فهرست مطالب

Occupational Health & Epidemiology - Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2016
  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/07/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Dr E. Bateni, Dr A. Rabiei, N. Sabzikari, A. Ghanbarzadegan * Pages 129-134
    Background
    This study was performed to evaluate periodontal status in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and assessment of periodontal diseases prevalence in these patients.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, data on 100 patients were collected with mean age of 51 ± 11 years. The case group included of 50 patients with confirmed CVD who referred to Ali-ibn Abi Talib hospital of Rafsanjan, Iran. Control group included 50 healthy volunteer subjects with no history of systemic diseases that referred to oral medicine diagnosis department of Rafsanjan Dental School. Plaque index, bleeding point index, clinical attachment loss, pocket depth and number of loosed teeth were assessed in this study.
    Results
    Plaque index, clinical attachment loss, pocket depth and number of lost teeth in the target group were more than the control group (P
    Conclusions
    Patients who suffer from CVD had a higher risk for periodontal disease. So oral health instructions for this group of patients should be considered more.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases, Periodontal Indices, Risk Factors, Periodontitis, Cardiac Disease
  • Dr Mr Shafiepour, Dr R. Bidaki, E. Hasibi, Mokhtaree * Pages 135-142
    Background
    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing, and thus, its mental consequences, such as depression, have an increasing trend. The goal of the present study was the determination of the prevalence of depression and some of its related factors in patients with type II DM who referred to the Diabetes Center of Rafsanjan, Iran, in the year 2016.
    Materials And Methods
    For this purpose, 194 patients with DM under care in the Diabetes Clinic of Ranfanjan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected via simple random sampling method and filled a demographic form and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Data were analyzed using chi-squared test.
    Results
    In this study, 67%, 24.7%, 6.2%, and 2.1% of the participants had no depression symptoms, mild depression, moderate depression, and severe depression. There was significant difference between the frequency of different depression severities based on age (P
    Conclusions
    The rate of depression in patients with DM is relatively high and women, people with lower level of education, and the elderly, and homemakers are at greater risk which signifies the necessity of psychological and psychiatric consultation.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Depression, Age, Sex
  • Dr Mm Yaghooti Khorasani *, Dr M. Shakerian, M. Irannezhad Pages 143-150
    Background
    The majority of individuals who visit the dentist are anxious. They are usually capable of controlling their anxiety. However, this fear sometimes creates great problems for the patient and dentist such as lack of visiting the dentist for treatment, incorrect diagnosis due to lack of appropriate communication between the patient and dentist, and finally, reduction of oral health level. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of dental fear and anxiety in students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran, and its relationship with oral and dental health status in the 2010-2011 academic year.
    Materials And Methods
    This descriptive study was conducted using the Dental Anxiety Scale-Revised (DAS-R), Dental fear Scale (DFS), and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index checklist. The study was performed on 300 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, enrolled during 2005-2011. The participants were selected through stratified random sampling based on the population of each department (medicine, nursing and midwifery, dentistry, and paramedicine). The DMFT, DAS-R, and DFS scores along with other gathered data were analyzed using chi-square test in SPSS software.
    Results
    Among the participants, 82 individuals were medical students, 44 were dentistry students, 53 were nursing and midwifery students, and 121 were paramedical students. In addition, 173 subjects were women and 127 were men. Moreover, 49.3% of students had dental fear and 24.8% had dental anxiety. Among women, 32.4% had dental anxiety and 54.3% had dental fear, while among men, 14.2% had dental anxiety and 40.2% had dental fear.
    Conclusions
    According to the obtained results, variables such as sex, marital status, field of education, history of dental visit, painful previous treatments, and dental anxiety in the family had an effect on DAS-R and DFS scores. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between DMFT index and level of fear and anxiety; with the increasing of dental fear and anxiety, DMFT also increased.
    Keywords: Anxiety, Fear, Dentistry, Student
  • S. Mahdavi, P. Rasti Pisheh, M. Jozekanaani * Pages 151-159
    Background
    The reliability and safety of gas refineries are strongly associated with the reliability of other parts of the system. Defect and failure in one part of a system can cause total system breakdown or accident. The failure and damage in these equipment such as transformers and boilers results in not only the equipment damage and human injuries but also productivity reduction. The purpose of this study was safety assessment of glycol recovery unit in gas refinery by failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) technique.
    Materials And Methods
    The present study is a descriptive-analytical study done for risk assessment of glycol recovery unit of a gas refinery in one of the southern areas of Iran. FMEA method was used to identify and detect possible failures in the system. Failure modes of a component and their causes were identified and effects of identified failures were examined, then the necessary corrective measures were recommended.
    Results
    In this research, 105 failure modes were studied. The highest risk priority number (RPN) values obtained were 150 (while removing corrosion and welding inside TK601A/B vessel which was due lack of air ventilation) and 120 (while installing the gasket).
    Conclusions
    FMEA technique is a useful method to prevent accidents and increase safety and productivity. FMEA can identify and assess potential risks and propose corrective action required to control the risks.
    Keywords: Safety, Risk Assessment, Failure Mode, Effect Analysis
  • A. Shirvani, Dr R. Vazirinejad, Dr M. Rezaeian * Pages 160-167
    Background
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal viral disease which can affect the patient’s immune system and render the patient susceptible to opportunistic infections. In recent years, the number of women with HIV acquired through sexual transmission has increased. Therefore, due to the importance of quality of life (QOL) among these women and the impact of violence and social support on their QOL, this study can assist in the recognition of effective factors on QOL of these patients.
    Materials And Methods
    The study population of this descriptive study consisted of all patients with Human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS (HIV/AIDS) who had medical records at the Behavioral Disorders Counseling Center of Shiraz, Iran. To assess QOL, violence, and social support among these patients, the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale and the Domestic Violence Questionnaire (DVQ) plus Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) were used. The collected data were analyzed using Independent two-sample t-test, ANOVA, and correlations.
    Results
    The QOL and SSQ scores of single individuals were higher compared to other groups and violence was lower in this group. The QOL and SSQ scores of residents of rural areas were lower compared to residents of urban areas. Moreover, the violence score of this group was higher. The QOL and SSQ scores of individuals with higher educational level and better economic status were higher than other groups, but their violence score was lower.
    Conclusions
    Total mean QOL, violence, and social support scores were assessed in the present study. Based on the correlation found between these variables, it can be concluded that women with HIV/AIDS require more social support so that their QOL, which is one of the main determinants of health, can be improved.
    Keywords: AIDS, Quality of Life, Violence, Social Support
  • Dr S. Karimi Zeverdegani, S. Barakat *, M. Yazdi Pages 168-175
    Background
    The use of chemicals is essential in education resulting in exposure to these pollutant in a variety of chemical and research laboratories. Chemical contaminants in chemical laboratories are in different forms and chemical exposure risk assessment is important for choosing appropriate controls in protecting the health of operators, experts and students. For risk assessment in chemical exposures, several techniques were introduced that their use should be assessed. This research was done with the aim to introduce the most appropriate technique in chemical risk assessment by using three chemical risk assessment techniques.
    Materials And Methods
    This was a descriptive research done in one chemical laboratory. This research had been defined in several stages: in the first phase, the list of solid and liquid chemicals were prepared and full physicochemical properties of substances as well as toxicity and health risk of them were collected. Finally Chemical Risk Management Self-Assessment Model (Chem-SAM), University Of Wollingong (UOW) risk assessment and semi-quantitative risk assessment method (SQRA) methods were used and compared.
    Results
    There was significant difference between SQRA methods and UOW technique while no significant difference was observed between SQRA methods and Chem-SAM model.
    Conclusions
    All three techniques are simple, but the results were similar in SQRA methods and Chem-SAM model, so these two methods can be replaced in chemical risk assessment. In order to control the identified risks, this research has recommended programs, control measures, improving local exhaust ventilation systems, personal protective equipment and training of personnel.
    Keywords: Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Self-Assessment, Chemical, Model
  • Dr F. Mohseni Moghadam, Dr M. Tashakori, Dr B. Shahidi Zandi, M. Hadavi *, V. Akbarpoor, F. Kazemi, M. Moosavi Pages 176-181
    Background
    Laboratory wastes are one of the environmental issues of developing countries and cause diseases and epidemics. Laboratory waste management is planned with the aim of preventing unfavorable effects on human health and the environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the status of medical waste management in clinical laboratories affiliated with Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2015.
    Materials And Methods
    The present study was conducted through a census in all clinical laboratories of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using a checklist that was designed and confirmed by the Iranian Health and Treatment Ministry. After administrative coordination, the checklist was completed through visits and interviews. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive tests in SPSS software.
    Results
    The results showed that, in 40% of cases, individuals responsible for the collection of waste had received the necessary training. In addition, in 28.6% of cases, containers were labeled in order to determine the type of waste inside the container. In 57.1% of laboratories, there was no list of chemicals which must not be mixed during waste collection. The waste was disinfected using an autoclave in only 14.3% of cases.
    Conclusions
    In the present study, the waste classification operation of the majority of laboratories was incomplete. In order to reduce contamination in these centers, measures must be taken regarding the disposal of waste at the site of its production. Furthermore, individuals responsible for collection and transference of waste must comply with personal protection measures.
    Keywords: Infectious Waste, Waste Management, Laboratory, Medical Waste, Iran
  • Sh Assar, Dr T. Mirzaei *, Dr A. Ravari, Dr Ar Vakilian, Dr O. Rezahosseini, F. Hosseini, Dr S. Assar Pages 182-193
    Background
    On the 26th anniversary of the International Day of Older Persons in 2015 with the slogan "the elderly, advocates of dynamism, growth, and the youth of the population", 12% (900 million individuals) of the world population were above 65 years of age. It is estimated that this rate will reach 22% (2 milliard individuals) by 2050. The purpose of the present study was to determine the status of the elderly and bacterial infections, their causes, prevention, and control methods.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, Magiran, SID, CAB Direct, PubMed, CDC, and World Health Organization (WHO) databases were searched using the keywords bacterial infections, old age, and control methods. The inclusion criteria included articles related to the study topic in English or Farsi. After the assessment of the articles, 40 articles were studied in detail.
    Results
    Due to the relative increase in the duration of life and diseases related to old age, the recurrence of some infections has been observed in the elderly. Immune system dysfunction, lifestyle, living area, elderly care method, and underlying diseases can be effective on aging and acquiring of infectious diseases. In elderly patients, infections, unlike in young adults, do not have evident symptoms. More than 30% of cases of mortality among the elderly are due to infectious diseases. The most common infections in the elderly are urinary tract, respiratory, unspecified, intra-abdominal, skin, and catheter-related infections.
    Conclusions
    Infectious diseases are of grave importance in the quantity of life and quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Thus, the determination of their causes, the most common infectious diseases, and their causal factors in the world, developing countries, and Iran can play an important role in the management of these diseases.
    Keywords: Elderly, Infection, Mortality, Iran