فهرست مطالب

هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 69 (بهار 1396)
  • پیاپی 69 (بهار 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/01/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • طیبه بهشتی* صفحات 1-13
    از آنجا که به چگونگی ترکیب بندی و نظام حاکم بر طراحی تذهیب در نسخ خطی ایرانی تاکنون کمتر توجه شده است، مقاله پیش رو کوشیده ایم تا با تکیه بر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی موردی و با استفاده از شیوه مطالعه کمی، از یک سو، تذهیب های دو نسخه خطی شاهنامه مصور و غیرمصور بایسنغری را معرفی و توصیف می کنیم و از دیگر سو، نظام حاکم بر طراحی آن را به بحث بگذاریم. این دو نسخه از آن جهت انتخاب شد که نه تنها دو نمونه بارز از نسخ خطی ساخته شده در سبک کتاب آرایی بایسنقری است، بلکه از معدود نسخ خطی این سبک از کتاب آرایی به شمار می روند که در گنجینه های داخلی حفظ و نگهداری می شوند؛ سبکی که به باور عموم پژوهشگران، نمونه بارز هنر کلاسیک در میان سبک های کتاب آرایی ایرانی است و ویژگی هایش بر تمامی سبک های پس از خود، از ایران گرفته تا هند مغولی و ترکیه عثمانی، موثر واقع شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که هنرمندان تیموری با بهره گیری از برخی قواعد ساده هندسی همچون تقسیم پاره خط به بخش های مساوی، تقسیم دایره به قاچ های برابر، ساختار شبکه ای و بهره گیری از تناسباتی نظیر 2√/1 و 3√/1 توانستند تذهیب هایی زیبا، متناسب و در عین حال ظریف و پرمایه خلق کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: تذهیب، ترکیب بندی، شاهنامه غیرمصور بایسنغری، شاهنامه مصور بایسنغری، نظام طراحی
  • علیرضا طاهری* صفحات 15-29
    کتاب مطالع السعاده یا سعادتنسخه ای بسیار نفیس است که در دوران سلاطین ترک عثمانی نوشته و تصویرسازی شده است. این اثر به سفارش سلطان مراد سوم تهیه شده است. این کتاب شامل توضیحات و توصیفاتی از دوازده علایم صورفلکی به همراه مینیاتورها و نقاشی های بسیار عالی است. کتاب البلهان ابومعشر بلخی را می توان از سرچشمه های اصلی کتاب سعادت دانست. کتاب البلهان را برخی به کتاب عجایب ترجمه کرده اند، اما در واقع نوعی کتاب فالنامه و شامل بخش هایی همچون فال انبیا، فال مقبول و اختلاج است. در این کتاب برای کنترل تاثیر طلسم ها و مکان های سحرانگیز به انواع دیوها، اجنه، فرشتگان، پیامبران و جداول طلسمات پرداخته شده است. تصاویر کتاب سعادت در بسیاری از نگاره ها قابل تطبیق و مقایسه با کتاب البلهان ابومعشر بلخی است. هدف این مقاله، بررسی میزان تاثیرپذیری نگاره های کتاب سعادت از تصویرسازی کتاب البلهان است که با روش توصیفی- تطبیقی انجام شده است. نگاره های کتاب سعادت به لحاظ قدرت تصویرگری، طراحی، کادربندی، خلوص رنگ، رنگ پردازی و دقت در جزییات بسیار قوی تر از نمونه الگوی خود است، هر چند نگارگر در ترکیب بندی ها سعی کرده است تا به تصاویر کتاب البلهان نزدیک و وفادار بماند.
    کلیدواژگان: جن، دیو، فالنامه، کتاب البلهان، کتاب سعادت، هنر عثمانی
  • اکرم رفیعی وردنجانی*، علی اکبر شریفی مهرجردی صفحات 31-42
    در نسخ مصور چاپ سنگی- اگر نسخه افتادگی نداشته باشد- نام و رقم کاتب در صفحه اول یا آخر آمده است. این در حالی است که در بسیاری از این نسخ، نام هنرمند تصاویر ذکر نشده است. نمونه ای از این مورد، نسخه ای از داستان عامیانه فارسی است به نام نوش آفرین گوهرتاج که با تاریخ کتابت 1308 ه.ق. در کتابخانه آستان قدس رضوی نگهداری می شود و یازده تصویر ماهرانه اما بی رقم دارد. در این پژوهش با هدف بازشناسی رقم هنرمند، تصاویر نسخه مذکور با آثار میرزا نصراله، هنرمند چاپ سنگی قاجار، مقایسه شده است. این بازشناسی، نه براساس وجود رقم نقاش، بلکه از طریق مطالعات تطبیقی و سبک شناسانه انجام شده است. در این روش، به ویژگی ها و الگوهای مشترک موجود در آثار و به طور کلی شیوه کار هنرمند توجه شده است. با درنظرگرفتن این الگوهای مشترک، آثار بی رقم به وی نسبت داده می شود. گردآوری مطالب در این پژوهش به صورت اسنادی و کتابخانه ای و در بخش تطبیق آثار، تکیه بر برداشت نگارندگان بوده است. نتایج نشان می دهد در طراحی از عناصر مختلف و نیز شخصیت سازی، شباهت بسیاری میان شیوه میرزا نصراله و تصاویر نسخه مذکور وجود دارد. هم زمانی تاریخ چاپ اثر با سال های فعالیت نصراله این احتمال را قریب به یقین می نماید که تصاویر این نسخه را نیز وی خلق کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: رقم نقاش، میرزا نصراله، نسخ چاپ سنگی قاجار، نوش آفرین گوهرتاج
  • فرشته سادات میرشمسی*، محمدصادق میرزاابوالقاسمی، فتح الله زارع خلیلی صفحات 43-52
    استفاده از نقاشی دیواری یکی از شیوه های متداول تزیینات معماری در بناهای دوره زندیه در شیراز بوده است. از آنجا که فضای غالب دیوارنگاره های دوره زندیه با نقوش گیاهی پوشیده است، موضوع این مقاله نیز به بررسی و تحلیل کیفی این نقوش محدود شده است. بدین منظور، ابتدا آثار اصیل نقاشی دیواری در ارگ کریم خان، تکیه هفت تنان و عمارت کلاه فرنگی باغ نظر شناسایی و سپس تنوع نقوش گیاهی موجود در آنها زیر عناوین ترنج، گل و بوته ، گل و پرنده و اسلیمی و ختایی طبقه بندی و بررسی شده است.
    این پژوهش به شیوه توصیفی تحلیلی و بر مبنای مشاهدات میدانی و مطالعات کتابخانه ای نوشته شده است. همچنین نشان می دهد در نقاشی دیواری های دوره زندیه به خوبی از تنوع نقوش گیاهی استفاده شده است. ظرافت طراحی این نقوش بسیار چشمگیر است و از این نظر، با نمونه های نقاشی تزیینی در ابعاد کوچک در همین دوره قابل مقایسه خواهد بود. استفاده از قاب بندی منظم و متوازن نیز بر کیفیت طراحی این نقاشی ها افزوده است. همچنین تقارن، تقریبا در طراحی تمامی ترنج ها و اسلیمی و ختایی ها و غالب گل و بوته ها رعایت شده است و ارتباط نقش ها در سطوح اتاق یا ایوان، به خوبی محفوظ مانده است. مجموعه این نکات، بیش ازپیش بر ارزش تزیینی و آرایشی نقاشی دیواری در دوره زندیه دلالت می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: تزیینات معماری، دوره زندیه، شیراز، نقاشی دیواری، نقوش گیاهی
  • نجیبه رحمانی*، فتانه محمودی صفحات 53-67
    هارپی به عنوان مخلوقی ترکیبی، قدمتی طولانی در هنر ایران دارد و باید خاستگاه آن را در هنر پیش از تاریخ جست. این نقش به عنوان موجود ترکیبی انسان- پرنده، با اساطیر کهن گره خورده است و در گذر زمان، در فرم مشخص و مفاهیم متفاوت استمرار یافته است. هارپی را در دوران پیش از تاریخ، حامل مردگان به جهان دیگر تصویر می کردند که در دوران تاریخی با مفاهیم اسطوره ای پیوند خورد و در دوره اسلامی با مفاهیم قدسی متمایز شد. در دوران معاصر نیز جدا از مفاهیم سنتی اش با ذهنیات هنرمندان درآمیخت.
    این مقاله بر آن است تا به بررسی نقش هارپی و سیر تحول آن در هنر ایران بپردازد. تحقیق پیش رو به روش اسنادی و مطالعات کتابخانه ای با استفاده از منابع مختلفی صورت گرفته و از سایت های معتبر همچون سایت موزه متروپولیتن در کنار تورق بیش از پنجاه جلد کتاب در باب هنر ایران، برای دستیابی به مجموعه ای از تصاویر هارپی بهره گرفته شده است. از آنجا که نقش مزبور، در هنر معاصر یکی از معرف های هنر سنتی است، نیاز به ریشه یابی و آشنایی با مفاهیم آن احساس می شود. نتیجه مقاله نشان می دهد نقش هارپی با حفظ فرم اصلی اش، در دوره های مختلف مفاهیم متغیر را عرضه می دارد؛ اما به واسطه جوهره وجودی اش (انسان-پرنده) همواره با مفاهیم معنوی و آسمانی در ارتباط است.
    کلیدواژگان: تمدن ایران، سفالینه های منقوش، مفاهیم معنوی، هارپی، هنر اسلامی، هنر معاصر ایران
  • علی اصغر سلحشور، سامر نظری*، مرضیه شعرباف، بهزاد حسینی سربیشه صفحات 69-80
    از دوره هخامنشی آثار و مدارک باستان شناختی فراوانی به دست نیامده است؛ ولی روزبه روز بر دامنه کشفیات مربوط به این دوره افزوده می شود. از نمونه این مدارک می توان به گنجینه ها و آثار به دست آمده در مناطق مختلف شاهنشاهی ازجمله تراکیه در حوزه شبه جزیره بالکان اشاره کرد. این منطقه ازنظر داشتن منابع غنی زیرزمینی و به عنوان منطقه ای واسط در مقابله با سکاها، برای شاهنشاهی هخامنشی اهمیت بسیاری داشته است. با توجه به کمبود اطلاعات مربوط به این حوزه، هدف از مقاله پیش رو، انجام پژوهشی مستقل درزمینه تاثیرات و ارتباطات هخامنشیان با منطقه تراکیه است. لذا در این مقاله سعی بر آن است ازطرفی حضور هخامنشیان در تراکیه و ارتباطات متقابل میان آن ها و از طرف دیگر، ارتباطات و شباهت گنجینه های تراکیه با دیگر گنجینه های منتسب به دوره هخامنشی بررسی شود. نتیجه بررسی ها نشان می دهد تراکیه پس از اینکه جزء ساتراپ های هخامنشی قرار گرفت، درزمینه هنر و معماری، استانداردسازی هخامنشی را پذیرفت. ازجمله این موارد می توان به شباهت قبور تراکیه با قبور هخامنشیان، ظروف فلزی، ریتون ها، نقوش برجسته، استاندارد وزنی پیاله ها و... اشاره کرد. این پژوهش به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و بر پایه گردآوری اطلاعات، داده های مستند تصویری و مطالعات کتابخانه ای انجام شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: استانداردسازی، اسکودرا، تراکیه، گنجینه های تراکیه، هخامنشیان
  • سعید زاویه، آزاده مرادی * صفحات 81-93
    ویکتوریا دی. الکساندر، جامعه شناس معاصر، در نقد و تکمیل دو رویکرد بازتاب و شکل دهی که به تاثیر و تاثر جامعه و هنر می پردازد، «الماس فرهنگی تعدیل شده» خود را ارائه می کند و به نقش کلیدی توزیع کنندگان جامعه هنری تاکید می ورزد. یکی از هنرهای شاخص ایرانی فلزکاری است که در دوره سلجوقی فراز و رفعت بی نظیری در تاریخ هنری ایران رقم می زند. نوآوری، پیوند و تکامل از خصوصیات هنر این دوره است که جا دارد در جهت دریافت سیر تحول و تکاملی جامعه و هنر ایران بررسی شود. این پژوهش، به شیوه تاریخی توصیفی و تحلیلی، در بخش تولید، نظام صنفی جامعه و جایگاه فلزکاران به وجه شکل دهی جوامع هنری رهنمون می شود. مصرف کنندگان و مخاطبان نیز طبقه متوسط جامعه، سلاطین و درباریان معرفی شده اند که بر پایه نوع تقاضا بر جامعه هنری سلجوقی نفوذ کرده اند. در ادامه و براساس نقش مهم توزیع کنندگان و حامیان هنری، چگونگی شکل گیری و ارتباط این جوامع و سبک سلجوقی بررسی و به دلیل نداشتن منابع کافی، جامعه آماری شامل بیست اثر فلزی از دوره سلجوقی و ساسانی انتخاب شد. در ادامه، با ارائه نمودارهایی، فلزات، تکنیک های ساخت و تزیین آثار مقایسه شده و درنهایت، نظام توزیع سلجوقی پاسخ ساختار اسلامی جامعه را یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: الماس فرهنگی تعدیل شده، سلجوقیان، فلزکاری سلجوقی، ویکتوریا دی. الکساندر
  • سید هاشم حسینی، فرید احمدزاده *، نادر شایگان فر صفحات 95-105
    مساجد همواره طی دوران اسلامی به گونه ای خاص تجلیگاه ذوق و مهارت خالصانه هنرمندان بوده و همچون بومی بزرگ مجموعه ای از هنرهای رایج هر عصر را به نمایش می گذاشته است. با آغاز سلسله قاجاریه، آرایه کاران این دوره به پیروی از سفارش دهندگان و بانیان اصلی آثار معماری، گرایش آشکاری به بهره گیری از تزیینات سنگی در معماری بناهای این دوره داشته اند. حجاری ستون های سنگی نمونه های پرشماری است که در مساجد قاجاری حاج شهبازخان و دولتشاه در کرمانشاه مشاهده می شود. بررسی، مطالعه و مقایسه هر یک با نمونه های شاخص در شهر شیراز، سنندج و اصفهان در دوره قاجار و زندیه بازشناسی هویت فرهنگی را در پی دارد. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با توجه به خلا نسبی موجود در این زمینه، بر مبنای بررسی های میدانی و مطالعات کتابخانه ای، سپس با بهره گیری از روش های توصیفی- تحلیلی و مطالعات تطبیقی به چگونگی ارتباط بین تزیینات حجاری ستون های مساجد در دوره قاجار می پردازد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد، حجاری ستون های مساجد مورد نظر با نمونه های هم دوره در شیراز و اصفهان از نظر سبک و محتوا ارتباط نزدیکی دارد. ریشه اصلی این گونه تزیین در هنر ایران باستان به خصوص ستون سازی دوره هخامنشی است.
    کلیدواژگان: تزیینات حجاری، ستون های سنگی مساجد، دوره قاجاریه، شهر کرمانشاه
  • میلاد افلاکی سورشجانی*، کامران سپهران، محمدرضا مریدی صفحات 107-122
    در مواجهه با سپیده دم تجدد ایرانی در عصر مشروطه می توان پرسید آیا انقلاب مشروطه ایران، سرآغازی برای تحولات هنری بوده است یا خیر؟ دربار قاجار پیش از این به مدرنیزاسیون از بالا رو آورده بود که در پی آن، نظام نقاشی ایران، عناصری از بیرون را پذیرفته و حرکت به سوی نقاشی واقع گرایانه را آغاز کرده بود. در این پژوهش، با اتخاذ دیدگاهی تاریخی و جامعه شناختی تلاش شده است نشان داده شود دربار در چه شرایطی سلیقه هنری خود را بروز و تغییر داد و چگونه تحولات فرم شناختی را به خدمت در آورد. با تعلیق این حکم کلی که نظام نقاشی دوره قاجار، درباری است و دربار هم نمی تواند به تجدد فرهنگی کمک چشمگیری کند، می توان مشاهده کرد بستری برای تجدد نقاشی فراهم شد؛ ولی نیروهای مخالف دربار، حتی بعد از انقلاب، حمایت چندانی از نقاشی نکردند. در این بین، ناتورالیسم ایرانی نیز از طرح مفاهیم صریح اجتماعی فاصله می گرفت. به نظر می رسد دوری مبارزان عصر مشروطه از هنرهای تجسمی و شکل نگرفتن نقاشی متعهد را بتوان ناشی از عواملی همچون موانع مذهبی در پیوند مشروطه خواهان با هنرهای جدید، اقتصاد خاص و اغلب اشرافی نقاشی و مسائلی از این دست دانست. در این نوشتار، با معرفی جایگاه هنرمند، نقاشان عصر یادشده در کارکردی که در بدنه اجتماع دارند، قالب بندی می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: انقلاب مشروطه، دربار، دیگری، نقاشی
  • مهری پاکیزه سرشت، بهزاد سلیمانی* صفحات 123-136
    با توجه به اهمیت حرم امام رضا(ع) و فراوانی زائرانی که در این مکان حضور می یابند، انجام اقداماتی برای افزایش میزان رضایتمندی آنها ضروری است. هدف کلی از پژوهش حاضر، افزایش میزان رضایتمندی زائران حرم رضوی از طریق ارائه مناسب اطلاعات به وسیله کیوسک های راهنماست. این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی بوده و به روش پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری را زائران حرم تشکیل می دهند که 420 نفر از آنها به عنوان نمونه، به روش داوطلبانه در این پژوهش شرکت کردند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسش نامه بوده و از طیف لیکرت برای دریافت میزان رضایتمندی استفاده شده است. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از جدول فراوانی، میانگین و انحراف معیار و برای تحلیل فرضیات، از آزمون هم بستگی و میانگین جامعه آماری استفاده شده است. نتیجه تحلیل ها ثابت کرد بین عملکرد و ارائه مناسب اطلاعات از طریق کیوسک های راهنما، با میزان رضایتمندی زائران ارتباط وجود دارد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد زائران از اطلاع رسانی در حرم و کارکرد کیوسک های موجود رضایت ندارند و این نارضایتی از کارکردهای فنی، بیشتر از کارکردهای زیبایی شناسی است. با توجه به مطالعات، رعایت ملاحظات طراحی و ساخت، اصول ارگونومی و آنتروپومتری، زیبایی شناسی، مکان یابی، استفاده از عناصر معماری اسلامی و فرم، رنگ و مصالح هماهنگ با محیط موجب کارکرد صحیح کیوسک ها و درنهایت، افزایش رضایتمندی زائران می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اطلاع رسانی، حرم امام رضا(ع)، رضایتمندی، زیبایی شناسی، کارکرد فنی، کیوسک راهنما
  • امیر مسعود فریدی زاد *، سارا هاتف صفحات 137-149
    پایداری اجتماعی یکی از سه رکن توسعه پایدار است. در حالی که میزان توجه طراحان به این حوزه از جایگاه قابل قبولی برخوردار نیست، تلاش کافی نیز برای معرفی ابزارها و راه حل های مرتبط انجام نگرفته است. با توجه به خلا جدی در دانش بومی مرتبط، این مقاله در دو بخش معرفی طراحی برای پایداری اجتماعی و نمایش امکان پیشنهاد راه حل در جامعه بومی، توسط طراحان ایرانی انجام شد. در بخش اول، ضمن برشمردن لزوم و اهداف طراحی برای پایداری اجتماعی و شاخص های آن، رویکرد سیستم های خدمت- محصول در پاسخ به نیازهای این حوزه و چالش های مرتبط شرح شد. بخش دوم با شرح اهداف طراحی موردی و چیستی روش ام اس دی اس به عنوان ابزار انتخابی پی گرفته شد.
    پس از مرور تجارب موفق، طراحی موردی برای نمایش امکان به کارگیری، چگونگی پیاده سازی و ارزیابی عملکرد طراحان بومی در استفاده رویکرد سیستم های خدمت- محصول انجام شد. برای این منظور، تیم هایی از دانشجویان طراحی صنعتی دانشگاه هنر اصفهان انتخاب شدند و پس از ارائه آموزش های لازم، طراحی راه حل اجتماعی برای چند محله در شهر اصفهان انجام شد. در پایان، ضمن ارائه و نمایش امکان طراحی و پیشنهاد راه حل با رویکرد پی اس اس برای جامعه بومی، ارزیابی نتایج امکان به کارگیری موفق این ابزار توسط دانشجویان طراحی را نشان داد.
    کلیدواژگان: ام اس دی اس، پایداری اجتماعی، توسعه پایدار، سیستم های خدمت- محصول
  • سعیده طالع*، جواد علیمحمدی اردکان صفحات 151-162
    دنیای گسترده تصویر در همه دوران تاریخ از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. اگر دنیای دیروز، دنیای ادبیات شفاهی بود، روزگار تصاویر و سواد بصری برای کودکان فقط شامل بخش کوچکی از دنیای تصویری کنونی می شد. هدف این مقاله، تحلیل تاثیر مبانی روان شناسی بر تصویرسازی کتاب های آموزشی کودکان گروه سنی الف و بررسی اهمیت به مبانی روان شناسی در نقاشی و تکنیک های مختلف آن در فرایند تصویرسازی کتاب های کودکان است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات، کتابخانه ای و اسنادی بوده و روش تحقیق این پژوهش تحلیلی است. یافته های تحقیق بدین قرار است که روان شناسی به عنوان محتوای غالب تصویرگری، این گروه سنی را تحت تاثیر خود قرار داده است و تصاویر، بیش از کلمات توجه کودک را جلب می کنند. این تحقیقات همچنین نشان داده اند کودکان تصاویر را مانند کلمات می خوانند و برای خودشان مفهوم می آفرینند. تصویرگری واسطی میان نقاشی، ارتباط تصویری و ادبیات است. گونه های تکنیک (فن) به کار گرفته شده توسط یک تصویرگر، به مواد اولیه به کار گرفته شده در طراحی و رنگ آمیزی تصویرها باز می گردد؛ اما روش به کارگیری آنها از شناسه های مهم هر اثر به شمار می رود.
    کلیدواژگان: تصویرسازی، کتاب کودک، مبانی روان شناسی، مبانی هنرهای تجسمی، نقاشی، نقاشی کودکان
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  • Tayebe Beheshti * Pages 1-13
    Illustrated Bāysonḡorī Shahnameh manuscript beside non-Illustrated Bāysonḡorī Shahnameh manuscript are only versions of  Baysongori book-decorating style have survived from the time accidents and remained in their homeland despite abundant loots. The illustrated manuscript that maintains in Golestan Museum Palace in no. 716, is a masterpiece of Baysongori style and one of the most prominent book-decorating art samples in the history of Iranian book-decorating. The non-Illustrated manuscript that holds in Malek National Museum and Library in no. 6031, is an excellent example of non-Illustrated Bāysonḡorī style manuscripts. On the other hand, Baysongori style among Iranian book-decorating styles is an obvious example of classical art. This means that not only the characteristics of that were imitated by artists from other art centers and capitals from East Muslim world from Mongolian India to Ottoman Turkey for a long time, but also this impact was such it could be argued had a lasting impact on the fate of book illustration and painting in this geographic area. One of the most important features of this style is the utilization of glorious, beautiful and multiple illuminations for manuscript decoration. However, today, researchers don’t know properly what the principles and rules are, that Timurid artists design these illuminations on the basis of them. Because not only ancient sources has remained silent on the matter, but also contemporary studies in this area are few in number and very low. Among these researches we can note to the paper of Adle entitled "Recherche sur le Module et le trace Correcteur dans la Miniature Orientale" that shows how the epigraph illumination in a manuscript of Fotohat Homayon designs on the basis of the Integrated system that follows from the manuscript layout’s modular structure. Another study is the article of Polosin that believes the using of geometric methods is the responsible for the design and composition in Arabic manuscripts illuminations. Therefore, the current study tries to introduce and describe the illuminations of two manuscripts of Bāysonḡorī Shahnamehes, Illustrated and non- Illustrated; then discuss about the composition and illuminations design of these two manuscripts by using of descriptive-analytic case-study and quantitative methods. In the next step by the implementation of the results, some possible methods and principles of Islamic Middle Ages illumination design, will be recovered. The achievements of this research shows the    illuminations of  both versions have been combined and designed on the basis of common principles and rules such as dividing a segment into equal parts, dividing a circle into equal slices, network structure and utilization of the proportions such as 1/√2, 1/√3 and … . These principles and rules that drawn directly from the Euclidean geometry system, are consistent with the design method in the Bāysonḡorī style that are based on ordering stereotypes and pre-patterns on the one hand, these principles create the structure and space that the aim of it, is not the representation of the apparent phenomena, but experiencing the rhythmic, melodic and proportional world.
    Keywords: Illustrated B?yson?or? Shahnameh, non-Illustrated B?yson?or? Shahnameh, designing system, composition, illumination
  • Alireza Taheri * Pages 15-29
    The Book of Felicity » is a precious version that is written and illustrated in the era of the Ottoman sultans. This book has been prepared by order of Sultan Murad III. This version includes explanations and descriptions of Zodiac signs with excellent miniatures and paintings. The book of «Al-bulhan« of Abu Mashar al-Balkhi, (the «Book of Surprises» (Kitab al-bulhan) of the Bodleian Library) can be the main sources of the «Book of Felicity». Some researchers have translated the book of «Al-bulhan» to «Wonderland», but in fact it’s a «horoscope book» and includes sections such as «prediction prophets» and «horoscope accepted». We can see in this book the diverse demons, jinn, angels, prophets and tables of talismans to control of effect and magical places. The talismanic sciences were very common in the medieval Arab and Persian world and one of the most appreciated signs of devotion. Some of the miniatures of the "Book of Felicity" are comparative with the book "Al-bulhan" Abu Mashar al-Balkhi. The aim of this paper is study of the impact of the image of the book "Al-bulhan" on the illustration of the "Book of Felicity". Miniatures of "The Book of Felicity" are much stronger than its pattern, in terms of power, illustration, design, frame, color purity, color rendering and attention to detail, although the painter has tried to stay loyal to miniatures of the book "Al-bulhan". The method of research is descriptive and comparative. Illustration of the "Book of Felicity" should be considered as one of the masterpieces of Ottoman art in the court of Sultan Murad III. About literature review, it should be noted that it has been a little research on the subject of these two books, Including two articles from Stefano carbon and  a catalogs published by the Institute of Moleiro in which only the history and description of the book. The book of «Al-bulhan» can be considered like one of the influencing manuscripts on illustrators and art ateliers in the Ottoman court. The Ottoman manuscripts include a portrait of Murad III depicted as a man bibliophile with an open copy of the manuscript. Two copies of the book "Al-bulhan" Abu Mashar al-Balkhi have been done at the court of Sultan Murad III for his two daughters that due to the proximity of most descriptions and issues of the "Book of Prosperity" of Hassan al-Saudi to it, we can say that the book "Al-bulhan" and its images have a direct influence on the painting of "The Book of Prosperity". Another important point is that the illustrator of book of «Al-bulhan» tried to be as faithful to the text descriptions, despite the fact that in some paintings of "The Book of Felicity" This subject is not considered. In addition, given that  in the palace of Sultan atelier were a variety of other manuscripts illustrated from Christian lands (which may be presented as a gift ambassadors to the Ottoman Sultan) there will be an impact imagery and iconography of the Christian East it was noted.
    Keywords: The Book of Felicity, Book of Al-Bulhan, Abu Mashar al-Balkhi, Ottoman Art, Illustration
  • Akram Rafiee *, Ali Akbar Sharifi Mehrjardi Pages 31-42
    The prevalence of the production of lithographic illustrated versions from the half of 13 century AH caused that painters join to the group of calligraphers and book producers in these workshops and in this way many illustrated versions were produced. In the most of available lithographic illustrated versions from Qajar period, if the version has not any missing page from the opening to the end, the name of author, the print date, the ordering person or patronage, and sometimes the name of publisher exist in the first or last pages. It is while, in many of these versions, there is no track of their painter's name. The Noush afarin version of Astan Quda library is one of these versions. Noush afarin is description of the love of Noush afarin Gohartaj, the daughter of Damascus king, and the prince soltan Ibrahim the son of the king of China. The origin of this story is related to the late Safavid period, but it became popular in Qajar time. This is one of the Persian slangy and love story of Qajar period that in its own time had popularity and acceptability among people and book publishers and patronages and for the same reason, many different versions of this story have been published in lithography.The version of Astan Quds library belongs to 1308 AH and its calligrapher is Mehdi Ibn Akhond Molla Abdol-motalleb Damghani, according to a signature at the end of the book. And the book has been published with the efforts of Mirza Hasan Ketab froush. This version has missing pages at the beginning and presently seventy nine pages of it are available. This version has 11 pictures with excellent quality that has been executed skillfully and strongly, but the name of their painter is not available. In this research, with the aim of recognition of the painter's signature, the pictures of this version have been compared with some of the paintings of Mirza Nasrollah, the lithography artist of Qajar period. As in many cases, it is not trustful to attribute a work to an artist just according to its signature, the emphasis of this paper, is not based on the signature, but through stylistic studies and comparing some characteristics of the paintings, such as drawing and pen-making method, characterization, and some other visual characteristics. The method of this research has been a comparative analysis and the method of providing information has been documentary-library. Also in the section of comparing the works the emphasize has been on authors. The result of this research shows that there has been many similarities between the visual characteristic of Mirza Nasrollah's works and the paintings in our version in drawing, decorations in the compositions, flowers and bushes, faces of the figures, cloths, and characterization. Also in the view of time, the print date is coincident with the period of Mirza Nasrollah's activity. So, there is this probability that the paintings have been executed by Mirza Nasrollah and his purples under his supervision.
    Keywords: Nushafarin Gouhartaj, Mirza Nasrollah, Qajar Lithography Versions, Painter Signature
  • Fereshteh Mirshamsi *, Mohammad Sadegh Mirzaabolghasemi, Fatholah Zarekhalili Pages 43-52
    Karim Khan can be considered as the only authoritative king in the whole Zand era, thus the cultural and artistic foundations of this vary era is related to his government and him. Seemingly, he was uneducated; however, he was interested in art, literature, and science. Therefore, his court was the concourse of scientists, scholars, and artists. Moreover, he has supported so many architectural and urban projects, especially in Shiraz where is the capital of Zand era.
    One of the most common ways of architectural ornaments in constructions of Zand era in Shiraz was wall painting. These paintings are remarkable in visual properties and some practical styles. Apparently studding the method of drawing and the diversity of decorative designs may be useful to recognize the paintings of this era. Apparently, vast part of the internal space of remarkable Zand buildings in Shiraz were decorated by paintings.  Since the whole space of the wall paintings of Zand era is covered by plant motives, the subject of this paper is limited to review and qualitative analysis. For this purpose, first the original works of wall paintings in Arg, Haft-tanan and Pars museum identified, then diversity of plant motives classified and reviewed under the topics of cartouche, ornament floral, bird and flower, arabesque and foliage motives.
    It seems that analyzing design style and diversity of decorative motives in Zand wall painting can be effective in estimating of painting changes of this era. Generally decorative motives of wall paintings of Zand era consist of human paintings, plant designs, animal motives and geometric patterns. Since in plant designs the quantity and variety is remarkable, the subject of this research is based on the recognition of the diversity of plant designs that exist in wall paintings of Zand era in Shiraz.
    The goal of this research is classifying these motives in addition to qualitative analysis of them, thus to achieve this goal the wall paintings available from the Zand in Arg Karim Khan, Haft-tanan and Pars museum is studied by detail. This paper is a descriptive analysis research based on field observations and literature review. In this research, for the first time, the plant motives that are used on wall paintings of Zand era is studied and classified by detail.
    This study demonstrates that in Zand era’s wall paintings variety of plant motives are used, properly. Although architectural space in different rooms and buildings is almost the same, the motives that are located in these spaces from room to room is different. In these designs elegance of drawing is remarkable, thus this is comparable to the small decorative paintings in this very era. The use of regular and balanced paneling increased the quality of designing in these paintings. Also, inorder to drwing all cartouche, arabesque and foliage motives and most of the ornament floral paterrns, symmetry is observed. In addition, relevancy of patterns in planes of a room or porch is preserved, properly. This collection points indicates the decorative value of wall painting at the Time of the Zand, more than ever.
    Keywords: Architectural Decoration, Wall-Painting, plant motives, Zand era, Shiraz
  • Najibeh Rahmani *, Fatane Mahmoodi Pages 53-67
    The compound creatures have a close relationship with mythological thoughts; in fact, they are born by the mythicizing soul of the human who was against a boundless and unknown nature. Primitive humans who hadnt any weapons except thought and imagination against the greatness of the avenger nature, were under their protection; the compound creatures are the product of the imagination which protected the human from the fear arising from inability against the nature and gave him the powers so that he wasnt subdued by the nature spiritually. This motif as the compound creature of the human-bird has been connected to the ancient myths and is continued with a specific form and different concepts over time; Harpy was drawn as the carrier of the dead to the other world in pre-historic ages. The motif and the concept of Urartian art which came into Iranian art, chose another path in the historical ages and due to the influence of Assyrian culture, the motif of a winged man and the gods with two wings and four wings was grafted on to the mythical and divine concepts. However, the form of a winged human was changed into Harpy shape (a human's head and a bird's body) and was distinct with spiritual and divine concepts. In the contemporary periods, it was combined with some mental concepts of the artists except its traditional concepts. In all these centuries, it remained in the form of a powerful motif with a rich concept and was often used in metal working decorations, enamel potteries, Lustrewares (a type of pottery with a metallic glaze), Kubachi wares and crockery. Harpy motif in relation to the horrible and unknown world of the death entered Iranian art in the pre-historic ages; but in the following, it was changed due to Iranian culture based on its conditions in each period. Of course, the changes of the concepts are seen more than the forms of the motifs; the details such as the body type and related decorations such as hats have been changed more in the scope of the form and structure and the general form of human - bird has been maintained. This paper tries to investigate the origin and evolution of Harpy role in Iranian art. Since one of the components of the Iranian contemporary art is the reference to the traditional motifs and the mentioned motif is known as one of the introducers of the Iranian traditional art in today's art, it is necessary to find its roots and to learn more its implications. This paper aims at studying the form and the concept of this motif in the different ages and arts in Iran. The results of the study show that the role of Harpy gives the variable concepts by maintaining its original form in the various ages but it has always been associated with the spiritual and divine concepts due to the nature of its existence (human-bird).
    Keywords: Harpy, Iranian civilization, Islamic art, Spiritual concepts, Painted Crockery, Contemporary Iranian Art
  • Ali Asghar Salahshoor, Samer Nazari *, Marzie Sherbaf, Behzad Hoseini Sarbishe Pages 69-80
    Although many archaeological evidences have not been found from the Achaemenian period, the domain of findings of this period have increased day by bay. One of these evidences includes treasures and cultural findings which have been identified in Thrace, situated in the Balkan Peninsula. This region was of great importance for the Achaemenid Empire because of its rich underground resources and also as the regional interface to deal with the Scythians. With respect to lack of data about this area, it is essential to search on the Achaemenid influence and its connections with Thrace region. So this paper concentrates on the presence of the Achaemenids in Thrace as well as similarities between the Achaemenid treasures with the Thracian ones. The archaeological and historical evidences - including written documents like Herodotus, Achaemenian royal inscriptions at Naqsh-e Rostam, Persepolis and Susa, reliefs of Skudrian and Thracian at Persepolis and Naqsh-e Rostam - imply that Thrace was a Satrapy in the Achaemenian Empire. When Thrace became one of the Achaemenid Satrapies, it accepted the Achaemenid standardization about art and architecture. This standardization appeared in the production of metal vessels, silver bowls and phiales with decoration of almond and lotus, production of rhytons with animal figures such as bull, horse and lion reliefs, standardization of phiales weight according to the Achaemenid sigloi and etc. After eviction of the Achaemenids in Thrace and subsequently dominance of Odrysian there, the Achaemenid influences remained. It can be observed in the appearance of Duvanli complex and treasure. Associated treasures of the ancient Thrace mostly were found from the modern Bulgaria. Researchers and archaeologists have attributed the artifacts to the Achaemenid art. Most of these treasures are related to the fourth century B.C.; so it can show an undeniable influence of the Achaemenid art on that time. In addition to Duvanli treasure, some other precious treasures can be mentioned including: Rogozen, Panagyurishte, Borovo, Dalboki. Each of these treasures shows some similarities as well as influences of the Achaemenid art. The Duvanli amphora with typical decoration of the Achaemenid art - such as palmette and lotus chains - is an example of the mentioned influence. The other examples contains: silver bowls and phiales of Rogozen treasure with decorations of almond shape; weight standardization based on the Achaemenid sigloi; some golden phiales in the Panagyurishte treasure which are proportional with the Achaemenid daric; and rhytons of Borovo treasure in the shapes of bulls, sphinx and horse which were the current figures in the Achamenid iconography. On the other hand, we can point to the Achaemenian influences in the architecture, too. The similarities between Ostrousha and Cyrus the Great tombs indicate this effect. All of these influences suggest an international style in the art and architecture that existed in the Achaemenid era. Of course this style continued even after fall of the Achaemenian Empire. This study is on the basis of gathering information, pictorial and written documentary data as well as library studies that have been done through descriptive and analytic method.
    Keywords: Thrace, Skudra, Thracian Treasures, Standardization, Achaemenian
  • Saeed Zavieh, Azadeh Moradi * Pages 81-93
    Victoria D. Alexander, contemporary sociologist, presented her “modified cultural diamond” in completing and criticizing two approaches of reflect and forming and emphasizes key role of art world’s distributors.reflect approach is based on this fact that art always narrates from society and forming approach covering eide range of theories. Their common is the idea that art having influence on society. Alexander rejects this simplistic relation among art and society and she involves options of producers, consumers and more significant distributors and curators of art society and she represents this new approach by using “modified cultural diamond” metaphor. Continuity of art in traditional societies depends on redeployment of beliefs and customs and one of the most brilliant eras of Iranian art which begins with the Seljuk arrival to this territory. The importance of Seljuk art is that it established a dominant position in Iran and determined the future development of art in the Iranian world for centuries. In many cases the artists of the Seljuk period consolidated, and indeed at times perfected, forms and ideas that had long been known. The stylistic innovations introduced by the Iranian architects of this period were, in fact to have vast repercussions, from India to Asia Minor. Developments, growth and prosperity of Islamic Iran circumfuses in both Political, social and economic fields and artistic, cultural and scientific ones. Most metal objects of the Seljuk period were made of copper, bronze and brass. The precious metals of silver and gold were not used. The objects were cast and often displayed pierced or enameled decor. Forming a powerful government and the correlation of religion and government in Iran is a turning point in reaching the prevailing opinions and artistic perceptions that grows for the first time in Iran after Islam. For this reason Metal objects from the Seljuk period and of the principalities that followed are found in various museums and collections.  Important developments and innovations contributed to the renown of Seljuq art. Beginning in the second half of the twelfth century. One of significant arts in Iran is metalwork which led to a great era in Iran’s art history Seljuk period. Innovation, connection and evolution are among characteristics of this period which should be studied to understand Iran’s society’s and art’s changing and evolution procedure. Present research leads to aspect of forming art societies in the section of production, society’s trade union and place of metalworkers. users and the second person were also society’s middle class, kings and courtiers that entered Seljuk’s art society based on type of requirement. in fallowing and based on the important role of art distributors and supporters, we stud how Seljuk style and societies are formed and connection of these items that due to lack of enough resources, its statistical society includes 20 metalwork from Seljuk and Sassanid period and finally have found Society’s Islamic structures the answer of Seljuk distribution by presenting and comparing diagrams of metals, techniques of creation and decoration.
    Keywords: Seljuks, Seljuk Metalwork, Victoria D. Alexander, Modified Cultural Diamond
  • Seyed Hashem Hoseini, Farid Ahmadzadeh *, Nader Shaygan Far Pages 95-105
    Mosques always during the Islamic period have been as a particular species Manifestation of taste and skill of real artists, and like a large canvas have displayed the Set of popular arts in any period. In the meantime, stone , despite the difficulty in extracting and cutting, not abandoned ,and at  beginning of the Qajar dynasty, trimmer of  this period  following the order and recommend of main sponsors of architecture, in dependent  decoration to architectural  of this period , have had  a clear tendency to use of the topics and decorative elements (carved pillars). Numerous examples of carved stone pillars are seen in the Qajar mosques; Haji Shahbaz Khan and DolatShah in Kermanshah. Study and compare of each of them with indicator examples in Shiraz, Isfahan and Sanandaj in Qajar and Zand eras can be led to recognition of cultural identity. In studying and recogintion of the columns stonemasonry of Kermanshah Qajarid mosque and other samples, we achieve to these
    Results
    in making and decoration of mosques stone column have been used that they have ancient Iran origin and special Achaemenid period. These drcorations have many similarities with samples of the ancient Iran art and also have been formed affected from special decorative methods of the Qajar period and we can find art spirit of  the Qajar period. In fact, stonemason almost has operated in using of structural and decorative designs of the Qajarid moseques columns according to current decorative traditions of Zandiye. And at the same time has been seen to the decorative formats of ancient era like of pleasnet patterns of columns stonemasonry orderers that time. Whatever columns stonemasonry of the Qajarid mosques of Kermanshah and other Qajarid samples distinguish further cases associated to architecture from nature and performance style point of view,is impressment of designers and builder of these remnant from patterns of ancient era. In comparsion between stonemasonry of the Qajarid, Zandiye and Achaemenid columns, become distinct, artistic similarity in the Qajarid columns and in regard to decorative structure have the most resemblance with the Zandiye period, and there were in regard to thematic and symbolic basic differences with the Achaemenid columns. These contents  in the Qajar period composed with art of Islamic – Persian and have been generated motifs of fine and bonny in the stonemasonry of mosques columns. It is important to mention that until now any study or report is not published about carings on qajar mosques pillars in kermanshah city. Accordingly, this study due to the partial vacuum in the field, based on field surveys and library studies and then using descriptive methods - analytical and comparative studies deals with on the relationship between columns carved decoration of mosques in Qajar era. The findings of this research show that carved pillars of the Intended mosques have a close relationship with samples of Shiraz and Isfahan in terms of style and content. And the main root of these decorative species are in ancient art especially in carvings columns of Achaemenid period.
    Keywords: carved decorating, stone columns mosque, Qajar period, Kermanshah city
  • Milad Aflaki Sooreshjani *, Kamran Sepehran, Mohammadreza Moridi Pages 107-122
    Considering native modernism existence, Iranian constitutional revolution can be contemplated as an exordium for cultural transition because constitutionalism movement played a significant role in transferring modern concepts to Iran. This kind of perception about modernism oversees the experimental and practical events, and also provides the opportunity to survey art system shift in the context of social transition. Qajar court had tendency to a kind of imperative modernism, as a result, Iranian painting admitted elements out of art system and started a realistic approach. Art system had its own choice when encountered social changes. In this research, we tried to indicate that Qajar court demonstrated and divulged its artistic preferences in what circumstances, and how applied formal transformation for its own purposes. Court represented its own cultural position regarding time requirements, and selected special artistic framework proportional to those requirements. Court also prevented opposition from owning a specific form of art. Being retrogressive or progressive in art field pertains to the art relationship with society for an opinionated governor, and Art silence and dynamism depends on these factors. If we disregard the holistic statement that painting system in Qajar dynasty was court-dependent, and in turn consider the impressive movement of constitutional revolution, we can observe a theoretical context that is provided for painting in the following of awareness era. Some of the intellectuals including Mirza Agha Khan Kermani expressed viewpoints about artistic modernism which mostly emphasized on social commitment of art and effective role of art among public. However, the opposition of court did not support painting sufficiently even after the revolution. Meanwhile, Iranian naturalism also receded from expressing explicit social concepts. Painting was opposite with court and court opposition. Complication of art orientation issue is defined by representation of two-sided concept of court and opposition, and indicating two aspects of court including despotism and reformist, and these reminded the problems of artist separation from court and finding new support. Visual knowledge of public had been increased by newspapers but society cultural limitations in mentioned era didn’t allow artist to transfer his approach explicitly from court to oppositions; in addition, liberalism structure wasn’t strong enough to play its supportive role for trouble-maker art “painting”. The obstacles toward achieving committed art can be indicated with assessing essence and positioning of court and liberalism structure, society, and painter stratum. The artist social ranking is an important element for understanding the effect of artist changing supporter on his career. In this article, with introducing the status of artist, the painter of fore- mentioned era are put in template regarding their function in society. Some of the painters before and after the constitutional revolution legitimized court and showed court authority; however, some others represented the samples of modernism elements in painting which was the indirect achievements of social transitions. This group of artists performed newly -formed ethnography, painted portraits of people out of court, and followed new approach about women.
    Keywords: Constitutional Revolution, Painting, Court, The Other
  • Mehri Pakizehseresht, Behzad Soleimani * Pages 123-136
    Mashhad city is the third and one of the most important city tours in the world and that is why many people visit this place of pilgrimage each year. The reason that Mashhad is put in third place and has many visitors and travelers is that Imam Reza's (AS) holly shrine is located in the aforementioned city. It is essential to take action in order to supply and increase the satisfaction of visitors with this holly place. The issue in the present project is the lack of appropriate notification systems to provide rapid and better information for the needs of pilgrims at the shrine of Imam Reza (AS). Given the magnitude and importance of the many pilgrims who attend every day in this holy shrine, it is necessary to provide the vast amount of pilgrims with various information including location information, routing information as well as some information about the city, in order to reduce confusion and waste of time. Presently, lack of appropriate information in the shrine in order to help and guide the pilgrims, large courtyards and their similarity with one another and the continued expansion of the courtyards, causes difficulty in finding desired locations and most visitors face confusion, dissatisfaction and waste of time. The main requirement of the pilgrims in this research is the need to get the correct and coherent information. In this study, pilgrim's satisfaction with the shrine's notification system is tested. User satisfaction is of great importance and all organizations combine their activities with the user's needs and satisfactions. Assessing and measuring satisfaction as one of the most common methods to determine resolution to the needs of the users of one product, is an effective tool for controlling the overall performance and identifying weaknesses and trying to resolve them. The overall objective of this study is to increase visitors ' satisfaction by providing appropriate information they need. This was a cross-sectional study which was accomplished through the survey method.The population of this research were pilgrims and 420 people were voluntarily asked to answer the questions. Questionnaires were used for data collection and Likertfor receiving the amount of satisfaction. To analyze the data, frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation, correlation analysis, hypothesis testing and population average were used.After statistical analysis, the significant level was set to zero, and was proven that there is a significant relationship between performance and providing information through the Kiosks in the shrine of Imam Reza(AS) and the pilgrims satisfactions.The results showed that pilgrims are not satisfied with the Kiosk’s function and the dissatisfaction with the technical functions is more than the aesthetic functions. According to the studies, compliance criteria and various design and construction considerations, principles of ergonomics and anthropometry, using the right materials, the right location, maintenance and use of aesthetic principles in kiosks, and Islamic architectural elements as well as form , color and materials in accordance with the proper functioning of kiosks would finally increase satisfaction in visitors.
    Keywords: Satisfaction, awareness, Guidance Kiosk, Function, aesthetics, the shrine of Imam Reza (AS)
  • Amirmasood Faridi Zad *, Sara Hatef Pages 137-149
    Human problems become more complex every day. These complexities need new problem solving approaches. Design for sustainability is a response to these new demands. An approach leads environment, society and economy to sustain situations. Design for sustainability is a new issue for Iranian industrial design society. There is a lack of studies in this field. Weak interaction, poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and social disorders are biggest issues of developing countries relative to social development. Design for social sustainability with product service systems approach is an effective strategy and useful solution in developed countries. As a new paradigm, product service systems design suggests comprehensive solutions for sustainability. There are many projects on this method in European universities but it’s not a known method in developing countries. The first purpose of this paper is addressing to design for social sustainability and the second target is PSS views presentation to Iranian industrial designers. To obtain to these purposes, we introduce the principles of social sustainability and related definitions. Then we review the design values in this framework. The next part presented the values of PSSD thorough social sustainability. Deep understanding of user needs, focus on quality of experience, integrated systems, life cycle compatibility, product sharing and new business plans, are some of PSSD values. Sample projects are reviewed in other part. These samples have been implemented with MSDS method. MSDS method is an asset- based method of PSSD series. This method introduced by Carlo Vezzoli in Politecnico di Milano and used for sustain projects in Design and innovation for sustainability department of that university. In this method potential assets of society like people skills, buildings, local resources and amenities, use for design new structures of interaction. These new systems support desired social values. A case study on training and implementation constraints of MSDS was conducted in Isfahan city trough purposes of paper for feasibility study of PSSD approach for social sustainability in Iran. In this study, industrial design bachelor students of Isfahan Art University chose various neighborhoods and did data collection for two weeks. In this process, they used qualitative research methods like observation, interview and photography. Data collection part of study repeats for some cases after review data. Data analysis and design was the next step of process. In one of the interesting projects, a neighborhood called Zeynabie analyzed. This immigrant district has a lot of social problems like unemployment, poverty, addiction and lot of female-headed households. There were some potential for design like, Zeynab holy shrine tomb as a community center, weekly market and active NGOs in this restrict. In final idea for improve social conditions, purposed a system of skills training, handicraft production and entrepreneurship for women residents. This concept system supported by NGOs and government agencies. Creation of new social networks and using recycled materials, are other values of this system. Evaluation of project’s output reveals capabilities of PSS approach and MSDS method for sustainable design. Also reveals Iranian industrial design students skills to use of PSSD for social sustainability.
    Keywords: Social Sustainability, sustainable development, Product Service System Design, MSDS
  • Saeide Tale *, Javad Alimohamadi Ardakan Pages 151-162
    The vast world of pictures has enjoyed a great significance during the whole history. If yesterday’s world was the world of oral literature, the world of pictures and visual literacy for children was only a small part of today’s world of pictures. The purpose of this article is to examine the effect of fundamentals of psychology on illustrating children’s educational books in the first age group and also to examine the importance of fundamentals of psychology in drawing and its different techniques in the process of illustrating children’s books.
    The information was gathered from library and documents; and the method of research that was applied is analytical. The findings of the research indicates that psychology, as the main content, has affected illustrating for this age group; and pictures attract children’s attention more than words. The research also suggests that children read pictures like words and create meanings for themselves.
    Illustrations interface between painting and literature Ast.gvnh of visual communication technique used by an illustrator, the raw materials used in the design and coloring of the image, but one important method of their use of identifiers the effect is. Loyalty to taste and understand children, both in text and in the original image can be seen. Treasures of words and the use of literary elements in each age group has characteristics that it has accepted the text writer and illustrator also utilizes visual and conceptual image of elements, is to be faithful. Suitable for children age group is a large picture images, easy, understandable and details are lacking. Can be used to the extent of contradiction.
    Since the beginning of efforts by artists to produce comic books children have, a profound change has occurred in the field of illustration for children. Children, that before this time, the adult books were down, now has a range of books are beautiful and pleasant.
    In illustration today, unlike the period before that image for all age groups, Illustrator can not ignore the needs of the audience is psychological. According to the needs of the audience in the artistic career is very important.
    Need expressed by the image of his first letter, needs and interests of children in different age groups are different, understanding the psychological characteristics of children and favorites from first principles is illustrated.
    Art illustration in a children's book is very important. That's why the originality and beauty of the images should be kept in mind because in this type of text books picture more beautiful in the education of taste and sense of friendly singers becomes effective.
    Due to a strong intuitive sense that there lies their children in relation to their surroundings more attention to form and for objects and concepts in the book if they want to have a favorable impact on children, should first of all stimulate his visual sense. Taking advantage of the image, while stimulating the sense of sight, causing more motivated to learn and objective phenomena, as well as accelerate the learning process.
    Keywords: Illustration, Fundamentals of psychology, Fundamentals of visual arts, Drawing, Drawing for children, Children's book