فهرست مطالب

Health in Emergencies and Disasters Quarterly - Volume:2 Issue: 2, Winter 2017
  • Volume:2 Issue: 2, Winter 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/02/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Zahra Aghalari, Aram Tirgar * Pages 47-52
    Background
    Accurate and timely information plays an important role in disaster preparedness and this information is partly obtained through research and scientific articles. This study aimed to evaluate the publication status of scientific articles about disasters and accidents in Iranian Medical Journals from 2010 to 2015.
    Materials And Methods
    All Persian articles on the subject of natural disasters; safety; occupational, road, or home accidents, burns, medical errors, related disasters, and emergencies were extracted. The relevant data were collected using a researcher-made checklist through the survey of selected articles.
    Results
    The results obtained from 36341 articles out of 156 journals published by 47 medical universities showed that 599(1.6%) articles were related to emergencies, disasters, and accidents, in which 30(0.08%) articles were about natural disasters and 569(1.5%) papers were about man-made accidents.
    Conclusion
    Although, there were scientific articles dedicated to emergencies, disasters and accidents, such topics were limited. Therefore, it seems necessary to take appropriate measures aimed at greater attention to the needs of national and regional medical scientists.
    Keywords: Disasters, Accidents, Medical research, Medical universities
  • Zohreh Ghomian, Shiva Yousefian* Pages 53-62
    Background
    Many types of natural disasters are sudden and calamitous events that create a large socioeconomic burden with significant negative impact on health care, social infrastructure, and the environment; especially in the low and middle income countries; therefore, it is necessary to reduce or control this kind of disasters by understanding the specific risks and negative impacts. Recognition of disaster events helps us to plan effectively, coordinate and invest on disaster risk reduction projects.
    Materials And Methods
    The current article was a narrative review of the epidemiological data available on natural disasters in MNA countries (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia,and Yemen) and their trends from 1900 to 2015. The statistical data were obtained from international disaster sources (EM-DAT, DesInventar and Gapminder) and literature reviews of international reports and journals. To find related articles from journals, data bases such as Pubmed, Escopus, Google Scholar, and SID were searched for the following key words: natural disasters, Middle-East, disasters and Middle-East, disasters and North Africa, natural disasters and Middle-East, natural disasters and North Africa, and disaster and trend.
    Results
    In the last century, more than 80% of natural disaster events occurred in MNA and concentrated in just 9 countries as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Sudan, Somalia, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen, and Egypt. Hydrological disasters (flood and landslide) with 63% had the largest share in 2015 and were more than that of the last century. In 2015, mortality rate of flood with 11% and landslides with 32% had increasing trend compared to last century. In the last 2 years, conversely, damages and victims from flood were about 85%, which were more than those of the last century, but in landslides no change was observed. In 2015, meteorological disasters such as storms and extreme temperatures represented 19% of the total disaster occurrence that had an increasing trend compared to that of the last century with 12%. Extreme temperatures with 57% of all deaths and storm with 72% of total victims had the highest levels among other natural disasters in this period. In the previous years, the total number of death, affected people, and damages of metrological disasters had increasing trend compared to the last century. In addition, in 2015, the frequency of climatological disasters (drought) and geophysical disasters (earthquake) did not change significantly, but the number of affected people, deaths, and damages from drought and earthquakes had a noticeable decrease compared to those of the last century.
    Conclusion
    The trends of natural disasters frequency from 1900 to 2015 in MNA has increased and effective mitigation and preparedness is necessary, both at individual and governance levels. This issue in the middle income and developing countries in MNA should be considered as a high priority in national planning.
    Keywords: Natural Disaster, Middle-East, North Africa, Preparedness, Mitigation
  • Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Nasir Amanat *, Vahid Ghanbari, Maryam Nakhaee, Masoumeh Abbasabadi, Mehdi Najafi, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Fatemeh Pashaei Sabet Pages 63-70
    Background
    The role of society and people in disaster risk management is prominent. However, using this potential and increasing the people’s role have always been a challenge. The purpose of this study was to find community-based management challenges in disaster risk reduction.
    Materials And Methods
    Participants and
    Methods
    This study was conducted with the qualitative approach and in the form of content analysis. Participants were selected purposefully and by snowball sampling out of 17 professors and managers in the field of incidents and disasters. Data were recorded and collected through semi-structured interviews. The records were transcribed and then analyzed.
    Results
    Results included 2 main themes of egocentrism and management helplessness (failure) and 5 main categories, including inadequate attention to the nature of the risk reduction process, inadequate community resilience, ignoring social capital, inadequate planning and training, and incorrect organization, as well as 13 subcategories.
    Conclusion
    Firstly, managers should accept the community as a major hub of the process to harness the power of community. Secondly, using capable and trained managers familiar with the concepts, literature, and challenges in the field of disasters increase participation of people in disaster risk management.
    Keywords: Challenge, Disaster risk management, Communitybased, Qualitative study
  • Somaye Fakharian *, Mohammad Jalili, Hamidreza Khanke Pages 71-78
    Background
    The emergency department (ED) is considered to act as a gate keeper of treatment for patients. Thereby, EDs must achieve customer satisfaction by providing quality services. Patient satisfaction and experiences are important parts of health care quality, but patient expectations are seldom included in quality assessments.
    Materials And Methods
    The objective of this study was to identify patient’s perception of quality of care are given by care system at ED in Imam Khomeini and Shariaty Hospital. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews from 45 patients hospitalized at different ward from emergency department. The method proposed by Colizzi was used for data analysis.
    Results
    The finding of this study revealed that patient experience were five main category: patient satisfaction, dissatisfaction, interpretation, attendant role and advices. Each of these group included five subcategories included: environment, medical staff, hospital management, information and education factor, patient rights. Therefore, all factors in subgroups are effective in satisfaction or dissatisfaction and others. Response to these patient need and expectation are almost easy and practicable and our finding of this study can help health and emergency care provider for doing that and improvement of quality of care.
    Conclusion
    Identifying areas for quality improvement are important, to know where to take action. These finding may facilitate this work and improve patients perception of quality of care at emergency department. The use of a these data can also provide a research-based instrument for future studies.
    Keywords: Emergency department, Patient perception, Quality of care
  • Sayyed-Muhammad-Hossein Javadi *, Siyamak Tahmasebi, Tahere Azari-Arghun, Malihe Arshi, Fardin Alipour Pages 79-88
    Background
    Traffic accidents are among major causes of death all over the world. In Iran, it has become a social problem, with lots of people involved in; and the youth include the most victims of traffic accidents.
    Objectives
    The main objective of this research is to review the experience of the youth (18–24 years old in Tehran, Iran) with traffic accidents, and to develop a model to specify the factors.
    Methods
    This study is based on Grounded Theory, in which a sample group of 50 young people, 18–24 years old, in Tehran, Iran, were selected and interviewed, using stratified purposive and snowball sampling method. Data is mainly collected by interviewing the youth in 7 key topics. To analyze the data, Grounded Theory is used through production of themes, components and concepts.
    Results
    There are 11 general components for traffic accidents according to the ideas of the youth which will come in 3 categories including: individual factors (emotions, sensory-motor skills, and physical-mental health); environmental factors (road and traffic problems, a companion, using cellphone, or front individual, including carless drivers or passersby); and underlying factors (gender, legal and cultural infrastructures). And finally, the core category of carelessness, which is the leading cause in traffic accidents.
    Conclusion
    The findings indicate that a chain of various factors may cause traffic accidents with lots of devastating consequences. It is therefore necessary to modify driving culture, to internalize the attitude of caution, to use polyhedral strategies, and to apply them all correctly.
    Keywords: Traffic accident, Youth, Grounded theory
  • Mahsa Haji Mohammad Hoseini, Leila Ghanbari Afra *, Zahra Aliakbarzade Arani, Mohammad Abdi Pages 89-94
    Background
    Work environment dictates physical, social and mental tensions each of which affect the staff’s health. Likewise, pre-hospital emergency care staff, due to the special nature of their job, are exposed to the tensions of emergency situations which can affect their health. Therefore, this study was conducted to scrutinize the relationship between the job burnout and mental health in pre-hospital emergencies of Qom Province.
    Materials And Methods
    In this descriptive sectional study, 150 employed personnel of Qom 115 Emergency Care entered the study using census method. Data were gathered using questionnaires of “Background and Clinical Information”, “Mental Health”, and “Job Burnout”, and then based on central indices, Pearson correlation test and multiple linear regression statistical tests were run through software SPSS13 and then analyzed.
    Results
    The average age of the participants was 30.8±5.8. The averages of the values of burnout and mental health were 69.43±12.4 and 60±14.1, respectively. According to Pearson correlation test, the values of the burnout and mental health have a significant negative correlation (r=-0.8). The results of multiple linear regression test showed that the correlation of the burnout and mental health considering the confounding variables is significant. (P=0.05)
    Conclusion
    Pre-hospital employed personnel have desirable mental health and [low] burnout. Furthermore, improved mental health results in decreasing job burnout. Therefore, it is advisable to consider necessary facilities for caring for oneself.
    Keywords: Mental health, Job burnout, Pre-hospital emergency care, Iran
  • Leila Mohammadinia, Ali Ardalan, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh *, Abbas Ebadi, Hossein Malek-Afzali, Mojtaba Fazel Pages 95-100
    Background
    Annually, Children as a major group have affected in disasters all over the world. As resilience terminology has been appeared in disaster risk reduction to improve more attention on human ability instead of concentration on his vulnerability. It seems that child resiliency may be the best approach to decrease their vulnerability. Although there are lot studies on resiliency, child resiliency in disaster situation seems is unique filed that would be considered. The objective of this systematic review is synthesizing the evidence of the children resiliency indicators in natural disasters to identifying their capacity and improving their ability against the disaster consequences.
    Materials And Methods
    This study will conduct a systematic review of the children resiliency in natural disaster situation in any mythological designed articles that extract indicators/factors to improve children resiliency in every natural disaster. Four main electronic databases which cover this topic’s article will searched including PUBMED, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and PYCINFO. Furthermore, experts will be asked to identify verifiable Grey literature documents. EndNote software version X7 will use to managing search library, screening duplication and extracting irrelevant articles. Search strategy has defined by author’s team agreement. Specific syntax has been used for each main database. It‘s considered the time duration for database searching. Articles evaluation will be based on PICO that will define according the research question for including and excluding articles. Moreover, the QARI checklist/tool from JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers’ Manual: 2014 edition) will be used for assessing criteria quality. it is quality context and focused on human psychosocial behavior with specific group that call children , adolescence, teenager and youth but we call them under eighteen-year olds children according UNICEF definition. On the other hand, we will use the QARI data extraction tool according our research question, too.
    Results
    This systematic literature review will determine tangible criteria of child resiliency that would be valuable for decision makers, community, researchers, family and who are concerned about children and also disaster situations. It’s worth to clarify this subjective term to objective for being tangible for them. In this way, in disaster situation they could evaluate the difference between having resilient child VS not resilient one, the effects are not only during disaster but also long time after disaster.
    Keywords: Natural disaster, Resilience, Children, Systematic review