The few studies considered more than one type of place demonstrate which means that attitudes towards place and their predictors may differ depending on the place scale. The previous researches reported a curvilinear, U shaped, relationship between scale of place and strength of place attachment. Neighborhood tended to attract fewer emotions than home or city. This paper is trying to study the theories and the organized framework of “place attachment” model. It also presents the findings of new researches about socio-demographic factors that influence on place attachment, its relationship to identity and place dependence and models for evaluating assumptions. The results to measure the validity and generalizability of items and dimensions of “place attachment” model, provide identity and place dependence as two dimensions of place attachment that the model, in three forms (people, dimensions and areas) are different and in the items of dimensions are generalizable. More, the finding of tests conducted in the central neighborhood of Tabriz showed that residents of historical-central areas feel more attached to their neighborhood and this effect cannot generalize to the attachment to the city. We found that there is direct relationship between cognitive and emotional dimensions of attachment to the neighborhood. The social-meaning factors in neighborhood scale and physical factors in city scale are such factors that influence on the place attachment. In addition, the residents in this neighborhood are mainly from a medium-low class, and this probably affects the choice of the residential environment, their cognitions, affect, and activities. Applicable solutions of the place attachment model in the sample of residential regions, especially in the cultural and historical contexts, indicates that considering the indexes of cognitive aspect of the model, it requires to create memorable spaces and increase the knowledge of people about their region in order to increase the place attachment of people to their region. On the other hand, making the physical spaces legible, for example removal of unrelated functions, making sufficient lightening with the aim of increasing the sense of security, increasing the green spaces, decreasing the closeness and limited visibility (Pattern or scheme), as well as the preservation and restoration of historical and cultural value of neighborhoods, for example rehabilitation of the neighborhood center, restoration and improvement of gates, Sorkhab market, improvement single monuments to maintain their identity and making self-confidence (the results of attachment to place) in the residents of neighborhoods and historical neighborhoods are meaningful for their residents.
    Keywords: Place Attachment, Socio-demographic Factors, Neighborhood, City
  • Pooyan Shahabian *, Seyedeh Farzaneh Larimiyan Pages 237-248
    People experience spaces not only by seeing them but also by listening. Soundscape is mainly related to forming a mental image of the living environment, including culture and personal past experience. The components of the sonic environment need to be identified and meanings should be attributed to them. The idea of soundscape refers to both the natural acoustic environment, consisting of natural sounds, including animal vocalizations and, for instance, the sounds of weather and other natural elements; and environmental sounds created by humans, through musical composition, sound design, and other ordinary human activities including conversation, work; and sounds of mechanical origin resulting from use of industrial technology. The disruption of these acoustic environments results in noise pollution. Every urban area has its own soundscape. It can be stated that soundscape is a significant contribution in the environmental quality. Each city may have a rather unique acoustic profile, the composition of specific natural sounds, signals and noise. The effects of noise pollution can cause a hearing problems, heart problems and social problems. The experiences of programming in many cities is eloquent of its inefficiencies in reducing the noise and relevant issues to soundscape of environment generally after project ending or in the best form in the last step of programming is taken to the attention. While the main goal of urban designers is to promote the quality of urban environment, but it seems at least till the end of 20th century that the main concentration has been paid on visual aspects and less attention to the audio aspects in urban atmospheres. The soundscape approach to environmental sound is a new paradigm focusing on making the urban sound climate an integral part of urban design, city planning, and architecture. The founder of the word “Soundscape”, R. Murray Schafer, coined the term soundscape and emphasized the importance of identifying pleasant sounds and using them to create healthier environments. He described how to classify sounds, appreciating their beauty or ugliness, and offered exercises (e.g. ‘soundwalks’) to help people become more sensitive to sounds. The dynamic sound perspectives in the urban environment, such as sonic diversity and acoustic ecology, are still very much neglected aspects in planning and architectural design. We are all in general largely unaware of the importance of sounds for how we perceive the quality of a place and a good living environment. Whenever urban sound is on the agenda, the topic is primarily noise abatement and legislation to reduce noise. While the designers create the places with new activities through space designing they can play roll in optimizing the soundscape. Noise Pollution is one of the current problems in cities including Tehran, which has harmful effects on people’s physical and mental health in the society. Some countries have adopted legal measures to control and eliminate the noise pollution. Since, there is no conducted research relating to the legal status of noise pollution in Iran, a comparative analysis of the laws and regulations of Iran and a few selected countries can be helpful for finding the shortcomings of the pollution control in Iran and Tehran. Valiasr Street is a tree-lined street in Tehran, Iran, dividing the metropolis into western and eastern parts. It is considered one of Tehran’s main thoroughfares and commercial centers. Given the history and reputation of Valiasr Avenue in Tehran, sound of water and birds in the street was a sense of identity of it, but by passing time and vehicle increasing, soundscape of Valiasr Street totally changed and sound of vehicles and other artificial sounds dominance the soundscape and now it does not have a demanded soundscape at all. But in terms of audio quality and experience this street by listening, some concepts could try to revive the past. In this survey besides analyzing the scientist’s theories and designers about the place of soundscape in quality of urban spaces and human perception, defines the importance, place and necessity of attention to the soundscape in urban design, we study the soundscape of Valiasr street with sound walk, noise map and questionnaire methods and consequently we expanded the principles that help the design improvement. We will elaborate a bit further on the qualitative aspects of sounds and how innovative design may contribute to acoustic environments that people perceive as enjoyable and less stressful. But the challenge of how we may create an enjoyable acoustic milieu needs to be approached in much more creative ways. In terms of audio quality and experience the city by listening, some concepts could try to revive the past.
    Keywords: Soundscape, Noise Map, Soundwalk, Human Perception, Valiasr Street
  • Manouchehr Tabibian, Mir Jalal Mousavi * Pages 249-262
    Peace of mind, exhilaration and existence of vitality are the most important requirements of spirit which indicate the quality of living spaces. Due to the heterogeneities and visual pollution, most of the cities are observed as a gloomy and senseless spaces, while from the beauty point of view, they do not transfer any kind of concepts. Nowadays, city views have become undesirable as a result of visual heterogeneities and no attractiveness and beauty are behind them. The most important factors for making human life more pleasant are: “creating peace, beautifying the spaces, reducing the pollution and regulating urban graphics and visual arts” besides protecting the society against psychological harms. The main objectives gain to feel the beauty, attraction, peace of mind, exhilaration and vitality in all aspects of urban design and also combine them in the urban space, especially in public spaces while transmitting the same feelings to the people. This study aims to investigate the effect of beautification and promotion of environment quality on urban vitality. The primary researches and theoretical studies are led to the following hypothesizes:1. There are some relationships among pollution, heterogeneity and visual turbulence of urban view and vitality.
    2. The beautification, improvement of urban quality and identifying the public environments can increase the urban vitality.
    Within the theoretical framework, the concepts of city view, beautification, urban art, different aspects of visual pollution (color, light, visual and symbolic) and the quality and vitality of urban life were explained. By establishing cause and effect relationships, the analytic pattern of this study was set up, then the case study namely Maragheh Garden City, was investigated and the study areas were selected. The obtained results, after designing a questionnaire for investigation the research objectives, hypothesizes, research questions, and their analysis revealed that there was a relationship between visual pollution and urban vitality. Moreover the quality of the study area was quantified using the maps of the Statistics Center of Iran. The output was produced in the form of GIS maps, then the amount and the intensity of visual pollution in urban areas were specified, and finally the areas experiencing visual pollution were determined based on GIS data and according to these maps the considering range were selected for planning and policy making. After reviewing and recognizing current situation, SWOT table was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the case study area. The analysis of the study area was conducted on the basis of direct and indirect assumptions. In direct assumption, according to the current situation, the pollution and visual heterogeneity of urban spaces were presented in the form of images and physical analysis. In indirect assumption, the questionnaire was used for a better recognition of the visual characteristics of the study area, which has been established according to the proposed criteria in the theoretical framework. After finalizing, the analytic pattern of urban vitality was set up based on the visual comfort components. The research was studied in order to organize the visual pollution and increase the quality of aesthetic environment and the vitality, in the form of objective design, strategies and policies in three micro, middle and macro levels. Moreover a sample of policy plan was presented in the case study area. At the micro level, suggestions have been made to organize and eliminate the pollution and visual disturbances in city view, particularly in urban public space in various aspects (visual, color, light, symbol). At the middle level, on base of GIS data, the Beheshti Street located in the historical center of the city was identified as an urban space with the high visual pollution. In order to improve the quality of vitality and eliminate the visual pollution, constructing pavement was proposed within the case study. At the macro level, a Beautification Master Plan as a unifying and comprehensive factor encompassing all of the visual comfort components was proposed, a pattern that is not only concerned on the city view but also the quality of it. While, it connects the case and cross-sectional designs of beautification to each other and establish a logical and fundamental relationship between them, as well as extending to all areas of the case study which is used for different levels. The final outcome of this plan creates the high quality, attractive, beautiful and vitality urban spaces. Consequently, the citizens will get the pleasure and find themselves in a historical, cultural and urban identity while they will sense vitality in all aspects of urban spaces.
    Keywords: Beautification, Visual Pollution, Vitality, Quality, Urban Art
  • Hooman Foroughmand Araabi*, Maryam Khabazi, Hooshang Foroughmand Araabi Pages 263-271
    Urban design, like any other branch of the social sciences and built-environment studies, has developed in relation with the contexts in which it has emerged. Built environments in Iran have been constructed in a different way compared to their European and American counterparts. Western urban environments and cultures are the main sources of urban design knowledge. In turn, the knowledge replicates such environments and advocates such values. Nevertheless, the differences between Iranian context and the Western one is the main reason necessitating the attempt to create vernacular knowledge for Iran. At this point after urban design being introduced, taught and researched in Iran for decades, it is significant to analyze the success or failure of vernacular theories. In this respect, this article first critically reviews the literature in order to make a framework to evaluate various urban design texts. Second it assesses the influential urban design texts that have attempted to adapt the Western knowledge to the context of Iranian cities. The assumption of this article is that vernacular theories are more capable of creating successful places and fulfilling needs and demands of the society. In this respect, criticizing and analyzing texts that aimed at making vernacular knowledge paves the way for further attempts in both theory and practice. The main references of this article are from two seemingly discrete domains. First the texts which discuss and introduce the characteristics of successful urban design theory. We assume that vernacular urban design theory is a kind of theory belonging to the broader domain of urban design thinking, it must meet the criteria of successful urban design theory. The second set of references are from texts that are particularly studying the characteristics of successful vernacular theory. Many studies, from countries that imported the knowledge, have attempt to clarify such characteristics under various titles. However, there is not any study on this topic in Iran. Therefore, this article offers contributions to the literature. The urban design texts that have vernacular aspects are being analyzed on the basis of three main criteria of analyzing theory and two specific criteria of analyzing vernacular theory. The main criteria of a good theory are: 1. The way of building a theory should be justifiable. Clarifying such processes would enable further revisions when required and justify the theory; 2. The theory should have practical applications; since the goal of urban design is making better places the theory within this field should ultimately have practical influences 3. A theory should learn from the past urban design experiences; Ignoring the existing body of knowledge is certainly a disadvantage for any research or theory. Two specific criteria of analyzing vernacular theory discussed in this article are that 1. The theory should respond to the specific problems of Iranian cities; meaning a so-called vernacular theory should aimed at solving vernacular problems. Inevitably such a theory, first of all, needs to have a good understanding of urban problems in Iran. The second requirement for its criterion is to have a realistic assessment of the potentials and abilities in Iran (including academic potentials) 2. The theory should consider the cultural and vernacular values and norms. This means that solutions suggested by the vernacular theories should be defined in a way to lessen the gap between culturally accepted values and the existing condition. This criterion develops the fact that urban design is always and necessarily value-laden and a good vernacular theory must represent local values. Therefore, three key urban design texts that are basically written for Iran and have been successfully received by the professionals are being examined against the mentioned criteria. These titles are achieved through a systematic review of the literature while it can be seen as representatives of successful urban design texts written by Iranian urban design scholars for the Iranian cities. The results of this article display that the Iranian theorists have paid attention to the necessity of vernacular theories as all the three writers touched upon this issue.. The vague process of making vernacular theory, fails to take the local values into account, and the weak linkage between the available knowledge and case studies have deteriorated the effectiveness of the attempts of making vernacular urban design in Iran. This article adds that vernacularizing urban design must also be aware of similar attempts in different fields. This article makes the contribution to the literature by highlighting the importance of the topic for future research as well as offering the set of criteria for good vernacular urban design theory that can be used in order to systematically develop the knowledge. Moreover, the evaluation of the three influential texts in the final part of this article aims to find strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Keywords: City, Accessibility, Commute Mode, Babolsar City.
    Keywords: Urban Design Theories, Vernacular Theory, Analyzing the Vernacular Theory, Building a Theory
  • Mahmoud Ghalehnoee, Majid Salehinia, Sepideh Paymanfar * Pages 273-284
    Crisis of place, as a social crisis of meaning about space and time, is the most striking contemporary of urban problems, which embodied in urban spaces, without date, identity and relationship. Place meaning reflects people’s inner psychological landscapes, their personal issues, and their particular ways of ‘‘being-in-the world”. Relph (1976), in his influential work on place and placelessness, identifies three components of place: physical setting, activities and meanings. He argues, that of these three components, meanings are probably more difficult to grasp than the others although it is important. Architects and planners, not considering the meanings that places bring to individuals and groups, run the risk of destroying authentic places or producing inauthentic ones. The literature suggests a variety of dimensions that enhance our understanding of people’s perception of place meaning. This paper explores how place meaning is related to religion. Religion as one of the main components of person’s schemata plays an effective role in perception and meaning of urban spaces. This research at first developed a theoretical framework. Then it measured the differentiations and similarities in meaning of urban space between Muslims and Jews as well as evaluated the hypothesis of the research which is the perceived meaning of urban space between Muslims and Jews. Therefore, Joubareh neighborhood in Isfahan that has been the place of coexistence of Muslims and Jews was chosen to examine the theoretical framework. The second axis of Joubareh, between Kamal Street and Imam-Ali square with approximately 6 hectares in area, located in the northwest of Isfahan. Radial structure of the whole neighborhood has a concentric redial network of passages that each one covers the layer of Joubareh neighborhood. There are bi-axes perpendicular to this sector, which in addition to the spine, a kind of liaison between the concentric above lines. This neighborhood is adjacent to the grand mosque moreover while is the location of the coexistence of Muslims and Jews. Although now most Jews have emigrated and 95 percent of the residents of the neighborhood are Muslims, and only approximately 5 percent Jews living in the neighborhood. The research has taken place through the semantic differentiation test and in- place technique. In the semantic differentiation test, the words are used to understand the associated meanings. In such cases, the vocabulary knowledge of the respondents affects the extent of answers. To resolve this problem, this test wants the respondent to express their feelings based on the predetermined words. Usually, these words are bipolar adjectives and express dual opposite mode. Generally, to judge the opposite words, using a Likert scale is proposed. In this case the number of options should be odd to provide a neutral choice. To analysis of data, descriptive statistics (Fig. of bipolar adjectives) and inferential statistics (Man- Witney) by SPSS 19 software have been used. The results of this research show that the perceived meaning of urban spaces that can be categorized from basic level to instrumental, worthy and symbolic level, influenced by the mind of the user and urban space. The urban space is the combination of the landscape system, activity system, motion and access system, physical form system, structure of public space and environmental system. In the field research, through the combination of the systems, we found that perception of place meaning in Joubareh isn’t generally influenced by religion, but the effect of religion on the perceived meaning of single place is quite evident. The mind of the user, which in this study was used as the schemata, represents on components such as religion. We found that in second axis of Joubareh, the perceived meaning between the Jewish and Muslim is differences. Jews often perceived urban spaces, as dynamic, ugly and repetitive spaces and are interested in the Jewish community spaces, such as the space around the synagogues. Muslims feel urban spaces, as quiet, beautiful and varied spaces and are interested in parks, bazaar and etc. Although the assigned meanings have been in common as seen in the third and fourth spaces.
    comparing the perceived meaning between two groups reside in Joubareh in Isfahan, we focused on the differences of the inhabitant religion that shows different perceived meaning in such as the urban spaces around the synagogues, parks and markets.
    Keywords: Urban Space, Muslim, Jew, Joubareh
  • Hamid Atghaei *, Ali Asghar Pilevar Pages 285-301
    Most of the time, partial decision making of the urban management organizations bring great problems in planning and scientific urban budgeting and districting which lead to inconsistency and spending extreme costs in urban management. Currently among a large number of Metropolises in Iran, Mashhad city, has critical issues about lack of coordination between municipal organizations which leads to an imbalance in urban management and municipal districting. In case of Mashhad, this issue was detected by the plan of “role and position of midterm comprehensive plans in metropolises development” done by urban experts. In this plan, imbalance statues and relations of municipal organizations was shown as a major problem that Mashhad faced with. Also as a suggestion, moving towards integrated urban management as a process presented in this comprehensive study for case of Mashhad. Theoretical review of this article for the solution of this problem shows the existence of effective methods for transition from island like decision making structure, fragmented planning and divisions to the integrated urban management. The aim of the present research is designing an optimization pattern which is effective on codifying integrated urban management sample in metropolises. This purpose was achieved by three models in quality and quantity based named Delphi, VIKOR and SWOT through a descriptive- analytical study. The research approach contains several steps. First referring to fieldwork and theoretical resources and references, urban management and its criteria in municipal organization approach and their budgeting systems were studied through a case study. At the second step, after those criteria were collected with Delphi technique, priorities got ready to rank. These criteria represent suitable and balanced urban districting and in a larger scale represent an integrated urban management system we should have. Priorities for playing role in an integrated urban management pattern were achieved using VIKOR model. In details, we created Delphi group including two groups: scientific professors and empirical experts of urban management credits. These groups contained 18 members and their role led to extract five criteria named X1 to X5. X1 is “The effectiveness rate of urban management”, X2 is “type of function”, X3 is “number of districts”, X4 is “criterion of districting” and X5 is “average cost of imbalance conditions available in urban management for each one of citizens”. Then, we used VIKOR method in seven steps. First, Delphi group started to weight municipal organizations in related with the five criteria and the average of them were calculated as decision making matrix contain of rows that represent municipal organization and columns that represent criteria (X1 to X5). At the second step, the created matrix of decisions was normalized. After that, in the third step weighting of criteria was started with Entropy method. In the fourth step, normalized matrix was multiplied by the weight of every criterion in prioritization process and the answer was named normal weight matrix. In the fifth step, maximum value was named “fi” and minimum value was named “fi-” which was extracted in decision matrix. After that, in the sixth step, we could calculate desirability index named “Sj” and discomfort index named “Rj”. For this purpose, weight values from Entropy were multiplied by the decision matrix values. In the seventh step, VIKOR index that represent final score for each option was calculated. If VIKOR index is low for an option, it will have a higher priority toward others. Moreover, determining priorities of the municipal organizations was not good enough for establishment of an integrated urban management. So in the third part of the research, in order to offer practical suggestions, we used SWOT method. We used this for recognition and analysis strengths, Weaknesses, opportunities and threats available in districting system and urban management of Mashhad city and also for municipal organizations. Then according to current statement of the city, and its criteria representing urban management, districting and budgeting system, we presented three scenario for short term, midterm and long term related in three approach of comprehensive, middle and small scale that could achieve integrated urban management and balanced districting. The results shows that for practice of integrated urban management, some of organizations such as “gas organization”, “electronic”, “water and wastewater”, “post”, “telecommunications” and “police office” take priority and some of them such as “Imam Khomeini Relief foundation”, “health and medical organization” and “Registration of deed and birth” in regard to divisional criterion, can coordinate their divisions easily with municipality. “Fire-fighting”, “bus services”, “educations”, “social security” and “justice” organizations with regard to the type of activity and divisional criterion, have less inflection to coordinate with municipality. According to the investigation of the existing districting and current performance of the urban management trustee organizations in Mashhad, for reaching to the integrated urban management and balanced districting, research sample is submitted in three stages of short term, middle term and long term Scenarios.
    Keywords: urban management, Integrated Urban Management, Urban Planning, Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), Mashhad
  • Hamid Reza Parsi *, Behrad Farmahini Farahani Pages 303-315
    In recent decades, researchers have attempted to solve the ideological crisis of urban planning in the form of “Creativity” discourse under the titles of “Creative City”, “Creative Cultural Jobs”, “Cultural Planning”, “Cultural Territory”, “Cultural Industry”, etc., which have relied on cultured creative middle class( from the cultural urban regeneration point of view. On the other hand, Urban Gentrification policies that have appeared in the struggle over the culture and its meaning on spatial planning are related to this issue. But it seems that the process of a creativity action in the organism of the mankind have not been studied by researchers. Thus, they have used the culture for defining some concepts like Creative City and Creative Class, only as a tool of economic growth, not necessarily for social-economic development of the societies. Whereas the culture is arising from social-historical work of human’s mediated actions it makes everyone aware of his subject in the world. In this study, it is explained that the creativity is a product of thinking and cognition process, all the people are creative, despite of the class they belong to, how environment can restrict or encourage the creativity, and what is the interplay between creativity and urban space. Our hypothesis is that, first of all, the people are creative, and differences are in their attempt, perseverance and quest for trust. Thus we study the relationships between men and the environment, how culture and social dynamism in urban space can be formed during the attempts for solving daily problems by changing mental schemas. When a person discovers a new answer for a problem, he makes a new mental schema and will change his previous mental schema. During this interaction between objectivity and subjectivity, creativity will be arising from the process of internalizing and externalizing, when the discovered mental schema is a new one. It will be proved that a creative urban space is the base of manifestation, appearance and growth of creativity of the people who have rights of expression and action. The motivation of creative action will become permanent when the socially made value of labor of people will be achieved by themselves. With regard to the aim of this paper, our method has oriented to monism approach and dialectics of subjectivity and objectivity of creativity and urban space. Our method has three dimensions: First, system approach and structural analysis; second, linkage analysis of all relations of system and its mechanism of functions; and third, dynamism of processes of system. Thus, process of dialectics between objectivity and subjectivity of creativity and urban space is in the process of social system as a whole. Therefore our first apriority in this method is that human and environment and especially urban environments which are elements of one social system as a whole, and each of them have its own function and complexity in their relationships and have effects the processes and whole dynamism of social system. But stability of dynamism of social system is depend on regulation between functions and serves progress of system. By this approach, we can explain relationship between mankind and his environment in the stable process of “becoming” and dynamism of social system. In this regard it is obvious that our findings in this research might be divided to three issues: One, relation between mankind and process of its creativity. Two, social dynamism of society and public sphere and its effects on characterizing process manifestation of urban space. Three, relation between urban space and creativity. We suggest researchers, who wants to study and work about creative urban space and creativity, refer to social psychology and cognitive psychology papers, because understanding creative city issue depends on understanding relationship between: 1) cognition process, thought and creativity in the perspective of cognitive psychology; 2)existence of democracy, freedom of expression, and freedom of action which is related to the sociology; and 3)spatial order and public space as the most important factor of social growth, production, and development opportunities. Thus, in research and analysis public domain and urban space, not only morphology and form of urban space must be considered but also the contents and characters of social–cultural forces, that reflects historical, cultural, social and physical potentialities of cities should be studied.
    Keywords: Creativity, Vygotsky, Culture, Creative City, System Approach, Cognition
  • Mohammad Taghizadeh* Pages 317-328
    Today, in most of the cities of the world, its necessary to prepare the urban land use plans, in order to make a balance and interaction to develop the different parts of the city. Relying on urban planning knowledge, such plans are made for a certain period of time. The time period set for development plans, sometimes causes challenge during the implementation. The main reasons of challenges are subjects that were not mentioned or have been omitted because of the large scale of the plan. An important part of spatial development plan is the way of encountering these challenges. Some of these challenges are caused the need to change approved plans, spatially about land use change. As Land use plan is the operational aspect of urban planning, it has become the concentrate of urban planners in the world. In this case, the changes in official documents for land uses, is a challenging point. The feasibility of plans is a strategic point. Most of professions in urban development claimed that it is necessary to change some land uses because of rapid spatial evolutions. The mechanism of land use change is an important task. In the case of Iran, there are many institutional problems that cause formal and informal changes in land uses. It seems that urban development plans in Iran are not well-defined to cope with uncertainties for change. in this case, this article is considering the different experiments for land use change mechanisms in two kind of countries, developed (Britain and United states) and under developed (India and Turkey) ones. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is studying the system of urban management in different countries to recognize the mechanism of land use change after improvement of development plans. Also the comparative study of the process of such changes in studied countries is the other objective of this paper. Method of data collection was library research while qualitative and comparative analyses were used to organize the topic. This study could step ahead in order to update the land use planning system, proper process of making change in it and use the true methods of planning used in Iran and other parts of the world. In all cases, the land use change occurred in two situations: first the changes of formal documents and second the changes that the stakeholders demand for them. In the UK, there are categories (classes) for land uses, and the change from one class to another one needs permission. In the U.S there is a flexible manner in land use plans with the help of variances. These facilities for land use change are in the processes of land use planning in India. There are two proposed land uses, one is the main land use and the other is the secondary land use. The second land uses make the plan flexible for change. The final decision maker is not the local government, but the main national state. In Turkey, the change in land use would be occurred after the amendments of main urban land use plan. The main ministry in national scale is responsible for monitoring the changes in land use plans. In Iran, the changes would happen if the stakeholders demand for it. This article clarifies that the changes in proposal land uses are inevitable, so the processes for managing them is the strategic point. In the final step, the principals of land use change mechanisms derived from the successful land use planning systems, are analyzed in Iran regarding the experts, professional actors and decision makers’ viewpoints. By applying the Delphi method, the main actors who has significant role in land use changes in Iran were defined. The analysis shows that market leaders play an important role in land use changes. On the other hand the opportunities and constraints of applying the principals improving land use change mechanisms were defined and evaluated by the professionals. The results show that the importance of hierarchy of national to local order is as well as the flexibility of land use plans to consider inevitable changes. The results show that for the principal of stakeholder’s participation, the uncertainties of regulative systems is the main constrain and the role of strategic planning with emphasize on the performance of plans is the main opportunity. For the principal of environmental considerations, the local organizations, NGOs and new approaches in land use planning which emphasize on ecological aspects of urban activities are the main opportunities in Iran and as well as the previous principal, the lack of regulative mechanisms to perform environmental considerations is the main constrain.
    Keywords: Land Use, Comparative, Land Use Change, Urban Planning, Spatial Development
  • Seyed Mohsen Habibi, Seyedeh Kahroba Seyedberenji * Pages 327-342
    Understanding the urban environment is a mental process which is done through person’s connection with his surrounding space. A person receives environment sensory messages and creates an image of the environment in his mind. One of the effective factors in making this image is individual or collective memories in an environment. Memorable spaces are places which one has experienced them before and they are familiar. Finding familiar spaces can cause feeling satisfaction and safety within the environment. On the other hand, change and transformation or destroying the familiar spaces can lead into a feeling of being lost, rootless and missing a part of life in people. The meaning of memory in urban spaces is synonymous and accompanied with the feeling of belonging and identity. The accumulation of memory in city depends on the living history in it. Therefore, new residents in cities have little sense of belonging to the place in which they live. Thus, it can be said that, there are interactions between urban identity and collective memory. Social nature and urban spaces are always the social relations platform. These spaces find their identity after a special happening or occurrence of a city experience affected by a period. In addition, their ordinary and social life are kept in the mind of city residents and left unique memories in the mind and heart of the old and new citizens which after years are still passing from one generation to another reinforcing the city identity and collective memory. Therefore, the share of these valuable spaces in reviving the urban identity, enhancing liveliness and the feeling of belonging in citizens should not be neglected. Today, humans’ urban identity and their collective memory have been ignored and people missed their connection with places that they are living in, also the lack of place identity and its memorial character has caused problems in citizens’ individual and collective identity. Urban spaces can be designed and planned to identity revival and old memory protection, create new memories and provide necessary context for urban events. Shahrdari square in Rasht is also one of the richest public area in the city which was one of the most places in the Rasht regarding its location in geographical, historical, commercial and traffic center of the city from the beginning of its formation. It has been the place for walk, amusement, shopping, recreation and social life of the citizens. Shahrdari square after years, because of its cultural heritage and social wealth still takes advantage of a great identity and cultural facilities. But in the past decades because of social and cultural developments, population growth and displacement of old and noble residents of this area and their distribution in the city and the corresponding social problems, this central and full of identity urban space is going to lose its structural and social values which leads into lack of identity for the people living in the city. In fact, the current condition of Rasht Shahrdari square is a combination of what is remained from long ago, a damaged body during development process and the product of the contemporary time. The retrieval of these meanings in Rasht Shahrdari square and its boundary are within the research area of this study. In fact, with the recreation of old values along with response to current values, we try to utilize the potential of Shahrdari square and people presence, and also redefine the city center with the creation of a memorial environment and elements that support urban identity. So, three factors including place identity, memorability and social collaboration create the main variables of this study. This research is mixed heuristic methods while we have used questionnaire to collect our data. The results of the study show that there is a direct and positive relation between memorability and social collaboration with place identity as a dependent variable but the memorability index is more effective in increasing the place identity. Eventually, it can be said that regeneration as a method in reconstruction of old textures needs social revival along with the structural revival. Identifying and considering the past values and reviving the social life in these textures can cause the reconstructed texture to be actually the modernized one of the very old texture which resembles the past identity and values for residents and also answers today citizens’ needs.
    Keywords: Urban Regeneration, Urban Identity, Collective Memory, Rasht Shahrdari Square
  • Ramin Saed Moucheshy *, Keramatollah Ziari, Hosein Hatami Nejad, Rahmatollah Farhoodi Pages 343-353
    Besides the economic, technologic and other advantages of globalization, this process has shortcomings in various aspects, but overall, the trend is inevitable. Cities as a center of the global management, experience many changes in this process and also have a great impact on the speed and dimension of globalization. Tehran as a capital city of an influential country in the Middle East has no proper place in any ranking of global cities. The position is largely because of its huge population and diplomatic indexes. This research studies the effects of the globalization process and the subsequent need for spatial- physical in conjunction with the urban restructuring. In the first step we address to analyze the physical basis of globalization and the knowledge-based service sector classification as core functions of the global era, in analysis of focuses on Tehran. In this regard, it is designed in two steps: First, Distribution analysis of the advanced producer Service (APS), and second, reviewing the establishment and implementation of locating condition in having physical indexes of the space of global cities. The case study, is the metropolitan area of Tehran and statistical society is more than 7000 companies offering advanced producer services in 7 levels. These sectors include: advertisement and marketing, Electronics and telecommunications, Business, Finance, Accounting, Insurance and designing. The main questions of this study are as following:1-What are the Features, dimensions and indicators of global city?
    2- How is the methods of distribution and locating of the advanced producer services (APS) in Tehran?
    3- Is Tehran urban space capacity has formed according to the conditions of globalization and global cities?
    The hypotheses of the study are as following:1- It seems that Tehran does not have appropriate building regarding to the circumstances and characteristics of globalization.
    2- It seems that the distribution and locating of advanced producer services (APS) in Tehran formed centralized.
    The functional process of globalization and restructuring the city can be simplified in seven-step process called as “Rescaling of the space” or “Restructuring of the space” according to the Saskia sessen theory. This theory describes how the cities enter into the global economy. In the first part of the study results show centralize structure and mono_centric in the case study while in the second part they represent the most effective access to complementary services and advanced producer services. We found that advanced producer services are mainly located in areas with high level of quality of life and social identity. Despite the establishment configuration functions and advanced producer services in Tehran, it is not consistent with the requirements of the globalization restructuring. Some other results can be noted from this study include:Three layers of spatial distribution can be determined for activities. First layer is the densest areas of activity in the city and involving the most important activities in the city and megalopolis traditional and advanced services. The second layer is the overlapping areas and residential integration and activities especially in the field of commercial activities. The third layer is known as the dominant characteristic residence. Outside the metropolitan area and its three layers, fringe and in the corridors of activities have been established. At first glance, unlike the distribution of premium services in global cities, all advanced services are concentrated in one center and no spatial separation between these activities can be seen. In addition to centralized deployment and polarized in the border regions 6 and 7, corridors of focus also formed in the 3 and 2 regions. In the southern part of Tehran, but in some cases, particularly in areas of 11, 12, the establishment of these advanced services cannot be seen. In conclusion, Tehran is an unplanned location which needs to be under the supervision of urban management. The results show that “Space of flows” pattern in Tehran has not been formed. This pattern forms based on transition from “space of place” to “space of flows”. Distribution and transmittal are based on the “decentralized centralization” and organizational high density and clustering of functions.so the urban management institution should be act in this regard.
    Keywords: Globalization, Spatial Restructuring, Global City, Advanced Producer Service, Tehran
  • Hassan Sajadzadeh *, Adel Sharifi, Saeid Soleimani, Mojtaba Khanian Pages 355-364
    Neighborhoods are not only a physical structure facts, but also they have various social and cultural aspects that if one of them are not taken into account in urban conservation and renovation projects, they will face with some basic problems. Urban quality of life is a notion that has been discussed recently in various studies as a response to many problems facing the neighborhoods all over the world. Urban spaces and neighborhoods show the participation of citizens in city life. There is a mutual influence between degrade the quality of urban spaces and degrade the quality of urban life which shows the scale of this problem in the old areas. In order to enhance environmental quality of neighborhoods in old and traditional structures, suggestions have been presented in the most of the cities of Iran. The subject of these plans were improvement and renovation. But most of these methods and approaches could not work properly. Therefore recognition and using the most effective criteria and indexes are necessary for improving the environmental quality in residential neighborhoods. This article aims to examine to what extend urban renovation projects have affected on environmental quality of traditional neighborhoods by evaluating Julan case study in Hamedan. This study seeks to answer the following questions: How much was the improvement process successful in Julan neighborhood? Which factors are effective to improve environmental quality in the Julan neighborhood Hamedan in the process of modernization? Julan is an old quarter and like other old neighborhoods faces with problems. Some of these problems are lack of facilities, inaccessibility and etc..So modernization plan was proposed but it did not work. One of the reasons is the planners’ more attentions to the physical dimensions and fewer attentions to centers and activity walk axes. Another reason is lack of integration of housing complexes. The neighborhood is divided into two parts by the street. Modernization plan has more attentions to the northern half of the district. In this article environmental quality of north and south of Julan were compared and also the effects of modernization on environmental quality have been investigated. This paper seeks to measure the environmental quality after the implementation of reconstruction projects. This article reviews the theoretical foundations that include: The old district and the recognition criteria, approaches and interventions in distressed areas, and environmental quality and its indexes. Some specification of old neighborhoods mentioned in this article are: functional, skeletal, communication network, environmental, economic, social, infrastructure, legal and management. Different types of interventions in distressed areas are improvement, renovation and reconstruction. Environmental quality contains wide dimensions which the dimensions in each country, city and the neighborhood is different and even environmental quality can be different from the perspective of a person. Components for environmental quality should be chosen that old areas dealing with them and as an indicator of old areas have been identified. Environmental quality has objective criteria and subjective factors. Objective criteria contains safety, facilities, accessibility and built spaces. Subjective factors contains vitality, social links and security. This research used surveying method and questionnaire forms. This article was done by research-applicable method and data is gathered by questionnaires. Sample volume is 393 respondents that have chosen randomly. 204 were related to the part that has not improvement and renovation and 189 were related to the part that has improvement and renovation. It should be noted that the population of this area has been associated with increased population density in hectare. Moreover, data was analyzed by Amos software. Therefore, Identifying and applying effective indicators for improvement environmental quality in residential neighborhoods appeared to be necessary. Data analysis argued that although objective environmental quality of Julan has enhanced along conservation process, but the rate is very low. There is not any significant change in some subjective indicators of Julan such as vitality and security, while a dramatic declining has occurred in social bonds indicators. In fact, Julan conservation and renovation project has not achieved any success in recognition expectations and image. So, studying causes of weakness in conservation and renovation projects can solve such problems in preparing future plans in traditional contexts. At the end suggestions are provided to improve the quality of residential environment, such as: functional diversity to promote and provide vitality in neighborhoods, providing services and facilities to the residents, reducing the neighborhood traffic, improving the quantity of public spaces such as library, parks and gardens, increasing social security and create a local social bonds.
    Keywords: Improvement, Renovation, Environmental Quality, Subjective Indicators, Objective Indicators, JULAN District
  • Sedigheh Lotfi *, Golnoosh Hariri, Mojtaba Shahabi Shahmiri Pages 365-373
    Designers and planners have paid more attention toward quality of spaces and built environments with the development of human societies and life style changes. Many studies have concentrated on the visual perception but the role of other senses such as smelling and hearing are overlooked in urban spaces. Moreover, theoretical literature has often discussed about the negative consequences of noise and odder pollutants but has less spoken about the positive impacts of hearing and smell in improvement of mental and social wellbeing or community sense, motivation and reminding memories. But their views are usually limited to the phenomenology of sound and smell. Nevertheless, there have been attempts to study the details of such issue in unique characteristics of non-virtual perception on the personal perception of people in the recent decades. Therefore, need to discuss about this subject with a practical and systematic method is felt. The present study examines the role of perceptional expectations of people in urban environment on the base of two components: sound and smell. In the experience of understanding space, hearing due to its extent and definition of its separate vocal space has different capabilities. Phonetic space has fewer limitations and forms the space. Among the important characteristics of auditory sense, sound is affected by the environment. Sound measures the dimensions of space and makes its scale understandable. Nevertheless this character due to lack of control of urban space is seen in the current cities. In Islamic cities, the sound of prayer call gives us time and sense of place and lead to enforcement of community sense. The olfactory sense unlike the vision motivates emotions, involves directly man’s imaginations and perceptions. A smell cans remind the location of an element or image which is important for mental expectations. The methodology of this research is based on analytical and descriptive methods and the required data was collected by conducting a field work to complete the given questionnaires in different parts of the city. This study used the method of Schafer which was applied for global phonetic project by recording the phonetic symbols. The respondents (50 out of 54 persons) were interviewed in four different spaces of Babol on the base of their spatial location, subjective function and mental history. The three first spaces belonged to the early core and its immediate areas which have an organic texture while the forth space is located in the northern section of the city and is a new expanded segment of Babol. The findings of the research in four selected spaces showed different expectations regarding to the olfactory and auditory perceptions. In Sharbani intersection due to its high traffic function 60 percent of the people believed that their expectation corresponded with the olfactory and auditory environments and some (10%) respondents were stated that the noise and general buzz of people were quite pleasant. In the second space as residential area for the middle class of people, they complained about the sudden sound of construction activities which were different from their expectations as they liked to hear the voice of children playing in the close by avenues. Some people were unhappy about smell of swage and waste while others noticed the familiar smell of kitchens and old neighborhoods as adorable memory of the past. The third space as in the heart of the city, demonstrated the most vibrant part which people stated that all olfactory and auditory characteristics were corresponded with their expectations. Finally in the fourth space i.e. Noshirvani Park showed a mix expectations regarding to the different location of the park. In the margins where the main arterials join the park, the noise of cars was bothering people while in the inner part of the park the expected perceptions stratified the park users. By analyzing the results of the research, it is clear that expectations of people from scents and sounds have heavily impacted their perception and experiences from different urban environments; sometimes the complexity of understanding the space with align sensory information contradicts people’s experiences. Not only understanding the different environs is under influence of olfactory and auditory expectations but also expectations of smell and sound itself (in order to recognize and mental process) is influenced from environmental context. With respect to the discussions, the influence of sensory components particularly smell and sound and the mutual interaction between man and urban environments can be observed in these spaces. Based such realities, planners and designers should consider the role of invisible space to promote the quality of life in the cities. However the present study is one of the few new researches in the Iran and we need other researches to reveal the different and unexplored aspects of invisible spaces of cities in the country.
    Keywords: Sense-walking, Urban Ambience, Expectation, Perception, Babol
  • Abolfazl Meshkini *, Asghar Teymouri Pages 375-387
    Urbanism rapidly expansion and development during last four decades has caused spreading of the physical space of cities and destruction of surrounding lands while most of them are high quality agricultural lands and gardens. The urban sprawl or low density development of cities has been one of the main urban debates because many cities have faced with its negative impacts. The term of “urban sprawl” is highly politicized, and almost has negative connotations. It is criticized for causing environmental degradation, intensifying segregation, undermining the vitality of existing urban areas and attacked on aesthetic grounds. This term has also become a rallying cry for managing urban growth. Iranian cities also have experienced this phenomenon and many researches have been conducted in this field in last few decades. This term has translated to horizontal urban expansion and uncontrolled growth in Persian language. Generally, urban sprawl refers to uncontrolled and disheveled development of suburbs. Webster’s dictionary has defined sprawl as disheveled urban development. During the last decades, rapid peace of urbanization has led to physical development of cities and their surrounding areas and resulting in destruction fertile agricultural lands. The major consequences of urban sprawl include inflated infrastructure and public service costs, energy inefficiency, spatial disparity in wealth between cities and suburbs, alteration of ecosystems patterns and processes, loss of farmlands and open spaces, increase in temperature, increase in fossil fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce in water quality and quantity, and more unpleasant and monotonous suburban landscapes. The Gradual expansion of city to agricultural and orchards lands has led to many environmental impacts. One of the major problem of Iranian cities is urban sprawl and its negative impacts such as development of informal settlements, deterioration of agricultural land, overpopulation in the cities, inability to meet some of the services and in cities, disruption of physical tissue, environmental problems, especially pollution and the chaotic urban landscape. Assessing the city development process and understanding of land use changes patterns are essential to appropriate planning. This paper aimed to evaluate city sprawl and its impact on land use changes based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. Data have collected using documentary and field studies. Landsat TM satellite images for the years 1984, and 2012 were obtained from United States Geology Survey (USGS) and were utilized in this paper. Supervised classification fuzzy methods based on the severity of compliance was used to classification and changes of land use were analyzed using cross-tab model. The urban sprawl over the period of 1984 to 2012 was determined using Shannon’s entropy and Holdren’s model along with GIS tools. Shannon’s entropy is one of the commonly used and effective techniques for monitoring and measuring of urban sprawl. CA-Markov Model as a combined mode was used to simulate urban growth for future 10 years. The analysis of LULC changes has revealed that from 1984 to 2012, the built-up area has increased by greater than 6.401 hectares that is more than 43 percent. To analyze the urban sprawl, we need to demographic data and built up area. Population data is acquired from the Statistical Center of Iran and the built up area is calculated through the classification of satellite images. Findings from analyzing urban sprawl by Holdern model revealed that population factor has greatest impacts on Karaj development over the last 28 years. This factor has neutralized hideous urban growth. The amount of Shannon’s entropy of the city was close to the maximum value (2.302), showing an increase hideous urban growth in the study period. Karaj metropolis has dramatically increased in a short time due to proximity to Tehran as well as concentration of industries and services. Factors such as natural growth of population and immigration and transforming Karaj to an industrial and commercial city are key roles in city’s growth. Metropolises have profound impacts on hinterland and lead to major transformations of surrounding area due to increased population and mutual spatial impacts and functional relationships. Until 1966, the City of Karaj had an image like garden city. However, todays this city is characterized by inappropriate neighborhoods, improper construction along Tehran and Qazvin highway, multiple scattered urban systems around the villages in the Karaj hinterland, connection of small towns to the city due to growth of immigration and the destruction of green space, transfer of fresh water to Tehran for citizens’ consumption, abandoned streams of Karaj River and intentional and unintentional drying of gardens.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Urban Sprawl, Satellite Imagery, Land Use Changes, Shannon's Entropy, Karaj Metropolis
  • Zeinab Sadat Motahari *, Mojtaba Rafeian Pages 389-401
    Disasters are incidents that cause corruption of normal life, deviation from ordinary expectations of individuals and groups. The causes of the disasters are split into two groups: natural disasters and human-induced ones. Mostly, disasters have crucial negative effects on people, environment and economy. The city as a cultural capital cannot experience sustainable development in the right direction, Regardless of considering natural disasters and hazards. Lack of attention to this important fact is one of the most important strategic neglected point in urban planning. For this reason, in recent years, natural disaster risk management has become a serious issue. Lessons from past crises show that emergency response operations further than the responsibility of the government to deal with the crisis can be successful rescue and relief operations while reduce the harms if agencies, individual and group hold such responsibilities.. Attention to this issue resulted in the formation and growth of community-based approaches in the management of crises and natural disasters. Community-based disaster management can increase the performance during the disaster while develop vulnerability among people. Therefore, public sector is responsible for training the crisis management as well as land-use planning, development planning, and even environmental for a city. Regarding to this approach, decentralization of planning strategies in the field of risk management leads to the empowerment of local communities and their cooperation. The community should lead to increase the resilience of society. The concept of resilience in social and physical aspects of the city are intertwined. Due to limitations in the short term and the cost of their physical approaches, Community-based approaches will address to the needs in cities like Tehran. In this regard, in cooperation with the Organization of “Tehran prevention and crisis management” we selected District 20 to work on. The neighborhood planning concept based on social engineering, instead mental attitude and macro-scale, brings local balance and wisdom. In fact, this model seeks to identify hidden or forgotten features and capabilities of urban neighborhoods through conventional macroeconomic assumptions and city scale. In this study, we emphasize on the concept of community and using local potentials in Risk Management as well as successful implementation of community-based planning. This study focused on managing the risk of crisis and analytical framework for the social aspect of resiliency. This study aimed to identify the components of the theoretical and practical community-based, while using the theoretical framework of this approach to reduce the impact of natural hazards in urban areas is possible. Most of the time the local communities are the first victims of natural diseases. So, attempt should be made for its empowerment. Therefore, this research presented a model in order to assess the relationship between resiliency social capital components and disaster risk management components. So we conceptualized resiliency social dimension model in four levels: personal, group, organizational and network, in a local community. In each level two concepts of risk perception and needed skills were studied separately. In personal layer, altruism, participation and cooperation, trust, religious beliefs and values, and community dependency are considered. In group layer, forming and managing of emergency reaction of volunteer group and in organization layer, local institute performances are considered. In fourth and last layer, we studied the concept of local social network and analyzed it through neighbors, friends, relatives, basij, mosques and religious community networks. Finally by designing, spreading and gathering four kinds of questionnaires in one of local community of Tehran: district 20, required data for quantitative analysis was provided. District 20 was selected because of its old religious contexts, strong neighborhood relations, low income, and weak constructions. Research methodology is based on descriptive, analytical and correlation methods while using literature studies, questionnaires and interviews. The results show that there are a meaningful relation between social capital in local community and disaster risk management in different layers. This finding is an important issue in the field of risk management which can be seen as a useful strategy for urban managers. At the end of this research, based on our findings and experiences, we provide future studies with specific suggestions.
    Keywords: Disaster Risk Management, Social Capital, Local Community, resiliency, Urban Crisis