فهرست مطالب

زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ایران - سال دوازدهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1395)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • K. Mostafavi *, M. R. Orazizadeh, A. Rajabi Pages 1-13
    Sugar beet is important for community sugar security and fodder. Sugar beet root yield for 9 varieties evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications in six regions, including Isfahan, Karaj, Kermanshah, Khoy, Mashhad and Moghan in 2015. To study the effect of genotype - environment interaction and stability analysis, GGE-biplot graphical method was used. Interaction of genotype and environment was significant. The maximum root yield observed for IC and JAAM varieties equal to 80.51 and 75.80 tons per hectare respectively. Based on the results of the graphical method in Isfahan, Karaj, Kermanshah, Mashhad and Moghan the IC and JAAM and in Khoy the 7233 variety had the more roots yield. Ranking environment based on the ideal genotype were Karaj, Mashhad, Isfahan, Kermanshah Moghan and Khoy. Compared with the ideal genotype, IC, JAAM and ARAS 101 were the best varieties. Based on bi-plot diagram for relationships between the environments, between Mashhad, Isfahan, Kermanshah and Moghan there was a positive correlation, between Karaj with Moghan and Khoy to other places, there was a negative correlation. Biplot graph to determine mega-environments, divided that the places into two mega-environmens, the first including Karaj, Moghan, Mashhad, Isfahan and Kermanshah and the second including Khoy. In total, between cultivars for genetic diversity and General and specific adaptability were very different variation.
    Keywords: Mega-environment, Genotype environment interaction, Ideal genotype, Ideal environment
  • M. Kariminejad, A. Pazoki *, A. Foladi Targhi Pages 15-33
    Due to study the effect of methods and amounts of complete fertilizer on yield and yield components of corn variety, an experiment was done during 2016 as split plot based on completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications at Ghaleh-no of Shshr-e-Rey region. The experimental factors contains: complete fertilizer as main factor in 7 levels: No application, recommended application in irrigation (10 kg/ha), 50% less than recommended application in irrigation (5 kg/ha), 50% more than recommended application in irrigation (15 kg/ha), recommended foliar application (2 kg/ha), 50% less than recommended foliar application (1 kg/ha), 50% more than recommended foliar application (3 kg/ha) and variety as sub factor in 3 levels: S.C. 704, S.C. 703 and S.C. 700. The results showed that the highest and lowest plant height, 1000 seed weight, rows number in ear and seed number in ear, forage yield and growth indices as CGR, RGR, NAR gained at 50% more than recommended application in irrigation and no application alternatively. According to findings, 50% more than recommended foliar application improved fresh forage yield 8.3% than control. Based on the results, S.C. 704 had superiority than the other varieties in agronomical and physiological characters.
    Keywords: Complete fertilizer, Corn, Physiological indices, Variety
  • S. Omrani *, A. M. Naji, M. Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam Pages 35-50
    In most of breeding programs, especially for comparison of different genotypes due to the interaction of genotype × environment, the performances of genotypes in different environments are not the same. For this reason, selection and releasing of superior varieties in vast environments are difficult. In this study, to evaluate the adaptability and yield stability of bread wheat cultivars in southern warm and Dry agro climatic zone of Iran 30 genotypes was detected in alpha lattice design with four replications with two checks (Chamran and Chamran 2) in six research stations (Ahwaz, Darab, Dezful, Iranshahr, Khorramabad and Zabol) in 2013-15 cropping season. After determining the uniformity of experimental error Bartlett test was done for confirming of uniformity of experimental errors. Combined analysis of variance was done with considering of years as random and locations as fixed variables. The effect of genotype was significant at the 1% level. Stability analysis was done using various methods. Based on e coefficient of variation of Francis and Kannbrg, five genotypes (22, 26, 17, 25 and 8), environmental variance of Romer, seven genotypes (14, 6, 26, 24, 1, 28 and 22), ecovalance of Rick and stability variance of Shukla, seven genotypes (6, 14, 24, 30, 1, 28 and 3), Lin and Binns method, four genotypes (24, 8, 12 and 17) Finlay and Wilkinson regression method, three genotypes (3, 11 and 30), was recognized as stable genotypes. Pintus method determined four genotypes (1, 6, 14 and 28) and he Eberhart and Russell method recognized five genotypes (21, 13, 11, 3 and 14) as most stable lines among studied germplasms. In this study, also used non-parametric methods for detecting stable lines. Based on this method, genotypes 3, 11 and 13 were identified as the most stable lines. Different methods recognized different lines as stable genotypes in this study. Totally and based on the results of this study, four lines including: lines no. 3, 11, 13 and 14 with an average yield of 6.059, 6.121, 6.198 and 6.108 Ton per hectare respectively, was stable genotypes with high adaptability and can recommend for releasing in southern warm and dry zone of Iran were identified and recommendations.
    Keywords: Bread wheat, Grain yield, Stability, Adaptation, Warm, dry areas
  • Gh. Rafatjoo, F. Paknejad *, M. N. Ilkaee Pages 51-65
    To study amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on corn yield, an experiment in 2014 at the Research Farm of Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch in the form of split block within the framework of randomized complete block design with four replications was performed. The different treatments of the experiment included urea fertilizer with three levels of 100, 150, and 200 kilogram per hectare and the distribution of sulfur coated nitrogen with three levels of 100, 150, and 200 kilogram per hectar. The results of analysis of variance showed that the distribution of nitrogen fertilizer on thousand grains weight, grain yield and harvest index at the level of 5% and plant fresh weight, plant dry weight and biological yield at the level of 1% were significant. According to the ANOVA interactions results only on grain yield at the level of 1% and harvest index at the level of 5% were significant. It can be concluded that the impact of fertilizer distributingin three stages has a good effect on corn traits. In addition, using nitrogen from various sources has been caused an increase in grain yield and thousand grains weight. According to the results, we can conclude with split application of nitrogen can be avoided of nitrogen avalable losses to plants. As a result of increased nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) increased the corn yield will be.
    Keywords: Nitrogen rate, Nitrogen split, Silage Maize, Yield, yield component
  • B. Alizadeh, K. Mostafavi *, M. Zamanian Pages 67-76
    In order to identify genotypes with drought tolerance in one year clover, ten type Iranian clovers and Berseem were evaluated in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch in 2015. This experiment was conducted in split plots in a randomized complete block with three replications. In this research, drought stress was studied as the main factor in three levels (no stress, average stress and high stress) and also different cultivars of Berseem and Iranian clovers as sub factor in ten levels. Irrigation circles in treatments without stress, average stress and high stress were 7, 10 and 14 days. Cultivars were investigated included Berseem clover (Karaj, Elite, Ekinaton, Win and Alex genotypes) and Iranian clover (Aleshtar, Eghlid, Harati, Zabol and 13 Line). Traits in this experiment contained fresh and dried forage yield, In this study, in order to genotypes yield in without / with stress condition, tolerance indicators including mean productivity (MP), tolerance index (TOL), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and Stress susceptibility index (SSI), Stress tolerance index (STI) were evaluated. The result of correlations among drought indices and Yp and Ys showed that MP, GMP, and STI were highly correlated with Yp and Ys. Based on the values of indices and higher forage yield, in stress and non-stress conditions, ecotype Karaj, Elite, Win and Alex were recognized to be as the most tolerant ecotype against drought.
    Keywords: Irrigation regime, Stress tolerance index, Stress susceptibility index, Geometric mean productivity
  • Sedigheh Ghanahi * Pages 77-90
    In order to study the effect of priming in the field and inoculation with species of Mycorrhiza on soybean, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications on Golcheshmeh farm (Azadshar, Golestan province) in 2015. The factors of the study consisted of Mycorrhiza inoculation at three levels (non-inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mosseae, and inoculation with Glomus intraradices) and priming at three levels (without priming, pretreatment with zinc sulfate 0.02 for four hours and hydro-priming for eight hours). The results of analysis of variance revealed that Mycorrhiza significantly affected seed yield at 0.01 probability level, inoculation with G. intraradices produced the highest seed yield (2973 kg ha-1) whereas the control had the lowest seed yield (2550 kg ha-1). There were significant differences at 0.01 probability level among primed treatments. Hydro-primed treatment had the highest (2853 kg.ha-1) seed yield while the check produced the lowest (2615 kg ha-1) seed yield. The results rereveald that the effects of mycorrhiza was significant for plant height, stem diameter, number lanteral branches,pod length, number of sed per pod,number of pod per plant, 1000 seed weight and oil per cent. Priming significantly affected all trails studied with the exception of oil content
    Keywords: Mycorrhiza, Priming, Yield, Soybean
  • A. Saberi, K. Mostafavi *, A. Mehraban Pages 91-103
    Ten barley cultivars base a Randomized Complete Block design with three replications in normal and drought conditions investigated in 2014-15. Grain yield, harvest index, plant height spike length, spike weight, awn length, thousand grain weight, stem diameter, seed length, seed diameter, peduncle length, day to heading and day to physiological maturity were measured. Results of variance analysis showed that in normal conditions of moisture between the varieties in terms of grain yield, harvest index, spike length, spike weight, awn length, stem diameter, seed length, seed diameter, peduncle length, days to heading and days to physiological maturity and In stress condition the varieties in grain yield, harvest index, plant height, spike length, spike weight, awn length, stem diameter, seed length, seed length and peduncle length showed significant difference. Path analysis indicated that in normal conditions, direct effect, harvest index, plant height and peduncle length on yield is positive and high. in stress condition, harvest index, positive and direct effect and days to heading negative and direct effect on grain yield were that positive effects of increased correlation of with grain yield and, negative effects of reduce the correlation between grain yield and selected attributes will be followed by regression. Results from this study showed that Characteristics such as harvest index, plant height, peduncle length, awn length, and thousand grain can be as indicators for selecting cultivars with high yield in stress and non-stress condition can be recommended.
    Keywords: Path analysis, Correlation, Harvest index, Regression
  • Ss Sayahi*, L. Mirpanahi Pages 105-115
    In order to investigate the mutagenicity of mutagenic substances NAN3 CP69-1062 in sugarcane varieties in different amounts on the first round callus obtained from leaf meristem were applied. In the first six Sterilization treatment with four replications in a completely randomized design on the primary leaf explants derived from the meristem were applied. 5 treatments with 4 replications in a completely randomized design callus explants for callus induction from the primary leaves were studied. 2,4- D to a value of 4 and 3 mg resulted in callus were highest. For induction of mutation on differentiated cells obtained from primary leaves regression equation Y= 5.84.78 X presented. Using calculated equation, LD50 was calculated and as 0.34 mm was introduced as dose that resulted in %50 mortality of callus. Also, for callus regeneration, 6 treatments of regeneration were evaluated in factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications. Kin hormone levels in the second and third levels of NAA in the above treatments formed. 3 milligrams per liter of Kin and 0.1 milligrams per liter of NAA were significant different from other treatments at α= 0.01. Rooting shoots in the basic MS medium with half the nitrate concentration of auxin IBA and NAA with different values of the two had been completed, was conducted. The results showed that the basic MS medium with half the concentration of nitrate was completed, along with NAA at a rate of 0.01 mg greatest impact on rooting germ have been regenerated.
    Keywords: Sugar cane, Mutation, Callus, Regeneration, Rhizogenesis