فهرست مطالب

Cell Journal - Volume:19 Issue: 2, 2017
  • Volume:19 Issue: 2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Rouhollah Fathi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Bita Ebrahimi, Farideh Eivazkhani, Mahzad Akbarpour, Leila Sadat Tahaei, Naeimeh Sadat Abtahi Page 173
    Oocyte, embryo and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are being increasingly proposed for fertility preservation among cancer patients undergoing therapy to enable them to have babies after the cancer is cured. Embryo cryopreservation is not appropriate for single girls without any sperm partner and also because oocyte retrieval is an extended procedure, it is impossible in cases requiring immediate cancer cure. Thus ovarian tissue cryopreservation has been suggested for fertility preservation especial in cancer patients. The main goal of ovarian cryopreservation is re-implanting the tissue into the body to restore fertility and the hormonal cycle. Different cryopreservation protocols have been examined and established for vitrification of biological samples. We have used Cryopin to plunge ovarian tissue into the liquid nitrogen and promising results have been observed. Ovarian tissue re-implantation after cancer cure has one problem- the possibility of recurrence of malignancy in the reimplanted tissue is high. Xenografting-implantation of the preserved tissue in another species- also has its drawbacks such as molecular signaling from the recipient. In vitro follicle culturing is a safer method to obtain mature oocytes for fertilization and the various studies that have been carried out in this area are reviewed in this paper.
    Keywords: Fertility Preservation, Cryopreservation, Cancer, Transplantation, Ovarian Follicle Culture
  • Roghaieh Samadi, Asghar Ghasemi, Babak Shafiei, Fereidoun Azizi Page 184
    Radioactive iodine therapy is commonly used as an adjuvant therapy in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in the treatment of Graves’ disease (GD). The basis of this therapy is the accumulation of radioactive iodine by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the thyroid gland. Expression of NIS by extrathyroidal tissues such as islets of pancreas has been reported. Radioactive iodine uptake by pancreatic beta-cells can potentially damage these cells. In this study, we discuss the possible associations between radioactive iodine and glucose intolerance. Overall, radioactive iodine uptake by the pancreas may damage beta-cells and predispose patients to glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, particularly in patients exposed to radioactive iodine therapy following total thyroidectomy. Further studies are needed to clarify and confirm this association.
    Keywords: Radioactive, Iodine, Glucose Tolerance, Pancreas, Sodium, Iodide Symporter
  • Ali Fathi, Shahram Eisa, Beygi, Hossein Baharvand Page 194
    Signaling in pluripotent stem cells is a complex and dynamic process involving multiple mediators, finely tuned to balancing pluripotency and differentiation states. Characterizing and modifying the necessary signaling pathways to attain desired cell types is required for stem-cell applications in various fields of regenerative medicine. These signals may help enhance the differentiation potential of pluripotent cells towards each of the embryonic lineages and enable us to achieve pure in vitro cultures of various cell types. This review provides a timely synthesis of recent advances into how maintenance of pluripotency in hPSCs is regulated by extrinsic cues, such as the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ACTIVIN signaling pathways, their interplay with other signaling pathways, namely, wingless- type MMTV integration site family (WNT) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the pathways governing the determination of multiple lineages.
    Keywords: Differentiation, Stem Cell, Nodal
  • Kobra Zakikhan, Behshad Pournasr, Massoud Vosough, Marjan Nassiri, Asl Page 204
    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) generated from various human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), mostly induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or direct cell conversion and also other stem cells like gestational tissues stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells; provide potential cell sources for biomedical applications. Liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with end stage liver disease, but there are many practical limits, mostly insufficient number of donated healthy livers. Meanwhile the number of patients to receive a liver organ transplant for a better life is increasing. In this regard, HLCs may provide an adequate cell source to overcome these shortages. New molecular engineering approaches such as CRISPR/Cas systen with iPSCs technology provid the basic principles of gene correction for monogenic inherited metabolic liver diseases as another application of HLCs. It has shown that HLCs could replace primary human hepatocytes in drug discovery and hepatotoxicity tests. However, generation of fully functional HLCs is still a big challenge; research groups have been trying to improve current differentiation protocols to achieve better HLCs according to morphology and function of cells. Large-scale generation of functional HLCs in bioreactors could make a new window in producing enough hepatocytes for treating end-stage liver patients as well as other biomedical applications such as drug studies. In this review, regarding the biomedical value of hepatocyte-like cells, we focus on the current and efficient approaches for generating hepatocyte- like cells in vitro and discuss about their applications in regenerative medicine and drug discovery.
    Keywords: Kobra Zakikhan, Behshad Pournasr, Massoud Vosough, Marjan Nassiri, Asl
  • Deming Li, Jun Li, Gaiping Wang, Yanli Qin, Zhipeng Niu, Ziwei Li, Cunshuan Xu Page 218
    Objective
    Patients over 60 years of age have higher mortality and morbidity after major liver resections. Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the catalytic activity of Nos2 plays a beneficial role in liver regeneration (LR) after partial hepatectomy (PH). In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of Nos2 knockout (KO) on LR in aged mice after PH.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, 52 two-year-old Nos2 KO and 46 the same age wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2/3 PH. Liver tissues were collected at 11 time points after PH. Mice survival ratio and liver coefficient (liver-weight/ body-weight) was calculated. Transcript and protein levels were estimated by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot, respectively.
    Results
    The aged Nos2 KO mice had lower survival ratio (P=0.039) and liver coefficient (P=0.002) at the termination phase. Nos2 transcript level was obviously increased after PH in WT mice and undetected in the Nos2 KO mice. During LR, the expression at the transcript level of Cyclin D1, Cyclin A2 and Cyclin B1 and protein expression level of proliferation marker Ki67 and proliferation-associated transcription factors JNK1, NF-kB and STAT3 were decreased or delayed. The expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, CASPASE3, CASPASE9 and BAX, was increased in the Nos2 KO mice.
    Conclusion
    Decreased survival ratio and impaired LR in aged Nos2 KO mice is probably due to decreased liver cell proliferation and increased liver cell apoptosis.
    Keywords: Aged, Liver Regeneration, Proliferation, Apoptosis
  • Leila Rezakhani, Mohammad Rasool Khazaei, Ali Ghanbari, Mozafar Khazaei Page 231
    Objective
    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide. Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to have adverse side-effects, and natural compounds have been recommended for cancer treatment, nowadays. Crab shell has been shown to have cancer preventative and suppressive effects in vivo and in vitro. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of crab shell extract on prostate cancer cell line (LNcap) in vitro.
    Materials And Methods
    In this in vitro experimental study, LNcap cells were treated with different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 µg/ml) of crab shell hydroalcoholic extract in three different culture periods (24, 48 and 72 hours). LNcap viability was evaluated by trypan blue staining and MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion were determined by TUNEL and Griess assays, respectively. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and P
    Results
    LNcap viability was decreased dose- and time-dependently. Thus 400, 800, and 1000 µg/ml doses showed significant differences compared to control group (P
    Conclusion
    Crab shell extract showed anti-prostate cancer effect, by inducing cell apop- tosis and decreasing NO production.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Cell survival, Prostate Cancer
  • Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Abdolhossein Shahverdi Page 238
    Objective
    The properties of self-renewal and divisionin spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) support spermatogenesis. There are a number of reported methods for in vitro SSC culture systems. The development of a culture system that effectively supports isolation and self-renewal ofgermline stem cells (GSCs) is of tremendous benefit for clinical trials, experimental research andas potential treatment for male infertility. The current study aims to consider the cultivation and behavior of GSCs in a non-adherent culture system.
    Materials And Methods
    In this system, testicular cells from neonate mice have been cultured in agarose coated plates in the presence of the DMEM (CTRL group) medium, 10% FBS (10% group) and growth factor (G group), containing 2% FBS, GDNF, EGF, and FGF. Mouse spermatogonial stem-like colonies were isolated approximately 3 weeks after digestion of the testis tissue. After passages 2-3, the identity of the mouse spermatogonial stem-like cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and flow cytometry against the germ cell markers (α6, β1, c-Kit, Thy-1, C-Ret, Plzf and Oct4). The statistical significance between mean values in different groups was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
    Results
    Spermatogonial stem-like colonies were established in both G and 10% groups, but not in the CTRL group. Immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and RT-PCR confirmed the expressions of germ cells markers in these spermatogonial stem-like cells. In the spermatogonial stem-like cells, we observed a significant expression (p
    Conclusion
    According to these results,a non-adherent culture system could provide a favorable methodfor in vitro short term culture of spermatogonial stem-like cell colonies.
  • Mousa Taghipour, Aydine Omidvar, Mahboobeh Razmkhah, Abbas Ghaderi, Zahra Mojtahedi Page 250
    Objective
    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, and have been ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Tumor mesenchymal-like stem cells (tMSCs) contribute to the aggressive behavior of glial tumors by providing a favorable microenvironment for the malignant cells. The aim of our study was to identify differential proteome of tMSCs derived from low vs. high grade glioma tumors.
    Materials And Methods
    Patients with newly diagnosed low and high grade gliomas were included in this case control study. tMSCs were isolated from tumors using enzymatic digestion validated by flow cytometer analysis after sub-culturing. Differential proteomic analysis of tMSCs derived from low and high grade tumors was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Protein spots with more than two fold differences and P values below 0.05 were considered as differentially expressed ones.
    Results
    In tMSCs isolated from low and high grade gliomas, different isoforms of mesenchymal-related proteins vimentin and transgelin were differentially expressed. Overexpressed proteins in tMSCs isolated from low grade gliomas were mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), 40S ribosomal protein SA, and GTP-binding nuclear protein, while in tMSCs isolated from high grade gliomas, cathepsin B, endoplasmin, ezrin, peroxiredoxin1, and pyruvate kinase (PK) were found to be significantly overexpressed.
    Conclusion
    For the first time, we analyzed the differential proteomic profiles of tMSCs isolated from glioma tumors with different grades. It was found that molecules related to mesenchymal cells (vimentin and transglin), in addition to those related to tumor aggressiveness with potential secretory behavior (e.g. cathepsin B) were among differentially expressed proteins.
    Keywords: Glioma, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Proteomics, Pyruvate Kinase
  • Mohammadali Nilforoushzadeh, Elham Rahimi Jameh, Fariba Jaffary, Ehsan Abolhasani, Gelavizh Keshtmand, Hajar Zarkob, Parvaneh Mohammadi, Nasser Aghdami Page 259
    Objective
    Dermal papilla and hair epithelial stem cells regulate hair formation and the growth cycle. Damage to or loss of these cells can cause hair loss. Although several studies claim to reconstitute hairs using rodent cells in an animal model, additional research is needed to develop a stable human hair follicle reconstitution protocol. In this study, we have evaluated hair induction by injecting adult cultured human dermal papilla cells and a mixture of hair epithelial and dermal papilla cells in a mouse model.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, discarded human scalp skins were used to obtain dermal papilla and hair epithelial cells. After separation, cells were cultured and assessed for their characteristics. We randomly allocated 15 C57BL/6 nude mice into three groups that received injections in their dorsal skin. The first group received cultured dermal papilla cells, the second group received a mixture of cultured epithelial and dermal papilla cells, and the third group (control) received a placebo [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS-)].
    Results
    Histopathologic examination of the injection sites showed evidence of hair growth in samples that received cells compared with the control group. However, the group that received epithelial and dermal papilla cells had visible evidence of hair growth. PKH tracing confirmed the presence of transplanted cells in the new hair.
    Conclusion
    Our data showed that injection of a combination of adult human cultured dermal papilla and epithelial cells could induce hair growth in nude mice. This study emphasized that the combination of human adult cultured dermal papilla and epithelial cells could induce new hair in nude mice.
    Keywords: Alopecia, Cell Therapy, Baldness, Dermal Papilla
  • Puria Motamed Fath, Fatemeh Yazdian, Rogayyeh Jamjah, Bahman Ebrahimi Hosseinzadeh, Maede Rahimnezhad, Razi Sahraeian, Ashrafalsadat Hatamian Page 269
    Objective
    Poly [2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphoryl choline (MPC)-co-n-buthyl methacrylate (BMA)-co-p-nitrophenyl-oxycrabonyl poly ethylene glycol-methacrylate (ME- ONP)] (PMBN), a biocompatible terpolymer, is a unique polymer with applications that range from drug delivery systems (DDS) to scaffolds and biomedical devices. In this research, we have prepared a monomer of p-nitrophenyl-oxycarbonyl poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (MEONP) to synthesize this polymer. Next, we designed and prepared a smart, water soluble, amphiphilic PMBN polymer composed of MPC, BMA, and MEONP.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, we dissolved MPC (4 mmol, 40% mole fraction), BMA (5 mmol, 50% mole fraction), and MEONP (1 mmol, 10% mole fraction) in 20 ml of dry ethanol in two necked flasks equipped with inlet-outlet gas. The structural characteristics of the synthesized monomer and polymer were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses for the first time. We treated the polymer with two different cell lines to determine its biocompatibility.
    Results
    FT-IR and H-NMR analyses confirmed the synthesis of the polymer. The size of polymer was approximately 40 nm with a molecular weight (MW) of 52 kDa, which would be excellent for a nano carrier. Microscopic analyses showed that the polymer was rodshaped. This polymer had no toxicity for individual cells.
    Conclusion
    We report here, for the first time, the full properties of the PMBN polymer. The approximately 40 nm size with an acceptable zeta potential range of -8.47, PDI of 0.1, and rod-shaped structure indicated adequate parameters of a nanopolymer for nano bioapplications. We used this polymer to design a new smart nano carrier to treat leukemia stem cells based on a target DDS as a type of bio-application.
    Keywords: Nano, Polymer, Drug Delivery System
  • Massoud Seifi, Bahram Kazemi, Sattar Kabiri, Mohammadreza Badiee Page 278
    Objective
    Root resorption is a complication of orthodontic treatment and till date, there is a dearth of information regarding this issue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, an inflammatory cytokine) is related to orthodontic force. Moreover, if associated, the expression level may be helpful in differential diagnosis, control and ultimate treatment of the disease.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, a total of 24 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were selected randomly. On day 0, an orthodontic appliance, which consisted of a closed coil spring, was ligated to the upper right first molar and incisor. The upper left first molar in these animals was not placed under orthodontic force, thus serving as the control group. On day 21, after anesthesia, the animals were sacrificed. The rats were then divided into two equal groups where the first group was subjected to histological evaluation and the second group to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Orthodontic tooth movement was measured in both groups to determine the influence of the applied force.
    Results
    Statistical analysis of data showed a significant root resorption between the experimental group and control group (P
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that there is a direct relationship between orthodontic force and orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption. In addition, no relationship is likely to exist between root resorption and TGF-β1 expression in the resorptive lacunae.
    Keywords: Transforming growth factor, β1, Root Resorption, Tooth Movement, Gene expression, Rats
  • Samideh Khoei, Roghayeh Poorabdollahi, Ahmad Mostaar, Fariborz Faeghi Page 283
    Objective
    This study intended to observe the effects of methoxyamine (Mx) on cytotoxic effects and DNA damage caused by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with gamma radiation in a human colon cancer cell line, HT29.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, HT29 cells were cultured as a monolayer and treated with different concentrations of 5-FU along with 1 mM Mx for 24 hours. Next, the cells were irradiated with 2 Gy gamma radiation. After the treatments, we assessed for DNA damage, cytotoxicity, and viability by alkaline comet, clonogenic survival, and trypan blue dye exclusion assays.
    Results
    Cytotoxicity and DNA damage increased with increasing 5-FU concentration. The 1 mM Mx concentration had no significant effect on cytotoxicity and DNA damage from 5-FU; however, it increased the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of different concentrations of 5-FU when used in combination with 2 Gy gamma radiation.
    Conclusion
    Mx combined with 5-FU enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells.
    Keywords: 5, Fluorouracil, Methoxyamine, Radiation, Comet Assay, Colon Cancer
  • Hamed Rezaie Agdam, Mazdak Razi, Amir Amniattalab, Hassan Malekinejad, Morteza Molavi Page 292
    Objective
    Atrazine (ATZ) as a widely used herbicide is considered as a potent endocrine disrupter which adversely affects reproductive systems in both genders. This study aimed to assess the effects of testosterone (T)- and vitamin E (VitE)- alone and their coadministration on testicular function and sperm parameters after exposure to ATZ in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, the rats (n=30) are assigned into the following 5 groups: control-sham group (n=6) receiving corn oil, ATZ group (n=6) receiving 200 mg/kg ATZ alone, ATZ嘫 group (n=6) receiving 150 mg/kg ATZ嘫, ATZ group (n=6) receiving 400 µg/kg ATZ, and ATZ嘫䓹 group (n=6) receiving ATZ嘫䓹 for 48 consecutive days. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed. Serum levels of T, luteinizing hormone (LH), and inhibin-B (IN-B) were also determined. Histological examination and sperm analysis were performed. The data were analyzed using Graph-Pad Prism software version 2.01.
    Results
    Co-administration of VitE and T significantly (P
    Conclusion
    T and VitE in simultaneous form of administration were able to normalize the ATZ-induced derangements through promoting antioxidant capacity and endocrine function.
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress_Testosterone_Atrazine_Vitamin E Testis
  • Saeideh Khoshnoud, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Mohammad Nabiuni Page 306
    Objective
    Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolite drug commonly prescribed for the various cancers and autoimmune diseases. Despite its considerable therapeutic effects, nephrotoxicity is the most important side-effect of treatment with MTX. Aquaporin1 (AQP1) is a water channel proteins which is present in mammalian kidney. Raspberry fruit with antioxidant properties is able to protect biological systems from the harmful effects of free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of raspberry extract on expression of AQP1 and the MTX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, 60 adult male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups including control, sham, MTX treated group [single dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight (BW) MTX at the third day], raspberry treated groups [intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg of BW raspberry extract for ten consecutive days], MTX and raspberry treated groups. At day 11, rats were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and kidney tissues were fixed in formalin solution for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. The serological assays for urea, creatinine, uric acid and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also performed.
    Results
    MTX elevated serum level of the urea, creatinine, uric acid, IL-6, renal tissue damage and decreased the AQP1 expression level. Raspberry fruit extract improved the kidney function and reduced side effects of MTX in treated rats. Expression of AQP1, in a dose dependent manner was also ameliorated, as compared to control group.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that biological activity of compounds presented in raspberry fruit extract especially anthocyanins may have chemo-protective effect on kidney function and AQP1 expression in rats treated by MTX.
    Keywords: Methotrexate, Nephrotoxicity, Rat
  • Marjaneh Kayssan, Mahrokh Dolatian, Reza Omani Samani, Saman Maroufizadeh Page 314
    Objective
    After the introduction of assisted reproductive techniques, human embryos were officially introduced into laboratories and now thousands of them are cryopreserved in such settings. Embryonic stem cells and the future application of such cells in the treatment of disease opened the door to further research on human embryos. These developments raise many ethical issues, some of which have religious aspects. The main question is: what is the embryo? Should we consider it a human being? Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes towards the personhood of the embryo.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross sectional study, 203 infertile patients (n=406), 54 clinic staff and 49 embryo researchers, selected using convenience sampling at the Royan Institute, completed a questionnaire on personhood of human embryo. The questionnaire had been developed following qualitative research and had satisfied face and content validity tests.
    Results
    At the pre-implantation stage the majority of participants in all three groups considered the human embryo as "not a human being". Also, at the post-implantation stage of development, the majority of infertile couples and clinic staff considered the embryo as "not a human being" but, half the researchers (51%) considered the embryo in this stage as a "potential human". Half of the infertile couples considered the human fetus before ensoulment time (19th week of pregnancy according to the Shiite Islamic scholars) as "not-human being", while more than half of researchers (55.1%) considered it as a "potential human".
    Conclusion
    Ensoulment time is a major and important border for personhood. Most infertile couples and clinic staff consider the human embryo as "not a human being" but majority of all study participants considered the human fetus to be a complete human after ensoulment time.
    Keywords: Attitude, Personhood, Human Embryo, Ensoulment, Fetus
  • Reza Fardid, Ashkan Salajegheh, Mohammad Amin Mosleh, Shirazi, Sedigheh Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Ali Okhovat, Masoud Najafi, Abolhasan Rezaeiyan, Akbar Abaszadeh Page 324
    In this study, we evaluated the bystander effect of radiation on the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats with and without pre-administration of melatonin. A 2×2 cm2 area of the pelvis of male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without pre-administration of melatonin (100 mg/kg) by oral and intraperitoneal injection was irradiated with a 3 Gy dose of 1.25 MeV γ-rays. Alterations in the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and 8-OHdG in the out-of-field lung areas of the animals were detected by enzyme immunoassay. The bystander effect significantly increased COX-2, iNOS, and 8-OHdG levels in non-targeted lung tissues (P
    Keywords: Radiation, Induced Bystander Effect, Melatonin, Cyclooxygenase, 2, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase