فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال بیست و هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1396)
  • سال بیست و هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/02/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • محمد عباس زاده*، سکینه پیر یلقون آقاج، ارزو موسوی صفحات 1-18
    دیرخوابی یکی از موضوعاتی است که اخیرا در خوابگاه های دانشجویی، مساله ای مشهود است که تاثیرات نامطلوبی بر دانشجویان می تواند داشته باشد، به همین دلیل، برای فهم عوامل زمینه ساز آن، تلاش شده است از روش نظریه زمینه ای استفاده شود. روش پژوهش، کیفی است و بر اساس روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و نیز معیار اشباع نظری، 10 نفر از دانشجویان با ویژگی دیرخوابی انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از تکنیک مصاحبه عمیق و برای توصیف اطلاعات دموگرافیکی افراد مورد مطالعه، از آمارهای توصیفی استفاده شده است. مفاهیم و مقولات به دست آمده از مصاحبه ها نشان داد شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی، وابستگی ارتباطی- عاطفی، عوامل خانوادگی، فشار هنجاری گروه دوستی، بی تفاوتی اجتماعی و احساس گمنامی از عوامل زمینه ساز اختلال دیرخوابی دانشجویان مورد مطالعه به شمار می آید، به گونه ای که در مقوله شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی: برقرای ارتباط شبکه های مجازی، چت کردن تا نزدیکی صبح، سرک کشیدن در زندگی دیگران در فضای مجازی، در مقوله وابستگی ارتباطی– عاطفی: وجود اشخاص مهم در زندگی، تلقی کردن فضای مجازی به صورت عامل تخلیه روانی، افزایش انگیزه و امید هنگام ارتباط مجازی، احساس تنهایی، احساس سرخوردگی هنگام قطع اینترنت، در مقوله عوامل خانوادگی: دلتنگی و دوری از خانواده، وجود مشکلات خانوادگی و نبود کنترل پدر و مادر و حس آزادی، در مقوله فشار هنجاری گروه دوستی: وجود دوستان ناباب، رقابت با دوستان برای یافتن سوژه مجازی، در مقوله بی تفاوتی اجتماعی: مهم نبودن هم اتاقی ها، رعایت نکردن اصول هم اتاقی و در مقوله احساس گمنامی: چت با اشخاص ناآشنا، راحت بودن برقراری ارتباط تاثیرگذار بوده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد مقوله هسته ای این پژوهش، ولع ارتباط مجازی است که موارد منتهی به آن در قالب یک مدل پاردایمی شامل شرایط علی، شرایط زمینه ساز، پیامدها، راهکارها و استراتژی کنش ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اختلال دیرخوابی، دانشجویان خوابگاه، ولع ارتباط مجازی، نظریه زمینه ای
  • امیرمسعود شهرام نیا*، حوا ابراهیمی پور، رضا محموداوغلی، مجید ملکان صفحات 19-32
    مشارکت سیاسی که یکی از انواع مشارکت است، از شاخص‏های توسعه اجتماعی و سیاسی در کشورها به ‏شمار می‏رود. نظریه پردازان علوم اجتماعی و سیاسی و سیاست ورزان همواره به انتخابات به صورت بارزترین شیوه و تجلی این مشارکت توجه کرده اند. در جمهوری اسلامی ایران نیز مطالعه رفتار انتخاباتی، به ویژه در دهه اخیر، به طور جدی در دستور کار پژوهشگران حوزه های مربوط قرار داشته است. پرسش اصلی مقاله حاضر این است که آیا بین استفاده از شبکه های اجتماعی با مشارکت سیاسی رابطه وجود دارد یا خیر؟ و در صورت وجود رابطه میان استفاده از شبکه های اجتماعی با مشارکت سیاسی، استفاده از شبکه های اجتماعی چه تاثیری بر ابعاد مشارکت سیاسی دانشجویان دارد؟ هدف از نگارش این مقاله، بررسی رابطه میان شبکه های اجتماعی و رفتار انتخاباتی در میان دانشجویان دانشگاه مازندران است. با تقسیم شبکه های اجتماعی (سرمایه اجتماعی شبکه) به سه بعد تعاملی، ساختی و کارکردی و مشارکت سیاسی (رفتار انتخاباتی) به سه سطح تماشاگرانه، متوسط و فعال، یافته های پژوهش نشان داد رابطه ای کاملا مثبت بین شبکه بندی اجتماعی (سلسله مراتب شبکه و انواع مشارکت) و مشارکت سیاسی وجود دارد و بعد ساختی شبکه های اجتماعی بیشترین تاثیر را بر رفتار انتخاباتی دانشجویان داشته اند. برای آزمون فرضیه ها از روش تحلیل همبستگی و تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره استفاده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی، رفتار سیاسی، مشارکت سیاسی، سرمایه اجتماعی شبکه
  • امید قادرزاده *، خالد میارغنج صفحات 33-52
    این مقاله با هدف نحوه بازنمایی فرهنگ سیاسی در اشعار کردی، اشعار عبدالرحمن شرفکندی (متخلص به هژار) و سید محمدامین شیخ الاسلامی موکری (متخلص به هیمن) را بررسی می کند. معیارهای اصلی انتخاب شاعران، مقبولیت اجتماعی و فرهنگی و جایگاه نخبگی بوده است. دوران حیات دو شاعر (1369-1300) دوره تجربه ظهور و توسعه مدرنیزاسیون و ناسیونالیسم در کردستان است و ادبیات این دوره مجرایی برای شناسایی تغییرات به وجودآمده در مناسبات فرهنگی و سیاسی اجتماع کردی است. در این پژوهش، از تحلیل محتوای آثار این دو شاعر بهره گرفته شده است که در فواصل زمانی 1320- 1369 سروده شده‏اند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‏دهد ابعاد و مولفه‏های فرهنگ سیاسی سنت‏گرا، بازتابی بسیار اندک در اشعار مورد بررسی داشته است و چرخشی به سوی فرهنگ سیاسی تجددگرا دیده می‏شود. غلبه نگاه عاملیت‏گرایانه و بازاندیشانه به ساختار اجتماعی و فرهنگی مناطق کردنشین که بخشی از جامعه ایران است، تاکید بر ضرورت وجود مجاری نهادمند تغییرات مسالمت آمیز و خشونت زدایی از زندگی سیاسی از مشخصه‏های اصلی این اشعار محسوب می شود. در میان ابعاد و مولفه‏های فرهنگ سیاسی، بیشترین مشابهت به بعد نگرش به آزادی‏های فردی معطوف است. ابعاد عدالت اجتماعی و مشارکت سیاسی در اشعار هژار و ابعاد نگرش به جنسیت و نگرش به تغییرات اجتماعی و سیاسی در اشعار هیمن بیشتر بازنمایی شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ سیاسی، تحلیل محتوا، نگرش به فرد، نگرش به جنسیت، عدالت اجتماعی، مشارکت سیاسی، تغییرات اجتماعی- سیاسی
  • افشار کبیری*، سارا کریم زاده رضاییه صفحات 53-66
    مسائل زیست محیطی، از جمله موضوعات جدید مورد تاکید در جامعه شناسی است. بر همین اساس، پژوهش حاضر، رابطه بین سرمایه اجتماعی و دغدغه زیست محیطی را بررسی کرده است. در بررسی آثار سرمایه اجتماعی، به ویژه در پژوهش های قبلی در دهه‏های اخیر، دیدگاه‏ها و نتایج متفاوتی طرح شده است. برخی نتایج، نشان دهنده تاثیر مثبت سرمایه اجتماعی بر رفتارها و نگرش‏های زیست محیطی در درون کشورها است. در مقابل، برخی بر ناکافی بودن سرمایه اجتماعی در بهبود و ارتقای رفتارها و نگرش‏های زیست محیطی شهروندان تاکید کرده‏اند. در مبانی نظری، استدلال‏های موافقان و مخالفان مطرح شده است. روش تحلیل این مقاله، روش تطبیقی کمی، برپایه داده‏های موجود بوده و واحد تحلیل آن کشور و واحد مشاهده آن کشور/ سال است. یافته های تجربی ناظر بر رگرسیون چندگانه نشان می دهد 22 درصد تغییرات دغدغه زیست محیطی را سرمایه اجتماعی تبیین می کند. بر اساس این، می‏توان پیش‏بینی کرد سازه‏های منبعث از نظریه‏ سرمایه اجتماعی همبستگی متوسط دغدغه زیست محیطی داشته و برای تبیین دغدغه زیست محیطی در سطح کلان، توان تبیینی بالایی ندارند.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، دغدغه زیست محیطی، تحلیل تطبیقی کمی
  • نادر رازقی*، مهدی علیزاده، سمیه محمدی سنگ چشمه صفحات 67-86
    با گسترش اینترنت، هنجارها، الگوها و ارزش های سنتی حاکم بر آشنایی و یافتن فرد مناسب برای ازدواج تغییر و تحول اساسی یافته است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی نگرش جوانان شهرستان ساری به ازدواج در فضای مجازی و عوامل اجتماعی مرتبط انجام یافته است. پژوهش به صورت پیمایشی است و داده های آن با پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده است. نمونه پژوهش را 400 نفر از جوانان سن 18 تا 29 سال شهر ساری تشکیل می دهد. یافته‏ها نشان دادند 5/54 درصد از پاسخگویان، نگرشی منفی، 15 درصد، نگرش مثبت و 5/30 درصد نیز نگرشی بیطرفانه به ازدواج در فضای مجازی داشتند. یافته ها نشان دادند متغیرهای دینداری (43/0-= β)، وابستگی به خانواده (20/0-= β) و پایگاه اجتماعی و اقتصادی (16/0-= β) به ترتیب مهم ترین پیش بینی کننده در نگرش منفی به ازدواج در فضای مجازی بوده اند. همچنین متغیرهای ارتباط با دوستان و همسالان (26/0= β)، میزان استفاده از اینترنت (23/0= β) و سن (08/0= β) مهم ترین متغیرهای تاثیرگذار در نگرش مثبت به ازدواج در فضای مجازی بوده اند. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد تغییرات و دگرگونی‏های نگرشی و ارزشی در ارتباط با ازدواج در فضای مجازی یکی از مولفه‏های تغییرات وسیع اجتماعی است که در جامعه در حال گذار ما در حال شکل‏گیری و بازتولید است.
    کلیدواژگان: نگرش، جوانان، ازدواج اینترنتی، شهرساری
  • عباس امینی*، فرزانه صادقیان، طیبه زاهدی صفحات 87-112
    ارزیابی و ادراک جوامع و مردمان روستایی از کیفیت زندگی ، همچون واقعیت زندگی آنان، از عوامل ملموس و ناملموس بسیاری متاثر است. این ارزیابی، انعکاسی از شرایط و اوضاع قلمرو زندگی و سپهر اندیشگی آن ها است. سنجش و تحلیل جامع این ارزیابی نیز سنجه ای است هم برای ارزیابی و تحلیل سطح توسعه و برخورداری این جوامع از شرایط فیزیکی و عینی سکونتگاهی و هم ذهنیت و نگرش آن ها به زندگی روستایی و مقتضیات آن در مقایسه با تصور و ادراکی که به ویژه از زندگی شهری دارند. مطالعه حاضر، کیفیت زندگی در بخش هایی از جوامع روستایی استان های اصفهان و کرمان را ارزیابی و عوامل موثر بر آن را تحلیل علی کرده است. بخش عمده ای از مطالعه، تدوین چارچوبی نظریه مند برای سنجش «خود-ارزیابی» از کیفیت زندگی و مقیاس سازی برای مجموعه جامع و متنوعی از متغیرهای اثرگذار بر آن بوده است. بر اساس توصیف آماری متغیرها، گذشته از تفاوت هایی جزئی، در ارزیابی ابعاد و مولفه های مختلف کیفیت زندگی، بین مناطق دوگانه روستایی و گروه های دوگانه سن، جنس و تاهل پاسخگویان، اختلاف معناداری مشاهده نشد. روابط پیچیده و چندگانه بین متغیرها و اثرگذاری های مستقیم و غیرمستقیم آن ها بر ارزیابی از کیفیت زندگی، با استفاده از رویکردهای آماری تحلیل مسیر و مدل سازی معادله های ساختاری، واکاوی و تحلیل علی شد. با شناسایی و تدوین مدل مفهومی-تحلیلی مطالعه، علاوه بر مدل ساختاری اصلی برای تحلیل متغیر وابسته، روابط درونی بین متغیرهای مستقل نیز با پنج مدل مسیر علی، ارزیابی و تحلیل و نتایج حاصل به تفصیل تشریح شد. درمجموع آثار مستقیم و غیرمستقیم، پایگاه اقتصادی-اجتماعی، وضعیت مسکن، فعالیت های تفریحی و امکانات و تسهیلات، به ترتیب اثرگذارترین عوامل مثبت بر ارزیابی جوامع روستایی از کیفیت زندگی بوده و پس از آن ها، احساس محرومیت نسبی، عوامل استرس زا و سن نیز متغیرهای اثرگذار منفی بوده اند. درانتها، اعتبارسنجی نتایج و برآوردهای مدل سازی علی-ساختاری مطالعه آمده و پیشنهادهایی هم برای ادامه کار ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی از کیفیت زندگی، جوامع روستایی، مدل سازی ساختاری، تحلیل مسیر، دهاقان، بردسیر
  • داریوش بوستانی، علی مرادی*، محمدرضا همتی فر صفحات 113-130
    امروزه مسائلی مانند شکست در تحصیلات، استرس‏های اجتماعی، احساس ناامنی و حوادث منفی زندگی از جمله جدایی از والدین، ازدست دادن کار و یا محرومیت نسبی و هراس اجتماعی از عوامل اجتماعی هستند که بر استرس‏های فرهنگ پذیری در میان مهاجران واردشده به محیط های فرهنگی جدید تاثیر زیادی می‏گذارند. هدف این مقاله بررسی رابطه بین محرومیت نسبی و هراس اجتماعی با استرس‏های فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران واردشده به شهر طبس است. روش پژوهش در این مطالعه، پیمایش است و از ابزار پرسشنامه محقق ساخته برای اندازه گیری استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری، مهاجران واردشده به شهر طبس هستند که تعداد 200 نفر به شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ایبرای مطالعه انتخاب شدند. از اعتبار صوری و سازه برای روایی و آلفای کرونباخ برای پایایی ابزار استفاده شد. از روش‏های آماری ضریب همبستگی و تحلیل واریانس برای آزمون فرضیه ها استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان می دهد رابطه ای معنی دار بین متغیرهای مستقل محرومیت نسبی (56/0=r)، هراس اجتماعی (31/0=r)، میزان تحصیلات (19/0=r) و متغیر وابسته استرس ناشی از فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران واردشده وجود دارد. همچنین وضعیت اشتغال و وضعیت تاهل بر استرس های فرهنگ پذیری، تاثیری معنادار دارند. افزایش میزان هراس اجتماعی و محرومیت نسبی برای مهاجران واردشده به جامعه مقصد یا فرهنگ جدید، استرس های فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران را در ابعاد یکپارچگی و همانندی آن ها با فرهنگ جامعه مقصد می تواند کاهش دهد و به افزایش استرس های فرهنگ پذیری در دو بعد احساس جدایی و حاشیه نشینی منجر شود. می توان استنباط کرد افزایش میزان محرومیت نسبی و همچنین هراس اجتماعی در استرس های فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران واردشده به محیط فرهنگی جدید می تواند اختلال ایجاد کند.
    کلیدواژگان: محرومیت نسبی، استرس فرهنگ پذیری، هراس اجتماعی، مهاجران واردشده
  • صمد عابدینی*، شیدا طالبی صفحات 131-144
    هدف این پژوهش، بررسی جامعه شناختی عوامل اجتماعی و فرهنگی مرتبط با گرایش شهروندان شهر خلخال به ورزش همگانی بود. چارچوب نظری پژوهش، ترکیبی از نظریه جامعه پذیری ورزشی هورن (2000)، نظریه خودآیینه ای چارلز هورتن کولی (1902)، نظریه عمل پیر بوردیو (1990) و نظریه فمنیستی هریس (1996)، چو و فلشین (2001) است. روش پژوهش، پیمایش و ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود. از شهروندان بالای 15 سال شهر خلخال با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچند مرحله ای تصادفی 379 نفر برای نمونه آماری پژوهش انتخاب شدند. تحلیل آماری یافته ها نشان داد بین متغیرهای حمایت خانواده، تصور خویش از بدن، سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه فرهنگی و سرمایه اقتصادی شهروندان و میزان گرایش آنان به ورزش همگانی، رابطه مثبت دارد (05/0 ≤ P). تفاوت میزان گرایش شهروندان به ورزش همگانی بر اساس جنسیت، سن، شغل و سطح تحصیلات، معنادار و بر اساس وضعیت تاهل، غیرمعنادار است و نمره میانگین میزان گرایش به ورزش همگانی شهروندان 50 است. همچنین یافته های پژوهش درخصوص نوع ورزش های همگانی مورد علاقه شهروندان شهر خلخال نشان می دهد ورزش های آبی، ورزش های بومی محلی، ورزش بزرگسالان، ورزش کارکنان دولت، ورزش های طبیعی مثل کوهنوردی، ورزش صبحگاهی، آمادگی جسمانی، پیاده روی خانوادگی، به ترتیب از اولویت های ورزش های همگانی مورد علاقه شهروندان شهر خلخال محسوب می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: ورزش همگانی، حمایت خانواده، تصور خویش از بدن، سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه اقتصادی
  • لیلا مقتدایی صفحات 145-158
    رفتارهای ضد شهروندی مانند اجتناب از کار، خرابکاری و... رفتارهایی هستند که به طور مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم به سازمان آسیب های جدی وارد می کنند. یکی از عوامل تاثیر گذار بر کاهش چنین رفتارهایی، رعایت اصول اخلاقی چون صداقت، تعهد سازمانی و... است که درمجموع اخلاق حرفه ای را تشکیل می دهند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین چگونگی رابطه بین اخلاق حرفه ای و مولفه های آن (صداقت، انتقادپذیری، تعهد سازمانی، وقت شناسی، مشارکت) و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی افراد انجام شده است. روش پژوهش، پیمایشی بوده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه کارکنان دانشگاه اصفهان در سال 1393 و حجم نمونه 196 نفر از کارکنان بودند که به شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ایانتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها، پرسشنامه رفتار ضد شهروندی سازمانی، فوکس و اسپکتور (2002) و پرسشنامه محقق ساخته اخلاق حرفه ای بود که روایی و پایایی آن ها تایید شد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد بین صداقت کارکنان و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی، رابطه معکوس و معنادار (به میزان 18/0-) وجود دارد. بین انتقادپذیری و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی، رابطه معکوس و معنادار (به میزان 34/0-) وجود دارد. بین تعهد سازمانی و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی، رابطه معکوس و معنادار (به میزان41/0-) وجود دارد. بین وقت شناسی و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی، رابطه معکوس و معنادار (به میزان 29/0-) وجود دارد. بین مشارکت و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی، رابطه معکوس و معنادار (به میزان 53/0-) وجود دارد. بین رعایت اخلاق حرفه ای و گرایش به رفتارهای ضد شهروندی، رابطه معکوس و معنادار (به میزان 38/0-) وجود دارد. بر مبنای تحلیل رگرسیون انجام شده از بین ابعاد اخلاق حرفه ای مشارکت در حد بالا، تعهد سازمانی و انتقاد پذیری به میزان متوسط و وقت شناسی و صداقت در سطح پایینی باعث کاهش رفتارهای شهروندی بودند. بر اساس مطالعه انجام شده پیشنهاد می شود اصول اخلاق حرفه ای در کنار آموزش های شهروندی در کلیه مقاطع تحصیلی مدارس به ویژه در دبیرستان آموزش داده شود و شاخص های اخلاق حرفه ای متناسب با فرهنگ ایرانی اسلامی بومی سازی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اخلاق حرفه ای، رفتار ضد شهروندی کارکنان دانشگاه
  • آرمان حیدری*، مریم مختاری، احسان خانمحمدی صفحات 159-184
    بعد از دهه 1970 نوعی چرخش مطالعاتی از تمرکز صرف بر وجوه تولید به وجوه مصرف به ‏ویژه مصرف فرهنگی و نوعی چرخش تبیینی از تاکید بر متغیرهای به اصطلاح «سخت» مانند طبقه، به تاکید و توجه به متغیرهای به اصطلاح «نرم» مانند هویت اتفاق افتاد. بر اساس این، پژوهشگران به مصرف موسیقیایی که یکی از مهم ترین گونه‏ های مصرف فرهنگی است و تبیین آن بر اساس هویت جمعی توجه کردند. با وجود این، جامعه شناسان جامعه ما به هر دو واقعیت بررسی مصرف گونه های موسیقیایی و تبیین آن بر اساس عوامل فرهنگی، کمتر توجه کرده اند. با درنظرگرفتن محدودیت‏های بالا، مقاله حاضر نتیجه پژوهشی کمی - پیمایشی است که درباره رابطه مصرف گونه ‏های موسیقیایی با هویت جمعی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، دانشجویان لر دانشگاه یاسوج بوده ‏اند که برای دسترسی به آنان از شیوه نمونه‏ گیری طبقه‏ای چندمرحله‏ای متناسب با حجم استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، مصرف موسیقی پاپ و موسیقی کلاسیک غربی به ترتیب پرمصرف ترین و کم ‏مصرف‏ترین گونه‏ های موسیقیایی دانشجویان بوده ‏اند. رابطه هویت قومی با مصرف گونه‏ های موسیقیایی محلی، پاپ و مذهبی، مثبت و معنادار و با موسیقی سنتی و غربی، غیرمعنادار بود. رابطه هویت ملی با مصرف گونه ‏های موسیقیایی غربی و پاپ، منفی و معنادار، با موسیقی مذهبی، مثبت و معنادار و با سایر گونه‏ های موسیقی غیرمعنا‏دار بود. رابطه هویت جهانی با مصرف گونه‏ های موسیقیایی غربی و پاپ، مثبت و با موسیقی های سنتی، محلی و مذهبی، منفی و معنادار بوده است. درنهایت می توان گفت میزان برجستگی، تعهد و تعلق به هر یک از گونه‏ های هویت جمعی، ذائقه مصرف موسیقیایی فرد را به سمت و سوی مصرف یک نوع موسیقی خاص سوق می‏دهد؛ به عبارتی افراد منفعلانه موسیقی مصرف نمی کنند، بلکه فعالانه متناسب با سرمایه های هویتی خود موسیقی‏ های خاصی را انتخاب و مصرف می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: مصرف فرهنگی، مصرف موسیقایی، هویت قومی، هویت ملی، هویت جهانی، قوم لر، دانشگاه یاسوج
  • محسن عسکری*، محمود رحیمی صفحات 185-206
    به موازات نقش بیشتر خودروها در شهرها و آشکار شدن آثار منفی آن برای ساکنان شهرها و محیط زیست، به تدریج تمایلات عمومی برای کاهش استفاده از این وسیله و جایگزینی آن با روش‏های حمل و نقل عمومی و پایدار شکل گرفته است. در این بین، دوچرخه به عنوان یکی از مدهای سفر، مهم‏ترین شیوه حمل و نقل پاک شهری محسوب می‏گردد که دارای منافع و مزایای متعدد اقتصادی و زیست محیطی است. شهر تهران نیز مشابه تمامی کلانشهرهای بزرگ در حال توسعه، گریبانگیر مشکلات ترافیکی و حمل و نقل به عنوان یک زیرساخت شهری است. این در حالی است که مدهای حمل و نقل پایدار شهری همچون پیاده‏روی و دوچرخه سواری می‏توانند نقش موثری در این زمینه ایفاء نمایند و در حال حاضر جایگاه چندانی در سهم از سفر در این شهر ندارند. این مطالعه، با هدف بررسی میزان پذیرش اجتماعی استفاده از دوچرخه در سطح کلانشهر تهران تدوین شده و از الزامات این مطالعه، رویکردهای رایج کالبد گرا و کم توجهی تحقیقات پیشین به ابعاد اجتماعی و روان‏شناختی دوچرخه سواری در شهرها است. مبنای مطالعه به کمک روش تحقیق کمی با راهبرد پیمایش و مبتنی بر «مدل گسترده تئوری رفتار برنامه‏ریزی شده» است. تقویت نظری این مدل با اضافه نمودن شاخصه‏های جدید و مرتبط با محیط مصنوع انجام شده است. ابزار این مطالعه به کمک یک «پرسشنامه محقق ساخته» بوده و تکمیل آن توسط 495 نفر از ساکنان مرد کلانشهر تهران به شیوه نمونه‏گیری طبقه‏ای صورت گرفته است. یافته‏های مطالعه با روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و مدل‏یابی معادلات ساختاری نشان داد؛ اولا تمامی پارامترهای به کار رفته در مدل دارای ارتباط معنادار آماری با متغیر وابسته است و همچنین بر خلاف مطالعات قبلی، موضوع دوچرخه در بین ساکنان شهر تهران از وجهه مثبت برخوردار بوده و اولویت‏های تصمیم‏گیری باید در جهت رفع موانع و افزایش مشوق‏ها برای پذیرش عملی استفاده از آن به عنوان یک وسیله حمل و نقل سوق یابد. از بین عوامل روان‏شناختی تشکیل‏دهنده رفتار دوچرخه سواری، سلامتی مهم‏ترین مولفه در نگرش به دوچرخه و هنجارها بیشتر از عامل نگرش در رفتار دوچرخه سواری موثر بوده‏اند. در میزان اثرگذاری هنجارها نیز، بیشترین تاثیر به ترتیب در «هنجارهای تاکیدی» و «هنجارهای توصیفی» مشاهده گردید. «کنترل ادراکی رفتار» نیز نقش اندکی در این زمینه داشته است. مطابق آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن، ویژگی‏های درک شده از مقوله باورهای رفتاری؛ مهم‏ترین عامل شکل‏دهنده به نگرش بوده اند و مولفه‏های سلامتی، فایده و ضرورتمندی حمل و نقلی، ارتباط بیشتری با آن داشته‏اند. همچنین مشخص گردید که بین ویژگی‏های محیط مصنوع و شکل‏گیری نگرش، ارتباط معناداری برقرار است. در نهایت نتایج به دست آمده از مطالعه، با تحقیقات متعدد کشورهای پیشرو مقایسه شده و پیشنهاداتی نیز ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: پذیرش اجتماعی، تئوری رفتار برنامه ریزی شده، مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری، دوچرخه سواری، کلانشهر تهران
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  • Mohammad Abbaszadeh *, Sakineh Piryalghon, Arezoo Musavi Pages 1-18
    Introduction
    All living things need rest to continue the activity that one way to achieve it, is sleeping. So sleep is considered as one of the basic human needs and a factor to reduce the anxiety and stress of everyday life. People who do not sleep enough or sleep late, they are likely to experience irregularities in the daily lives. Students also are no exception; they may also experience this problem. In other words, late sleep is one of the issues that have been seen in student dormitories that can have undesirable effects on students; so, to understand the underlying factors, it is tried to use the grounded theory method.
    Material &
    Methods
    The research method is qualitative and based on purposive sampling and theoretical saturation criterion, 10 students were selected by late sleep features. In-depth interview technique was used to collect the data and to describe the demographic data, descriptive statistics were used. It should be reminded that issued associated with the sample, interview location, number of hours devoted to interviews, the saturation principle is observed in every respect. Moreover, the findings have also validated based on the triangulation rule.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    Based on the interview results, the main most reason was being voracious to virtual communication. In this regard, we can say that computers are connected to each other around the world via high-speed communication lines. Behind the monitors of these computers, the Internet users in social networks communicate with each other with different racial, ethnic and gender groups. Students benefit from this free modern communication technology via living in dormitories. The students, due to being away from family and exposure to different people, may encounter problems that they may see the cyberspace as a solution to fix the problem. In this space, people can freely express their opinions, emotions and feelings.
    Another aspect of Internet is having no identity there. It means that in the virtual space, people have the opportunity to play a role and do not be afraid because many of the people, who met through the virtual space, may never see each other in the real world. Due to specific features such as anonymity, accessibility, diversity and providing an opportunity to be away from the realities of life (separation from family and problems in dormitory), it is attractive to students and it causes the voracious on virtual connection. People are heavily dependent on the virtual space and use too much of it so that they spend all night in the virtual network and finally sleep late. It leads to weak performance of students and emotional separation from the others so that they prefer their virtual friends to the real world friends.
    Based on the inferred grounded theory, items such as sleepiness in class, low productivity and average, lack of communication with the real-world friends, social deviation, negative views on marriage and commitment, isolation are considered as consequences of voracious to virtual communication. These academic actors of the interview used strategies such as blaming the nostalgic atmosphere of the dormitory, abuse of dormitory facilities and justification by the comparison with friends. Based on the study results, the following suggestions can be obtained:- Controlling the use of the Internet by the university authorities in order to limit the social network for students as members of social networks.
    - Informing the students through the consultants and offering the free consultations
    - more attention of the parents to their children through trustable emotional relationship and visiting their children in the dormitory.
    - holding the religious ceremonies to highlight the role of religion and to reduce the dependence of students on the virtual space.
    - holing the training courses focused on the use of technology to reduce the harms caused by the virtual network.
    - Strengthening the foundations of the Islamic lifestyle of students in order to reduce their loneliness
    Keywords: late Sleep, Dormitory Students, Eagerness to Virtual Communication, Grounded theory
  • Amirmasoud Shahramnia*, Havva Ebrahimipour, Reza Mahmoud Oghli, Majid Malekan Pages 19-32
    Introduction
    Today's , political participation in electoral participation as the most significant political development of nations has become inevitable. This would show more sensitive in third world countries. Governments are also obliged to accept the legitimacy of political participation. On the other hand, the high level of political participation implies developed culture and political culture development. As religious perspective, political participation and sensitivity to destiny of society and ourself, not only is a right, but also it is a duty emergence and good value to students and the public .Therfore , examines the role, place and functions of students in the political system and the need to take advantage of the capabilities of students in the government could be one of the inevitable political and social development. Electoral behavior, especially in the last decade, has seriously been on the agenda of concerned researchers in the Islamic Republic of Iran.Thus, the main question now is whether there is relation between the use of social networks and political participation or not? And if there is a relationship between the use of social networks and political participation,what is the impact of social networks usage on political participation of students leavel?. Despite the importance of the issue in our country, research that has been done in the area of political participation, less investigated the relationship between the networks and the impact of social capital on electoral behavior. Requires sociological analysis in this area , led to study this subject .
    Materials And Methods
    This research survey was conducted using questionnaires. Statistical Society was Mazandaran university students. In this research, cluster with probability proportional to size cluster sampling and based on a sample of 287 students were examined. The study was correlational studies and its design according to the method of data collection is after contract type .
    Networks social capital in this research is studied in three dimensions, structural features, interactive and functional . In the cognitive dimension of networks social capital, the size of the network is considered as an indicator of this dimension. The size of the network is people who interact informally with them in their relationships and communication network that were asked as open questions in the distance measurement. In interactive aspect of networks social capital, frequency of exposure and intimacy in the relationship are considered as an index and the following factors of this dimension. The frequency of contact is active communication with each member of their network and that they are in touch with them from time to time. Electoral behavior: In this study, Cronbach's reliability coefficient of the scale was 0/79 percent and in order for the electoral behavior of spectators, medium and active 0/77, 0/72 and 0/74 percent is obtained. Studies on the validity of the test on the same sample and internal consistency coefficient shows that this questionnaire benefit from high reliability and validity. To enhance the accuracy according to Iran ,electoral behavior based on Mylbrs Leicester (1965) was divided to three behaviors : spectatorial (Such as voting, setting up a political debate, trying to convince others to vote for a particular species, etc.), average behavior (such as attending a meeting or political rally, a donation to a political party or candidate, contact with political authorities, etc.) and active behaviors (such as spending time in a political propaganda campaign, active membership in a political party, to collect financial aid for political purposes, etc.)
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    Correlation of social network and electoral behavior Variable Correlation Spectatorial Average Active Electoral behavior structural Pearson Correlation
    **0/731
    **0/627
    **0/6490
    **0/769
    Significant (two-tailed)
    0/000
    0/000
    0/000
    0/000
    interactive
    Pearson Correlation
    **0/686
    **0/667
    **0/673
    **0/776
    Significant (two-tailed)
    0/000
    0/000
    0/000
    0/000
    functional
    Pearson Correlation
    **0/640
    **0/6650
    **0/690
    **0/764
    Significant (two-tailed)
    0/000
    0/000
    0/000
    0/000
    Table 1. Correlation (Pearson)shows each networks social capital with electoral behavior . As can be seen in all aspects of networks social capital, all correlation with the level of electoral behavior (p>0/01) is significant. The highest correlation is related to interactive dimension with the whole electoral behavior but the lowest correlation is related to the relationship between average dimensions of electoral behaviors and structural dimension. Structural characteristics (size and composition), interactive (frequency of contact, relationship intimacy) and functional network (interactive tool support and resources), were assumed to affect their electoral behavior.Within the characteristics of the network, network size is very important. The number of people who knows the person associated with them, is an expression of social capital. According to the results, it can be said that the spectatorial behavior with regard to the number and quality of communication in the network is the highest. In general networks social capital and its features (Structural- interactive and functional) involves at the level of electoral activities and relationships and resources on the network can be a precursor to building and strengthening trust between people. The results shows that with higher social capital, means that social capital including a valuable collection of mutual trust between individuals, there will be more kinship networks and social interaction and voluntary organizations, Campaign, political communications, and membership in political groups . In this way, political participation and social capital have reciprocal network and enhance each other in higher levels in the society. In fact, social networks, decrease communication and information costs and create better opportunities for political participation.Therfore, the new group will strengthen and democratic participation are increased. Such connections to direct the political culture of the society in order to match the political system are able to motivate, mobility and mobilize people to take steps towards the main objectives of each system and in the service of the community to use all the societys power.
    Keywords: Virtual social networks, Political behavior, political participation, Networks social capital
  • Omid Ghaderzadeh *, Khaled Miyarghonj Pages 33-52
    Introduction
    Advent and development of modernization, nationalism, and nation-building in the multicultural society of Iran have been associated with evolution and development of political and social aspect of literary texts. This impact was highly clear on Kurdish poetry and its ancient tradition that arose in the 16th Century (Ahmadzadeh, 2007: 198). Superiority of poetry over other genres is a phenomenon that is common in the history of numerous Oriental nations. Even during the 20th Century, despite of the advent of Kurdish journalism and literary prose in Kurdish literature, the quality and quantity of Kurdish poetry are still at a higher level.
    Poetry is a mediating tool to understand social and political issues (Ahmadzadeh, 2007: 25).“The beginning of the entry of poetry to the field of politics, in the form of integration of these two, in Mukryan Kurdistan goes back to Saif Ghazi’s time” (Dashti, 2009: 47), and it reached its climax in Hemn and Hazhar’s poems. Both claims that Hemn stepped into the field of politics through poetry or entered poetry through politics are acceptable (Ibid, 48). This claim is also correct even more intensely about Hazhar. In this regard, due to their political activism, their poems depict the political, social, and cultural circumstances and help us understand the political culture of the Kurds as an important and effective part of Iran’s civilization.
    Materials and Methods
    In the present study, content analysis method was utilized in order to quantitatively analyze the content of Hemn and Hazhar’s poems. The analysis unit is “line”. The published poems composed by Hazhar were retrieved from his books “Bo Kurdistan”[1] (1979) including 5,274 lines and “Alakok”[2] (2001) including 553 lines, and Hemn’s were collected from his book “Bargay Yaran”[3] (2003) including 2,526 lines. These poems were composed over 1941-1990. The reason for choosing the poems was their political nature which indicates these two poets’ attitude toward political culture. The sample size was all of the lines that have political concepts and themes. Stratified sampling was employed to select the poems.
    The data of the present study were collected through reverse questionnaire and based on categorization. In order to enhance the validity of the instrument, first, the face validity of political culture categories was examined by making use of the views of some field experts and scholars. To enhance the reliability of the study, the texts of the poems were encoded again and validity coefficient formula was used to calculate the consistency between the two tests.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    According to the results of the study, only 12.36% of the poems reflect the components and themes of modern and traditional political culture. The signs of modern political culture are reflected about 20 times more than traditional political culture signs in the poems, which indicates the modern view of these two poets. One of the most important features of the political culture of the poets was the dominance of functional and reflexive view on the sociocultural structure of Kurdish regions as a part of Iran’s community. Comparing the main components of political culture indicates that themes related to “individual” are more reflected than other themes while “gender” is least reflected. This issue indicated the importance of major trends like individualism, human agency, and democracy as the main components of modernism according to these two poets. The dimension of attitude toward gender in Hemn’s poems was reflected 5% more than Hazhar’s, which indicates that the former paid more attention to women’s issues. Low reflection of gender-related issues indicates that there were social, cultural and political problems and issues beyond gender, which had drew the poets’ attention. Moreover, apart from the quantity of the poems, this issue has been reflected in a very modern and advanced form in Hemn’s poetry. His famous poem “Yadgari Shirin”[4] (Hemn, 69) is a reason for such claim. Moreover, comparing the method of representing the components of political culture in Hemn and Hazhar’s poetry lightens the fact that political culture is reflected more in Hazhar’s poems (980 lines) than Hemn’s (620 lines). Therefore, themes related to individualism are reflected more than other themes in the poems composed by Hemn and Hazhar.
    Keywords: Political Culture, content analysis, Attitude Toward Individual, attitude toward gender, social justice, political participation, sociopolitical changes
  • Afshar Kabiri *, Sara Karimzadeh Pages 53-66
    Present study examines the relationship between social capital and environmental concerns. In relation to social capital, different ideas and results have discussed. Some results indicate positive impact of social capital on environmental issues . In contrast, some researches focused on the inadequacy of social capital in improving the environmental sensitivity.
    Theoretical part of this research, discussed about the arguments of opponents and proponents. In the empirical part of the research, hypotheses, by using cross-country experimental data, were analyzed. Methodologically, this study is comparative cross-country and the unit of analysis is country.
    In this paper, the comparative-quantitative analysis method is used for data analyzed. Regression analysis shows that 22% of the variation in social capital is explainable by environmental concerns. Thus, it can be predicted that social capital has a moderate correlation with environmental concern.
    Keywords: social capital, Environmental concern, Comparative- quantitative analysis
  • Nader Razeghi *, Mehdi Alizadeh, Somayeh Mohamadi Sangcheshmeh Pages 67-86
    Introduction
    With the expansion of the Internet, new forms of interaction and communication among individuals have been provided. Internet network allows the users to communicate with each other with no restrictions at different times and places and exchange information at various levels and with a wide of variety of potential people for marriage within the shortest time possible and experience multilateral social environments. The Internet led to the formation of a new kind of matchmaking, expression of love and attempt to find the right person for marriage. People establish a close relationship with others through the Internet, and sometimes may propose someone or receive such proposals. For this reason, the norms, patterns and traditional values that govern acquaintance and the attempt to find the right person to marry, have been seriously challenged. People are no longer limited by having to refer to neighbors, local people, relatives or acquaintances for marriage. The present study examined young people’s attitudes to marriage through cyberspace as well as some social factors which might have affected their attitudes in Sari City, Mazandaran, Iran. In other words, the main questions of this research are “What is the attitude of young people towards finding the right person to marry through cyberspace?” and “What social factors influence young people's attitudes?”.
    Materials And Methods
    This study was based on the survey method and the data was collected through questionnaires developed by the researchers. The sample of this research (400 single people including 200 males and 200 females out of a total of 49988) was drawn from young people aged 18- 29. The sampling method was based on multi-stage cluster sampling. The independent variable of the study was the youth's attitudes towards marriage through cyberspace and the depended variables included religiosity, relationships with friends and peers, dependence on family, socio-economic status, and the amount of the Internet use.
    Attitude to marriage through cyberspace as the dependent variable was measured by cognitive, emotional and tendency-to-act dimensions. Other dimensions were used to measure the independent variables. Religiosity was operationalized and measured through ritual, experiential, consequential, and faith dimensions. Relationships with friends and peers was measured by 8 items such as the amount of time spent with friends, and friends’ role in decision making. Dependence on family was defined as moral commitment towards family members and included 10 items. Amount of the Internet use was measured based on the average number of hours per week spent at home, in an Internet café, work place, etc. The reliability of the different sections of the questionnaire dealing with different variables were calculated separately using Cronbach's alpha.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The findings showed that 54.5 percent of respondents had negative attitudes, 15 percent positive attitudes, and 30.5 percent neutral attitudes towards marriage through cyberspace. The independent variables of the study including religiosity, relationships with friends and peers, dependence on family, socio-economic status, and the amount of the Internet use explained 61% (adjusted R Square) of the variance of the dependent variable (young people's attitudes towards marriage through cyberspace). The unexplained residual variance was related to others factors which were not investigated in this study. The results indicated that the variable of “religiosity” was the most important predictor (β=-0/43), and “dependence on family” (β=-0/20) and “socio-economic status” (β=-0/16) were respectively less important predictors of negative attitudes towards marriage through cyberspace. However, predictors of positive attitudes included “relationship with friends and peers” (β= 0/26), “the amount of internet use” (β= 0/23), and “age” (β=0/08) respectively. According to the findings, the number of girls who had negative attitudes towards marriage through cyberspace was more than the boys and socialization did not function equally for them. Also girls’ dependence on family was more than that of the boys. As girls are considered more vulnerable than boys in the Iranian society due to such acquaintance and socialization before marriage, there is more control over the girls by the families in order to avoid the problems caused the cyberspace. The results suggested that changes in attitudes and values with respect to marriage through cyberspace is one of the indicators of extensive social changes which are taking place and being reproduced in our transient society.
    Keywords: attitudes, marriage, cyberspace, youths, Sari City
  • Abbas Amini *, Farzaneh Sadeghian, Tayebeh Zahedi Pages 87-112
    Introduction
    Evaluation and perception of villagers from their rural life is influencing by several tangible and intangible factors, as well of the reality of their own living. This self-evaluation images the objective circumstances and subjective reflection on their life. By measuring this self-evaluation, it is possible to assess their settlement conditions and development level, and their attitudes toward rural life and its contingences, especially compared to urban life, as well. By defining and operationalizing a close comprehensive rural self-evaluation scale for measuring the quality of life, it can be evaluated both the living and thinking sphere of villagers, reflecting the physical and objective conditions of settling rural environments as well of their mentalities and attitudes towards rurality and ruralism especially compared to urbanization and urbanism.
    Materials And Methods
    The present study aims to assess the villagers’ self-evaluation quality of life and casually analyze its determinants in some rural areas of Isfahan and Kerman provinces of central Iran, based on a sample of 239 household heads size, stratified proportionally and selected randomly to primarily gather the needed data by field operations. Providing a conceptual framework for measuring the self-evaluation quality of life and scaling its comprehensive set of determinants has been a major part of the study. The scale has comprised two ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ dimensions, including sub-scales of “state of existential balance”, “realizing of life potential”, “fulfillment of needs” and “objective factors” measuring the ‘objective’ dimension and “well-being”, “satisfaction with life”, “happiness” and “meaning in life” measuring the ‘subjective’ one. Based on literature reviewed, the set of independent variables has also contained age, socioeconomic situation (SES), housing situation, environmental properties, facilities, social capital, recreational activities, relative deprivation and stressful factors. The analysis procedures performed using advanced statistical methods of structural equation modeling (SEM) and path analysis in order to evaluate and interpret the interrelationship and causality structure among the variables.
    Results And Discussion
    Exception of some neglects, description of the variables showed no difference in quality of life evaluation between the twin age, gender, marriage and geographic region groups of respondents. The complex and multiple interrelation of the variables and their direct and indirect effects on the quality of life evaluation has casually analyzed and interpreted using the advanced path analysis and structural equation modeling statistical procedures. In addition to the main structural model for analyzing the quality of life evaluation, five casual path models have also analyzed in detail for assessing the interrelations of independent variables, based on the identification and configuration of conceptual-analytic framework of the study. Referring to the total direct and indirect effects, the socio-economic status (SES), dwelling situation, recreational activities and facilities have respectively been the most positive and then, the sense of relative deprivation, stressful affaires and age the negative factors influenced the villagers’ evaluation of quality of life. Model fit indices and some future recommendations have represented finally.
    Conclusion
    Among the measured and studied determinant variables of rural quality of life, two non-significant variables of environmental situations and social capital are collective ones in nature, in contrary of others. This indicates and reveals that the self evaluation of rural peoples from quality of their lives do not correlates with their attitudes on collective affaires. Contrarily, the personal view points and their families’ situation have been the main determinants of this evaluation. Accordingly, the individual needs and problems are nowadays more important determinants and preferred apprehensions than collective affaires in view of villagers for their quality of life. This individualism is in the contradiction with the old and long lasting collectivist properties and determinants of rural communities in the past and seems be due to the deep and widespread technological evolutions and especially the information and communication revolution in recent century, apprised local communities the gap and inequalities between the urban societies and them.
    Keywords: Quality of life evaluation, Rural Communities, Structural Equation Modeling, Path Analysis, Dehaghan, Bardsir
  • Daryoush Boostani, Ali Moradi *, Mohammadreza Hematifar Pages 113-130
    Introduction
    One of the major challenges in terms of intercultural migrations has occupied the minds of thinkers in the social sciences, the social adjustment of new immigrants in the community that can be expressed as a result of acculturation processes. Most newcomers tend to be resettled ethnic communities, societies that social mutual help networks to ensure that the reluctance or inability of domestic institutions will support them.
    In this study survived of mental health among Tabbas immigrants, despite the fact that during the last decades, migration has increased in Iran, but the direction, speed and intensity is not the same in all parts of the country. Moreover, successive droughts have caused on the part of the rural population to the city. Of course, all of these immigrants experience the same conditions, many of them with different cultural backgrounds in the community and issues in the field of mental health problems are.
    The purpose of this study, the effects of relative deprivation and social phobia is the stress of acculturation of immigrants into the city of Tabbas. In line with this goal, the objectives of this paper are as follows
    A description of the stress of acculturation immigrants to Tabbas
    Determination the role of relative deprivation in the acculturation stress of immigrants into the city of Tabbas
    Determination the role of social phobia and acculturation stress immigrants to Tabbas
    Determination the relationship between demographic factors and acculturation stress immigrants to Tabbas
    Material &
    Methods
    In this study, a survey was used descriptive analysis or correlation. The study population consisted of immigrants’ of Tabbas. The sample under the study was 200 immigrants which were chosen via cluster sampling. In this study, the formula is used to determine sample size. The sample size in this study is based on a Chochran formula of 200 people. Since there are no official statistics and certain immigrants, after the initial search and summarizing local knowledge and some authorities unofficially put at the disposal of researchers, the number of immigrants was estimated 800 households. Finally, after completing the questionnaire and the abandonment incomplete questionnaires, 200 questionnaires information extracted and analyzed. Data collection was performed through a questionnaire, a questionnaire because it could be the end of the concepts and variables to weigh reagents, and thus the theoretical discourses and the theory is experimental study. To get the narrative of validity Chronbach used to obtain alpha reliability.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The results show that the average stress of acculturation to meet in the integration is 15.04, in dimension of assimilation is 19.48, in dimension of assimilation is 17.14 and in dimension of marginalization is equal to 16.38. This means the average of the above components more is expected. It is noteworthy that the average stress of acculturation as a whole is equal to 59.74. This means the average of the expected (51) is at a higher level.
    Obtained Pearson correlation coefficient indicates significant relationship between independent variables such as relative deprivation (r = .56), social panic (r = .31), education (r = .19) and dependent variable, acculturation stresses of immigrants.
    Regression results show that four variables (relative deprivation, social phobia, marital status and education level) importance in the dependent variables (acculturation stress) have been entered into the regression equation. Together these four variables have an R value of 50% to 49% of their value.
    The results show a significant relationship between relative deprivation and stress of acculturation immigrants there. The result is a significant relationship between social phobia and the stress of acculturation. An increase in social phobia for immigrants into society or culture to new, reduced integration and cultural identity of the community and also lead to an increased sense of separation and marginalization by the community.
    So we can say that social phobia (social anxiety) to an intense fear of being in the cultural status of new immigrants and their results in accordance with the processes of acculturation stress.
    Can be set according to the results of this study showed the following: 1. According to the results, relative deprivation can affect acculturation stress. In this regard, it is suggested: (a) great cultural environments that are culturally diverse, such as in immigration, welfare places for newly arrived immigrants with similar ethnic and held down costs. (b) Television programs to the diversity of programs and allocate specific time for immigrants in the process of acculturation help. (c) insert the promotional products in urban environments can input a nice welcome and express cultural terms, immigrants with a good memory for the association.
    2. Social phobia as a variable in acculturation stress affects. In this context, television programs can give reassurance to newcomers as well as spread a culture of philanthropy and altruism, the social phobia provide people into the new culture.
    Keywords: Relative Deprivation, Acculturation stress, Social Panic, Immigrants
  • Samad Abedini *, Sheida Talebi Pages 131-144
    Introduction
    Public sport means attention of the public to exercise even in the short time according to the facilities available and the conditions of people .The importance of exercise and different aspects of social and cultural interactions so that the attention of the first pioneers of sociology and sociology of sport such as Marcel Mauss, Johan Huizinga, Rezhe Kayvva, Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu has to be involved and committed. "Sport socio-cultural phenomenon that an organic link with the set of institutions and social structures in the sense that the achievements of sports and activities, in general, a public index. Khalkhal as a traditional town that most people face-to-face sporting activities such as: walking Family, participate in evening and morning exercise, exercise in the park, mountaineering, local and native sports, drawstring, Dazhbal , rope can be in the city compared to other cities of the country have a certain effect.
    The purpose of this study, the relationship tends to sport with his impression of the body, social capital, cultural capital, economic capital determined. Also, distribution tends to Public sport according to age, gender, occupation, educational level, and marital status differences in the survey.
    Material &
    Methods
    The research method was qualitative-survey, and data gathering instrument was researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical universe consisted of citizens over 15 years old (n= 379) who were selected through random, cluser, multi-stage sampling.
    In this study, with regard to infrastructure and public spaces in the city khalkhal, a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions demographic, 5 items to support a family of sports activities, 7 items for his perception of the body, 26 items for social capital, cultural capital of 17 items, 4 questions for economic capital, 12 items for trends in general Sports were. Measure items, the order of 1 to 5 Likert scale and method of measuring the level of economic capital questions, questions on demographic information and measure distance for multimode was nominal.
    To determine the validity of the questionnaire, the validity of the method used. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure reliability. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for each of the above variables /7 is.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Descriptive results from independent and dependent variables show that the average score of 49/16 exercise family support (according to the period 5 to 25) is. Average score personal impression of the body 54/25 (according to the interval score 14 to 35), social capital 25/101 (with regard to the range of 57 to 144 score), cultural capital 87/32 (according to the interval score 17 to 47 ), economic capital 87/8 (depending on the range of 4 to 24), respectively. The results showed that the mean score variable is the attitude to sport for all citizens of 86/49 Khalkhal.
    The findings indicated that the variables analyzed, family support, their impression of the body, social capital, cultural capital and economic capital of the citizens and their attitudes towards sport has a positive relationship (P ≤0/05). The difference in attitudes to Public sport citizens based on gender, age, occupation and education level were significant and non-significant on the basis of marital status and the average score tended to sport for all citizens 50 . The results also showed that the score of their tendency toward public sports is 49.86 which regarding the maximum score of 81 it is rather low. The results of the exercise of public interest that citizens show Khalkhal water sports, local sports, adult sports, sports government employees, natural sports like mountaineering, exercise in the morning, family walk, respectively universal favorite sports are a priority for the citizens of Khalkhal
    Keywords: public sports, personal body perception, social capital, cultural capital, economical capital
  • Leila Moghtadaie * Pages 145-158
    Introduction Worrying and increasing immoral behaviors in organizations, have drawn the thinker's attention to this issue. Facing many challenges in controlling different organizations, managers and leaders have paid more attention to professional ethics. Professional ethics is referred to a collection of commitments and tasks related to job duties individuals are expected to perform (Stilllman, 1996). Professional ethics has a crucial role in organizations progress and is deemed as one of the factors for their assessment. However, studies have shown that professional ethics has a low status in Iran. In this regard, Moeedfar (2007), in a research, suggested that escaping the work, reluctance, waste of time at work, people's confusion when referred to private and state offices and organizations, display lack of professional ethics in organizations and unfortunately this process is increasing. On the other hand, failing to observe professional ethics will cause undesirable outcomes. One of them is to promote anti-citizenship behaviors which will have disadvantages for organizations and the society.
    The most important capital of an organization, is its staff, because that very staff can improve or degrade an organization by their behavior. Stuke et al. (2003), introduces organizational citizenship behaviors as a collection of voluntary and optional behaviors, which are not the official duties of staff, but are done by them to effectively improve the responsibilities and roles in organizations. If such behaviors are replaced by anti-citizenship behaviors, which are deemed by some people as misbehavior of staff reducing their efficiency (Ball et al., 1994), the organization will be demolished.
    Anti-citizenship behaviors are performed with aim of harming organizations or individuals inside. Most of these behaviors are done to damage (Sabahi et al., 2010, p.46). As Pearce and Giacalone(2003) suggest, the available research about anti-citizenship behaviors are rather new. These behaviors may lead to billions of dollars loss in the year. Robinson and Bennett (1995, p. 555), believe that, anti-citizenship behaviors at work environment are considered as deviant, and at the same time, immoral behaviors. Giacalone and Greenberg (1997), suggest that, organizational anti-citizenship behaviors are ones which damage organizations or shareholders. They consider behaviors such as bribery, discrimination, greed, lying, sabotage, thief, and violence as anti-citizenship behaviors. These behaviors have negative effect on organizational performance, interpersonal and inter-organizational relationships of individuals. Such behaviors are established though repetition in organizations and beside the problem they make for organization, their clients may be faced with some problems. Thus, trust in institutions is reduced and eventually lead to dissatisfaction of organization. Furthermore, because these organizations are parts of the society, promotion of these behaviors is regarded as a social disorder targeting the whole society. This study aims to investigate the intensity and direction of effect of professional ethics on inclination toward anti-citizenship behaviors. The following hypothesis are investigated in this research: Main hypothesis: There is a relationship between professional ethics and anti-citizenship behaviors .
    Side hypothesis: There is a relationship between honesty and anti-citizenship behaviors.
    There is a relationship between criticizability and anti-citizenship behaviors.
    There is a relationship between organizational commitment and anti-citizenship behaviors.
    There is a relationship between punctuality and anti-citizenship behaviors.
    There is a relationship between cooperation and anti-citizenship behaviors.
    Material &
    Methods
    The research method is survey. In this study, the questionnaire of organizational anti-citizenship behaviors created by Fox and Spector (2001) was used. The purpose of this questionnaire is to assess organizational anti-citizenship behaviors (in terms of obstinacy, resistance against authority, evading the task, resentment, aggression). The hand-made questionnaire of the researcher with variables of honesty, criticizability, organizational commitment, punctuality, cooperation) was also used. After confirmation of validity and reliability of the questionnaire (Table1), they were distributed and personally collected. Population size was all 1230 staff members of university. To determine sample size, sample power software was utilized. Sample size were estimated 200 persons, but 4 defective questionnaire were omitted and final sample size was 196 persons. Clustered sampling was used in this study. To ensure the validity of the assessment tool in this study, content validity and construct validity were used. The questionnaire was submitted to the researchers and experts to confirm face validity and content validity.
    Reliability of questionnaire
    Table 1. Calculation of reliability coefficient of side dimensions.
    Variable
    index Amount of Cronbach' alpha coefficient Professional ethics Organizational commitment
    0.8
    Punctuality
    0.6
    Cooperation
    0.7
    Honesty
    0.6
    Criticizability
    0.6
    Anti-citizenship behaviors Resistance against authority
    0.8
    Evading the task
    0.8
    Obstinacy
    0.7
    Resentment
    0.7
    Aggression
    0.6
    Sample size included 111 male and 85 female and more frequency was related to the age ranging 34-42, and the less frequency was related to the age ranging 43-51.The majority of participant had B.A degree, and the rest, had M.A or higher decree. The least frequency was related to the persons having diploma.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Table2. Results of Pearson correlation coefficient dependent independent Anti-citizenship behaviors Honesty Pearson correlation coefficient
    -0.18
    Determination coefficient
    0.03
    Level of significance
    0.00
    Criticizability
    Pearson correlation coefficient
    -0.34
    Determination coefficient
    0.11
    Level of significance
    0.00
    Organizational commitment
    Pearson correlation coefficient
    -0.41
    Determination coefficient
    0.16
    Level of significance
    0.02
    Punctuality
    Pearson correlation coefficient
    -0.29
    Determination coefficient
    0.08
    Level of significance
    0.003
    cooperation
    Pearson correlation coefficient
    -0.53
    Determination coefficient
    0.28
    Level of significance
    0.04
    Table3. Results of Pearson Correlation Correlation
    Dependent variable
    Independent variable
    Anti-citizenship behaviors
    Professional ethics
    Pearson Coefficient Correlation
    -0.38
    Determination Coefficient
    0.14
    Level of significance
    0.000
    Table4. Statistics of analysis of multi-variable regression of anti-citizenship behaviors
    variable Beta tsig
    Variance analysis
    Multiple correlation coefficient
    0.70
    Statistic F
    Level of significance
    Determination coefficient
    0.41
    cooperation
    -0.617
    -9.203
    0.000
    72.68
    0.000
    Modified determination coefficient
    0.40
    Organizational commitment
    -0.51
    -7.233
    0.000
    Standard error of estimate
    0.51
    Critcizability
    -0.420
    -6.411
    0.000
    Punctuality
    -0.250
    -3.787
    0.000
    Honesty
    -0.181
    -2.432
    0.000
    The results show that, all variables of professional ethics had negative and significant relationship with anti-citizenship behaviors. Of variables of professional ethics, cooperation had the most effect on anti-citizenship behaviors. After that, organizational commitment, criticizability, punctuality, and honesty had the most effect.
    Testing main hypothesis indicated that negative and significant correlation with average intensity exists between professional ethics and anti-citizenship behaviors. Thus, it seems that, it is necessary for individuals and staff members of all organizations to follow professional ethics in order to reduce anti-citizenship behaviors in the society, improve the efficiency of organizations, and finally build a healthier society.
    Sovereignty of professional ethics in organization, can strikingly reduce the tension, and help the organization to succeed. Professional ethics affects the quality and quantity of staff activities, forming their successful performance.
    Setting professional ethics in accordance with the culture of society which tries to establish it in all work environment, is one of the requirements of improvement, which finally leads to an ethic-based society. It also proved an opportunity for competition and superiority in international arena in all fields. What is obtained through organizations and work environment is establishing an ethic-based society.
    Therefore it is suggested that: -Researcher should be involved in finding the reason behind lack of code of ethics in organizations, and why individuals do not exactly follow these principles.
    -cooperative behaviors should be developed as one of the most essential principles of professional ethics.
    -If organizations seek to prevent anti-citizenship behaviors, they should reinforce organizational commitment by system of reward and punishment.
    -honesty and criticizability as the most crucial elements of professional ethics in religious and international context, have several advantages one of which, is based on the findings of the present study, reducing anti-citizenship behaviors.
    -Principles of organizational citizenship behaviors should be taught along with citizenship training in all degrees, especially high school.
    Keywords: Professional Ethics, Anti-Ctizenship Behaviors, University Staff
  • Arman Heydari *, Maryam Mokhtari, Ehsan Khanmohammadi Pages 159-184
    Introduction
    A kind of study shift from the mere focus on the modes of production to the modes of consumption, especially the cultural consumption occurred after 1970s, and by the same token a kind of explanatory turn happened from concentration on what are known as “hard variables” such as class to what are known as “soft variables” such as identity. Accordingly, music consumption, as one of the most important kinds of cultural consumption and explaining it based on collective identity came into focus. However, both realities of musical consumption mode and its explanation according to cultural factors have received little attention from the contemporary sociologists in Iran society.
    Materials and Methods
    Considering the mentioned limitations, the present study was done using quantity and survey method (description-explanatory) along with the researcher made questionnaire concerning the kind and the amount of musical consumption (dependent variable) and three modes of important modes of collective identity including ethnic, national and global ones (dependent variable). Lor students of Yasouj University were selected as the participants for some reasons: first by interacting with their families and in the city environment using Lori accent with their friends and relatives, they had access to ethnic talk. Second, they had access to national talk through their presence in the university, interaction with non-Lor friends, taking part in the classes and studying cultural texts with national and beyond ethnic content. Third, with the least skill in English and using new communication technologies like internet and new smart phones, they could have more access to global talk. Thus, for investigating the current study selecting students with Lori ethnic identity background who could also had access to national and global talks looked the most appropriate and logical strategy. According to Morgan table, 380 subjects were identified for the sample and this amount increased to 400 to increase the validity. To access the sample, the cluster random sampling method was also employed.
    Discussion of results &
    Conclusions
    The Friedman mean difference test results revealed that two kinds of pop music and western classic music had the most and the least musical consumptions respectively. Furthermore, the correlational test of different variables of the study showed that the relationship between ethnic identity and local, pop, and religious musical consumption is positive and significant while it is insignificant with western and traditional music. The correlation between national identity and western and pop musical consumption was significant and negative, while this correlation with religious musical consumption was significant and positive. The correlation between global identity and western, pop musical consumption was positive while this relationship with traditional, religious and local musical consumption was negative and significant. Finally, based on the findings it could be claimed that the degree of commitment and attachment to any type of collective identities shape the individual's musical consumption taste and leads him/ her towards consuming a particular musical type. In other words, people don’t select their musical consumption passively but this is an active process based on the identity assets of people. According to multiple regression test results all three kinds of collective identity played a role in the kind and the amount of musical consumption but in specifying one or more musical consumption mode and in different directions. Thus, it can be said that identity role in musical consumptions acts in two ways. First as a positive stimulator encourage people towards a specific musical consumption pattern and second as an inhibitor inhibit them from a specific musical consumption. Lastly, it was clarified that in investigating different musical consumption modes different factors should be taken into account and identical variables are not able to specify the variance and the diversity of musical consumption of different individuals.
    Keywords: musical consumption, collective identity, Lor Ethnic, students, Yasouj University
  • Mohsen Askari *, Mahmoud Rahimi Pages 185-206
    Introduction
    Tehran as a big and a developing Metropolis in Asia suffers from automobile use and its negative impacts for environment and health care. In this situation and according to recent important steps for extending public transport system, main role of the Tehran transportation system is still handled with Motorized vehicles by private use sector.
    Nowadays, Transportation planning efforts include increasing Active Transportation. In this regard, Bicycle as a sustainable form of commute is recognized to urban clean transportation, with several economic, and environmental benefits. Cycling as a mode of transportation, especially for short trips is extending its trace between cities. Many of cities around the world have a bike plan to improve usability of bicycles besides other modes of transportation. In spite of an effective role of sustainable modes of travel like walking and cycling, these modes haven’t a good situation in modal share of Tehran city, now. Bicycle use in Tehran is not popular and very few people use a bicycle regularly.
    Materials And Methods
    According to Tehran transportation and traffic master plan (2004-2008), Percent of all daily trips are made by bicycle is restricted to only 0.004 of urban commutes. This rate of cycling comes back to various reasons like scope of bicycling infrastructure or culture of people in the city and Psychological variables. One of the factors that received relatively little attention in research on bicycling is the role of social and Psychological variables. Psychological variables directly measure behavior of cycling and its dimension. One of the best ways to measure this, is the social acceptability index. This index is pervasive and is used in various urban planning and transportation topics. In addition, Social acceptance is defined to affirmative reactions toward the specific object. These reactions are related to some kind of behavior.
    Measurement of public acceptance for social subjects needs to define a set of factors. There is no consensus on the dynamics surrounding social acceptability. The broader concept of social acceptability encompasses various variables such as attitude and perceptions. In order to have a reliable category, we need to have a theoretical framework. Applying Psychological approach and theories that explaining human behaviors is very popular, in this area.
    Theory of planned behavior which is introduced by Ajzen & Fishbein is one of the important efforts for analyzing behavior in Psychological realm. Many researchers have used this method in western countries. We have used this theory as a main theory of this study. Moreover, it was extended by new elements such as injunctive norms and Descriptive Norms from a proposed theoretical framework of Dickey-Griffith (2009). Additionally, Injunctive norm is measured separately. Furthermore, for analyzing background factors that relate to or influence the belief's people, these factors were divided into Main Elements, Perceived features and Personal characteristics. Built environment issues were used as a city and cycling situations according to critics of Handy (2005). Other variables were measured by other related items.
    Attitudes
    Beliefs
    Norms
    Intention
    Behavior
    Perceived Behavioral Control
    Subjective Norms
    Main Elements Features
    Perceived Features
    Personal Features
    Subjective Norms
    Injunctive Norms
    Figure1: Theoretical Framework of study
    This study is done with a quantitative research method based on extended theory of planned behavior. Data collection for this research was conducted with a researcher-made questionnaire among 495 men gender respondents of Tehran metropolis with Stratified Sampling. In addition, we use confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling as statistical techniques.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusion
    This survey used a critical approach to current studies of Tehran cycling field. Results indicated that unlike previous researches, bicycle and cycling among Tehran residents have a good position and orient of intervention must change to more acceptance for using the bicycle as a mode of transport. Finding of article supports this idea that cycling can be an excellent mode of transportation for all ages of population in Tehran and not just only for kids and teenagers as mentioned in current studies and documents about cycling in Tehran.
    All parameters of the designed models had a significant relation to cycling. Furthermore, between psychological determinants of cycling behavior, health factor had the most important sub-items in attitude variable and social norms had a more relation rather than to attitude in cycling. At norm's item, injunctive norms and Descriptive Norms had the most effect, relatively. Perceived behavioral control had a lowest effect between variables.
    Perceptions of respondents said us that cycling was not safe and comfortable in Tehran. In addition, according to spearman correlation in psychological belief items, perceived features were dominant factors to forming attitude variable and meanwhile; health, benefit of cycling and transport necessity had the most relations.
    Finding of research showed that increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation has a complex process and is not restricted to just only facilities and infrastructure such as bicycle sharing programs or building separated bike lanes, but it also needs to programs, and policies that support bicycling form psycho-social determinants for understanding and achieving changes in cycling behavior. Furthermore, social acceptability index has a good potential for identifying psycho-social features of enhancing cycling in cities.
    This study is the first serious attempt for describing, analyzing and explanting of bicycle use in Iranian cities with Psychological approach, which is done by measuring social acceptability index. By peer looking to findings of this research, revising of stereotypes and existing viewpoint of bicycle and bicycle use in Tehran city is very necessary.
    Considering to Injunctive Norms, keeping and maintaining present positive attitude toward cycling are essential for enhancing cycling in Tehran. Moreover, it should be noted that psychological needs of users of bicycle are same importance with physical attributes in cities, and without this; success of every program has no guaranty in long time. By combining these measures and systematic study of bicycle preferable needs and applying in action, Bicycle commuting will be increased subsequently.
    Keywords: social acceptability, Theory of Planned Behavior, Structural Equation Modeling, cycling, Tehran Metropolis