فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:5 Issue:4, 2017
  • Volume:5 Issue:4, 2017
  • 100 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • اثر نسبت های مختلف کمپوست در بستر کشت بر محصول قارچ صدفی Pleurotus columbinus
    صفحه 281
  • استفاده از زائدات لیگنین برای تهیه کود اوره با رهایش کنترل شده
    جمشید بهین، نادر صادقی صفحه 289
  • تبدیل ورمی کمپوستی پساب نیروگاه بیوگاز و علف هرز ستاره ای به کود آلی
    صفحه 301
  • اثر کمپوست بر رشد و محصول گیاه Phaseolus vulgaris در خاک های شور
    صفحه 311
  • کمپوست گوار، گیاه سیبان و سبوس برنج جایگزینی برای پیت در تولید نشاء های طالبی
    صفحه 323
  • حذف فلزات سنگین از پساب صنعتی با استفاده از لایه های طبیبعی درون آبیاری کوزه ای
    پیام نجفی، کامران عسگری، نجمه صمدی صفحه 333
  • اثر کمپوست زباله های شهری و کود نیتروژنی بر رشد و ترکیبات معدنی گوجه فرنگی
    مجید رجایی، امیررضا توکلی صفحه 339
  • تجزیه ی پسماند محصول با قارچ هایی جدا شده از مناطق محافظت شده ی کشاورزی تحت سیستم گندم - برنج شمال غربی هند
    صفحه 349
  • ذغال زیستی حاصل از پوسته ی ارقان: تولید و ویژگی ها
    صفحه 361
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  • Fruiting bodies yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus columbinus) as affected by different portions of compost in the substrate
    Mohamed F. Mohamed, Emad F. S. Refaei, Mohamed M. A. Abdalla, Sayed H. Abdelgalil Page 281
    Purpose
    A study was conducted to assess production of Pleurotus columbinus mushroom fruiting bodies for different formulations of rice or corn straw substrates mixed at different percent portions with the corresponding composted straw.
    Methods
    These formulations were: (1) raw straw (RS) mixed with 5 % composted straw (CS), (2) RS mixed with 10 % CS, (3) RS mixed with 15 % CS, (4) RS mixed with 25 % CS, (5) RS mixed with 50 % CS, and (6) 100 % RS. Composted straw (CS) was made of moistened chopped RS mixed with chicken manure and soil (4:1:1, v/v).
    Results
    Data showed a magnificent impact of the substrate on oyster mushroom fruiting bodies yield and characteristics. There was a significant progressive upgrading in all parameters studied of mushroom growth and crop outcome with increasing the percentage of CS mixed with the RS substrate up to 15 %. Utilizing CS at 25 % significantly downgraded these parameters. No mushroom growth was observed at all when cultivated in medium contained 50 % CS. Instead, molds of different colors grew on that latter substrate mixture. The formulation containing 15 % CS distinctly gave the uppermost fruiting bodies yield, biological efficiency, earliness for pinheads formation, fruiting body cap diameter, thickness and weight and stem diameter, length and weight. Up to 80 % increase in fruiting bodies crop outcome relative to sole RS was detected.
    Conclusions
    This study suggests that composted straw substrates hold a great promise for the development of Pleurotus mushroom production industry.
    Keywords: Fruiting bodies, Edible fungi, Lignocellulosic wastes, Macrofungi, Pleurotus columbinus, Primary decomposer
  • Utilization of waste lignin to prepare controlled-slow release urea
    Jamshid Behin, Nader Sadeghi Page 289
    Purpose
    The present work reports an economically attractive improvement in the area of producing particulate slow release nitrogen fertilizer using lignin as a waste effluent of pulp and paper manufacturing process.
    Methods
    An improved coating of modified lignin was applied on the surfaces of the individual urea particles. The Kraft and Sulfite black liquors obtained from two different paper pulping units and were used as sources of sulfate and sulfite lignin, respectively. Chemical modification of extracted lignin was performed through acetylation reaction by acetic acid/sodium metabisulfite to increase its hydrophobicity character. In a separate experiment, a thin layer of synthesized acetylated lignin was coated on granular urea by fluidized-bed technique. The nitrogen release of synthesized fertilizer in the water and soil was examined by the Kjeldahl method.
    Results
    The analysis of FTIR spectra indicated the changes in the functional groups of acetylated lignin. Petrographic photography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses demonstrated a uniform and homogeneous covering of the urea surface. The 7 day nitrogen release rate of urea coated by acetylated lignin in soil was obtained 36.3 and 45.3 % for Kraft and Sulfite lignin, respectively, whereas this value was 59 % for sulfur coated urea.
    Conclusions
    Using industrial wastewater as source of lignin gives satisfactory results for industrial applications and yields a quality green fertilizer product with reduced operation difficulties while considerably preserving the environment.
    Keywords: Controlled release fertilizer, Fluidized, bed coating, Kraft, sulfite liquor, Modified lignin coated urea
  • Vermiconversion of biogas plant slurry and parthenium weed mixture to manure
    Anoop Yadav, V. K. Garg Page 301
    Purpose
    Parthenium hysterophorus is one among the most troublesome weeds at the global level. It is mainly controlled by chemical methods. The scientific community is in search of new but non-destructive approaches for its management. Vermicomposting is one among the promising technologies for the management of organic fraction of solid wastes. This study was undertaken to assess the vermicomposting of parthenium weed mixed with biogas plant slurry under laboratory conditions.
    Method
    Six different combinations of biogas plant slurry and parthenium were fed to worms in vermibins under controlled laboratory conditions for 60 days. Various physico-chemical parameters before and after vermicomposting were evaluated. Worm biomass production was also monitored periodically during the experimentation period.
    Results
    The EC, TCa and NPK content increased significantly after vermicomposting, accompanied by substantial reduction in organic carbon content. C: N ratio was reduced to less than 20. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Pb) concentration was higher in vermicompost than in initial waste mixtures. Parthenium weed addition to worm feed was not supportive to the worm growth and fecundity. It was inferred from the results that vermicomposting may be an efficient biological approach to convert parthenium-spiked biogas plant slurry into nutrient-rich manure.
    Keywords: Biogas plant slurry, Eisenia fetida, Parthenium hysterophorus, Vermicompost, Weed, Worm growth
  • The effect of compost on growth and yield of Phaseolus vulgaris plants grown under saline soil
    Mostafa M. Rady Email Author, Wael M. Semida, Khaulood A. Hemida, Magdi T. Bdelhamid Page 311
    Purpose
    The effect of a novel organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF) compost, as a partial alternative to mineral fertilizers, on soil characteristics, growth, physio-biochemical attributes, Cd2 and NO3− concentrations, and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants grown under salt stress was investigated.
    Methods
    Six organic and mineral materials were well mixed with water and composted in a polyvinyl house in a concrete trench of size 4 × 5 × 2 m (W × L × D), respectively. The moisture content was maintained at 50–60% throughout the active composting period by frequent checking. The mixture was turned at 7-day intervals for about 2 months to maintain porosity. This OMF compost was applied for the tested saline soil at 10, 20 and 30 ton ha−1 while reducing the recommended NPK to 50%. In addition,100% NPK was applied as a control to achieve the purpose of this study. Growth characteristics, quantitative and qualitative yield, Cd2 and NO3− concentrations, and physio-biochemical attributes in common bean plants were assessed.
    Results
    Addition of OMF compost improved the soil chemical and physical properties. Application of OMF compost at a rate of 20 ton h−1, as an alternative to 50% of the recommended dose of mineral-NPK fertilizers, significantly decreased the concentrations of Cd2 and NO3− in plant leaves, pods and seeds, showing the same growth characteristics, and pod and seed yields compared to the control (100% of mineral-NPK fertilizers). This treatment also improved all determined physio-biochemical attributes and tested soil characteristics compared to the control.
    Conclusion
    The benefit of this OMF compost, as a partial alternative to chemical fertilizers, demonstrated the validity and possibility of sustainable agronomic performance of common bean using locally available recycled organic materials for manufacturing the studied OMF.
    Keywords: Common bean, Compost, Productivity, Cadmium, Nitrate, Salinity
  • Guar, jantar, wheat straw, and rice hull composts as replacements for peat in muskmelon transplant production
    Ghulam Mustafa Email Author, Muhammad Arif Ali, Donald Smith, Timothy Schwinghamer, John R. Lamont, Niaz Ahmed, Sajjad Hussain, Muhammad Arshad Page 323
    Purpose
    The demand for soilless media for vegetable transplant production is increasing. Economic constraints paired with concerns over the sustainability of peat mining have necessitated the replacement of peat with renewable and regionally abundant alternatives. The aim of this study was to develop from composts complete or partial substitutes for peat.
    Methods
    Composted guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), jantar (Sesbania aculeata), wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw, and rice (Oryza sativa) hulls adjusted to 10% air-filled porosity (AFP) were blended on a volumetric basis with peat moss at discrete levels (0–50%). Total water-holding capacity, shrinkage, dry and wet bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity, N, P, K, FE, B, and Zn concentrations of each compost, their blends, and a peat control were measured. The experimental media were used to grow muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants in a greenhouse. Seed germination, shoot fresh weight, shoot height, leaf area, stem diameter, root length, and mineral nutrient concentrations of transplants were quantified. After transplanting in the field, the growth rates and yields were measured. Nonparametric regression was used to analyze the data.
    Results
    The physiochemical parameters measured for most of the experimental media fell within the recommended range for growing media; however, pH for all media exceeded the recommended range. Media-containing guar and jantar composts generally contained more nutrients than media-containing rice hull or wheat straw composts. Fresh weight, height, and root length were generally greater for seedlings grown in media-containing rice hull compost than for those grown in media-containing other composts. Seedlings grown in media-containing guar or jantar composts generally had greater tissue nutrient concentrations.
    Conclusions
    All blends produced acceptable seedlings; however, the largest seedlings, and greatest post-transplant growth rate and yield were produced in media containing 30–50% rice hull compost.
    Keywords: Compost, Peat moss, Potting media, Muskmelon, Cucumis melo
  • Heavy metal elimination from industrial wastewater using natural substrate on pitcher irrigation
    Payam Najafi Email Author, Kamran Asgari, Najmeh Samadi Page 333
    Combination of pitcher irrigation with drip irrigation system could be resulted in prolonging the secondary treatment period, as it could be an efficient system in which municipal and industrial wastewater can be treated and heavy metals can be reduced. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted with three treatments [clay pitcher included natural zeolite Clinoptilolite (NZ), perlite (P) and vermiculite (V)] which filled half of the volume of a clay pitcher with five replications for each treatments. Beside each tree, one pitcher was placed at 50 cm depth. The soil of each hole was initially sampled, sealed, and transported to the laboratory. The pitchers were irrigated with treated industrial wastewater (from steel factory) 60 times (1500 cc per each irrigation event) over a period of six months. At the end of experiment period, the pitchers were removed and samples were taken from the substrate inside each pitcher and from the soil near the walls and bottoms of the holes. The sealed samples were transported to the laboratory for analyzing heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the used substrates in this experiment have high ability to absorb some heavy metals, especially Pb and Zn which concentration were increased in final value 75 and 80 times compared with initial values, respectively. However, an increase of these two elements in the soil (Zn = 26 and Pb = 71 ppm) nearby the pitcher indicate that the used substrates have limitations in absorption capacity for the heavy metals in high concentration of them in the wastewater. As this is related to their surface area, application of a nano form of the substrates such as nano zeolite might remarkably increase their cation exchange capacity and surface area.
    Keywords: Heavy metal, Industrial wastewater, Zeolite, Perlite, Vermiculite, Esfahan
  • Effects of municipal waste compost and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and mineral composition of tomato
    Majid Rajaie, Amir Reza Tavakoly Page 339
    Purpose
    Since simultaneous use of organic and mineral fertilizers on the basis of their chemical compositions can lead to better plant growth and soil fertility, the roles of municipal waste compost (MWC) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on growth and mineral composition of tomato and some soil properties were evaluated under greenhouse condition.
    Methods
    Treatments involved four MWC rates (0, 1, 2, and 4% on the basis of soil dry weight) and four N levels (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg kg−1 soil). Red cloud variety of tomato was sown in treated soils and 9 weeks later dried plant shoots and soil sub-samples were subjected to analysis.
    Results
    Combined use of MWC and N led to better growth of tomato than sole application of either MWC or N fertilizer. Plant concentration and/or uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese were increased by both MWC and N. The beneficial effect of MWC on nutrients uptake was more pronounced with N addition. Plant and soil concentrations of cadmium and lead were under the detection limit of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Soluble salts, organic matter, sodium, chloride and DTPA-extractable zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in the soil were effectively increased with addition of MWC.
    Conclusions
    Due to high soil pH and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) values of the calcareous soil, MWC heavy metals had no hazardous effect on tomato and even played a nutritional role. The most important problem raised from MWC application was the accumulation of soluble salts in the soil which must be monitored when making repeated application of MWC over an extended period of time.
    Keywords: Municipal waste compost, Nitrogen, Alkaline condition, Tomato, Heavy metals Soil properties
  • Crop residue degradation by fungi isolated from conservation agriculture fields under rice- wheat system of North-West India
    Madhu Choudhary Email Author, Parbodh C. Sharma, Hanuman S. Jat, Vibha Nehra, Andrew J. Mcdonald, Neelam Garg Page 349
    Purpose
    In North West-Indo Gangetic Plains (NW-IGP) of India in situ burning of crop residues is practiced by majority of farmers’ which deteriorates soil and environmental quality. Fungi have the potential for lignocellulose degradation and can be used for the in situ decomposition of crop residues. Lignocellulose degrading fungal spp. were isolated and evaluated for the activity of lignocellulolytic enzymes.
    Method
    The lignocellulose degrading fungi were isolated by appearance of zone on carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) agar media and tannic acid (TA) media. Carboxy methyl cellulase, filter paperase, cellobiase, xylanase and laccase activity were estimated in submerged, as well as solid state fermentation using a mixture of rice and wheat straw in the ratio of 4:1. rice–wheat straw as substrate. The residue left after solid state fermentation was evaluated for carbon/nitrogen ratio, dry mass loss, and loss of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Selected potential isolates were further tested in pot experiment for their effect on wheat plants. The interaction among isolates was also studied.
    Result
    After primary screening, 19 out of a total of 72 fungal isolates were selected based on their enzymatic activity profile and potential to degrade lignocellulosic residues in submerged fermentation. Out of these 19 isolates, 11 were further selected based on their enzymatic secretions in solid state fermentation. All the 11 strains were identified morphologically. Four fungal isolates (RPW 1/3, RPW 1/6, RPWM 2/2 and RZWM 3/2) showed higher enzymatic activities and more loss of dry mass and cell wall constituents over the other isolates. These isolates were identified by ITS region sequencing as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium pinophilum and Alternaria alternata.
    Conclusion
    This study revealed that fungal isolates may be used for managing crop residues in conservation agriculture based rice–wheat system of NW-IGP to eliminate ill effects of residue burning.
    Keywords: Conservation agriculture, Crop residues, Fungi, Lignocellulolytic activity
  • Biochar from argan shells: production and characterization
    Laila Bouqbis Email Author, Salma Daoud, Hans, Werner Koyro, Claudia Irene Kammann, Lalla Fatima Zohra Ainlhout, Moulay Cherif Harrouni Page 361
    Purpose
    The agricultural practices in south western Morocco reserve a majority of the water resources to be used for irrigation. The extent of irrigated agriculture combined with high evaporative rates, lead to the depletion of water resources and degradation of soil quality. To remedy to this problem, biochar, a pyrolysed biomass, is highly considered to improve retaining water and nutrients in soils. For this biochar research, argan shells obtained after extraction of argan oil were used as the biomass source to produce biochar. According to the best of our knowledge, no research to date has been carried out on the production and characterization of biochar produced from argan shells wastes.
    Methods
    To produce biochar, we have used a pyrolytic stove fabricated in Morocco from locally available materials. The biochar sample collected was then crushed, sieved (
    Results
    The physical and chemical properties of the argan shells biochar revealed a highly alkaline pH, high electrical conductivity, high content of K, Na, Mg and NaNO3, low content of Ca, KH2PO4 and low content of heavy metals compared to sandy soil and peat. In addition, by increasing biochar application, the water holding capacities of biochar-sand mixtures also increased.
    Conclusions
    The use of argan shells biochar to enrich the soil will be expected to improve both nutrient and water retention especially that South Western Morocco is subject to frequent drought.
    Keywords: Biochar, Argan shells, Biochar analysis, Nutrients, Water retention