فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Molecular and Cellular Medicine - Volume:6 Issue: 21, 2017
  • Volume:6 Issue: 21, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ali Dianatpour, Soudeh Ghafouri Fard * Pages 1-12
    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are abrasions caused in both strands of the DNA duplex following exposure to both exogenous and endogenous conditions. Such abrasions have deleterious effect in cells leading to genome rearrangements and cell death. A number of repair systems including homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) have been evolved to minimize the fatal effects of these lesions in cell. The role of protein coding genes in regulation of these pathways has been assessed previously. However, a number of recent studies have focused on evaluation of non-coding RNAs participation in DNA repair. We performed a computerized search of the Medline/Pubmed databases with key words: DNA repair, homologous recombination, non-homologues end joining and long non-coding RNA. The existing data highlight the role of long non-coding RNAs in DSB repair as well as dysregulation in their expression which would lead to pathological conditions such as cancer. The specific mechanism of their contribution in DNA repair pathways has been elucidated for a few of them. LncRNAs participate in several steps of DNA repair pathways and regulate the expression of key components of these pathways including p53 tumor suppressor gene.
    Keywords: DNA damage response, long non coding RNA, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR)
  • Mohammad Kazemi, Mansoor Salehi *, Majid Kheirollahi Pages 13-21
    This study aimed to verify the reliability of the 7 tissue differentially methylated regions used in the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) based approach of fetal DNA in maternal blood to diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21. Forty pregnant women with high risk pregnancy who were referred after first or second trimester screening tests, were selected randomly. For each sample whole DNA extraction (mother and fetus), fragmentation of DNA, immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA and real- time qPCR using 7 primer pairs, was performed. D-value for each sample was calculated using the following formula D= -4.908 0.254 XEP1 0.409 XEP4 0.793 XEP5 0.324 XEP6 0.505 XEP7 0.508 XEP9 0.691 XEP12. In all normal cases, D value was negative, while it was positive in all trisomy cases. Therefore, all normal and trisomy 21 cases were classified correctly which correspond to 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for this method. The MeDIP real-time qPCR method has provided the opportunity for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21 to be potentially employed into the routine practice of diagnostic laboratories.
    Keywords: Down syndrome, trisomy 21, prenatal diagnosis, cell-free fetal DNA, noninvasive prenatal testing, prenatal genetic screening
  • Faezeh Azizi, Soraya Saleh Gargari, Sedigheh Asadi Shahmirzadi, Fatemeh Dodange, Vahid Amiri, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mir Davood Omrani * Pages 22-30
    It has been well documented that preeclampsia (PE) has a common etiological background, but little is known about its linkage at the molecular level.Non- coding RNAs are critical posttranscriptional regulators ofgene expression. This study was performed to determine whether PEis associated with alterations in placental non-codingRNAs expression. MicroRNA(miR)-155-5p and long non-coding RNA (lnc)sONE expression, in placentas collected sequentially from 59 patients with PE and 40 normotensive pregnancies were measured using real-time PCR.The relationship between miR-155-5p and lncsONE expressions wasanalyzed statistically. miR-155-5p expression was increased(fold change=1.6, P=0.04), whilelncsONE expression was not significantly changed(fold change=1.1, P=0.68), in placentas from patients compared with control group.miR-155-5p was upregulated in placentas from patients with PEand may have influencedeNOS expression. These findings indicate that miRNA-155-5p may be involved in PE pathogenesis and could be a potential biomarker for this disease.
    Keywords: Preeclampsia, miR-155-5p, long non-coding RNA sONE, real time PCR
  • Maryam Mafi Golchin, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian *, Haleh Akhavan Niaki, Rozita Jalalian, Laleh Hedari, Ali Reza Salami Pages 31-37
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) including myocardial infarction (MI) as its complication, is one of the most common heart diseases worldwide and also in Iran, with extremely elevated mortality. CAD is a multifactorial disorder. Twin and family studies at different loci have demonstrated that genetic factors have an important role in the progression of CAD. Many studies have reported a significant association of CDKN2B-AS, also known as ANRIL which is located within the p15, p16, p14 gene cluster at 9p21 locus, with cardiovascular diseases as well as many other diseases like diabetes and cancers. This study investigated two polymorphisms rs10757274 and rs1333042 of CDKN2B-AS gene at 9p21 locus. 205 subjects, comprising 102 controls and 103 CAD patients were genotyped by TaqMan probe real time PCR technique and haplotypes were examined. This study confirmed the association of rs10757274 variants with CAD in Iranian patients (P= 0.003) but genotype and allele distributions of CAD and control groups showed no significant association for the rs1333042. However, frequency of the [G;G] haplotype of these two SNPs was significantly higher in CAD group (P= 0.0002, Odds Ratio = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.7-5.7). Our finding suggests that [G; G] haplotype of rs10757274 and rs1333042 may be considered as a genetic risk factor for susceptibility to CAD in Iranian patients.
    Keywords: Single nucleotide polymorphism, risk factor, coronary artery disease, CDKN2B-AS, Iranian
  • Maur, Iacute, Cio Mercaldi Pastrelo, Carla Caroline Dias Ribeiro, Joselmo Willamys Duarte, AndrEa Pitelli Boiago Gollucke, Ricardo Artigiani-Neto, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Sender Jankiel Miszputen, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima, Ana Paula Ribeiro Paiotti * Pages 38-49
    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play a crucial role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exacerbating the chronic inflammatory process. Endogenous and diet antioxidants can neutralize these compounds. The apple is widely consumed, with several antioxidant activity compounds. The present study evaluated the effects of concentrated apple extract (CAE) in acetic acid induced colitis. 29 Wistar male rats were randomized into 5 groups. G1 – Sham/saline solution, G2 – CAE/control, G3 – acetic acid/control, G4 – curative-CAE treatment and G5 – preventive-CAE treatment. 8 days later, the animals were euthanized and the colonic segment resected for macroscopic and histological analysis. Gene expression was evaluated for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), catalase and copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) by quantitative real time PCR, while protein expression was assessed for iNOS, COX-2 and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by immuno-histochemistry. The groups G3, G4 and G5 had weight loss, while G5 had weight increase at the end of the experiment. The treatment with CAE reduced the macroscopic and microscopic injury, decreased iNOS mRNA expression and increased CuZnSOD mRNA expression in animals with induced acetic acid-colitis. The findings of the present study suggest that CAE treatment exerts an antioxidant role by downregulating iNOS and upregulating CuZnSOD.
    Keywords: Experimental colitis, apple extract, antioxidant, iNOS, CuZnSOD
  • Meysam Hasannejad Bibalan, Morteza Eshaghi, Mahdi Rohani, Mohammad Reza Pourshafi, Malihe Talebi * Pages 50-55
    Lactobacillus species play an important role in gastrointestinal (GI) tract function, intestinal microbiota balance, and the immune system activity by exerting a strong activity against many intestinal pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate Lactobacillus species from fecal samples, investigate their antimicrobial properties, and characterixe their bacteriocins encoding genes. 48 fecal samples were grown on MRS broth and then MRS agar. The colonies grown on MRS agar were selected and identified by PCR. 72 Lactobacillus species were obtained from 434 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Approximately 40% of all Lactobacillus isolates had antimicrobial activity against one or more microorganisms and 17.4% of them were active against all four indicator bacteria. The frequency of bacteriocin encoding genes were 5 (6.9%), 3 (4.1%) and 5 (6.9%) for Gassericin A, Plantaricin S and Laf operon, respectively. pH alteration had no effect on antibacterial activity, but in the alkaline range these activities were reduced and the strains showed the highest antibacterial activity after 48 h incubation. These data indicate that the majority of isolates were susceptible to GI tract or belonged to other bacterial forms such as viable but nonculturable (VBNC). The detection of bacteriocin encoding genes in about only 6% of all Lactobacillus isolates seems to be due to the existence of many other bacteriocin encoding genes in Lactobacillus species which were not tested. Further study of the bacteriocin gene clusters, types, subtypes and the probiotic effect of these strains will contribute to a better characterization of these isolates.
    Keywords: Lactobacillus, bacteriocin genes, antibacterial activity, healthy individual
  • Hossein Jalali, Mohammad Reza Mahdavi *, Najmeh Zaeromali Pages 56-60
    Torque Teno virus (TTV) is a transfusion transmitted virus that seems to be involved in several complications such as acute respiratory diseases, liver diseases, AIDS, cancer, and autoimmune reactions. In the present study the frequency of TTV was investigated among β- thalassemia (BT) and haemodialysis (HD) patients (high risk patients for TTV) in Mazandaran province, Iran. DNA was extracted from the serum of 82 BT and 100 HD patients, and nested PCR method was applied to detect TTV DNA. The aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) enzyme levels in BT patients were measured using photometric assay. The mean ages of BT and HD patients were 23.4± 5.4 and 48.8 ± 8.2 years, respectively. 21% of HD, and 26.8% of BT patients were infected with TTV, respectively. The frequency of TTV was not significantly different between two groups of patients and there was no significant correlation between sex and TTV infection. The mean AST and ALT levels in TTV positive BT patients was not significantly higher than TTV negative cases. The present study showed that TTV prevalence in BT patients with recurrent blood transfusion was not significantly higher than HD patients. The investigation of TTV prevalence in healthy individuals is recommended to identify if transfusion or dialysis is associated with higher TTV infection. Besides, although TTV infection did not change AST and ALT enzymes in BT patients, the liver involvement may still exist in these patients.
    Keywords: Torque Teno virus (TTV), ?-thalassemia, haemodialysis
  • Javad Karimzad Hagh, Thomas Liehr, Hamid Ghaedi, Mir Majid Mossalaeie, Shohreh Alimohammadi, Faegheh Inanloo Hajiloo, Zahra Moeini, Sadaf Sarabi, Davood Zare-Abdollahi * Pages 61-65
    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are still a major problem in clinical cytogenetics as they cannot be identified or characterized unambiguously by conventional cytogenetics alone. On the other hand, and perhaps more importantly in prenatal settings, there is a challenging situation for counseling how to predict the risk for an abnormal phenotype, especially in cases with a de novo sSMC. Here we report on the prenatal diagnosis of a mosaic tetrasomy 18p due to presence of an sSMC in a fetus without abnormal sonographic signs. For a 26-year-old, gravida 2 (para 1) amniocentesis was done due to consanguineous marriage and concern for Down syndrome, based on borderline risk assessment. Parental karyotypes were normal, indicating a de novo chromosome aberration of the fetus. FISH analysis as well as molecular karyotyping identified the sSMC as an i(18)(pter->q10::q10->pter), compatible with tetrasomy for the mentioned region. Cordocentesis was done due to normal sonography and the results from amniocentesis were confirmed. The parents opted for pregnancy termination and post mortem examination now noted, low anterior hairline, large philtrum, low-set posteriorly rotated malformed ears with prominent antihelix, lower limbs joint contracture and digital anomalies, including long and narrow toes with clinodactyly of the 1st and 5th toes and postaxial polydactyly of one hand. De novo i(18p) can be considered as a special case in the sense that the major relevant phenotypes mentioned for it, i.e. feeding difficulties, abnormalities in muscle tone and developmental/mental retardation, cognitive and behavioral characteristics, recurrent otitis media and seizures, are mostly postnatal. This emphasizes the necessity to determine the nature of a de novo euchromatic marker chromosome, especially in cases with normal ultrasound result and the suitability of a cordocentesis in order to better predicting the pregnancy outcome and parental counseling.
    Keywords: Tetrasomy, prenatal, cordocentesis, amniocentesis, polydactyly, isochromosome 18p, marker, small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC)