- Volume:11 Issue:2, 2016
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/09/30
- تعداد عناوین: 10
Periodic Indices of Serum Amyloid A Following Rumenotomy with Assorted Local Anaesthetics and Sutures in the Sahel GoatPages 1-6Objective- This study aims at validating the use of serum amyloid A (SAA) as biomarkers of surgical stress using Quantitative ELISA in the Sahel goats. The experiment evaluated SAA profiles of Sahel goats post Diazepam-Lidocaine (DLC) and Diazepam-Bupivacaine (DBC) local anaesthesia. Expressions of SAA in the Sahel goat post rumen skin clamp fixation techniques of rumenotomy with Polyglycolic acid sutures (PGA) and chromic catgut sutures were also expounded.
Design- Experimental Study.
Animals- Fifteen Sahel goats were randomly allocated into three groups A, B and C for quantitative ELISA evaluation of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) profiles post local anaesthesia and laparo-rumenotomy, as biomarkers of surgical stress.
Procedures- Diazepam at 0.2mg/kg was administered intravenously to sedate goats in groups A and B with subsequent lidocaine HCl and bupivacaine inverted-L block anaesthesia respectively. Chromic catgut (CCG) and Polyglycolic Acid (PGA) sutures were used for rumen and abdominal muscle closures for groups A and B respectively while nylon for skin apposition. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture to establish baseline data after local anaesthesia (PAI) and at 0, 5, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery.
Results- Group A peak SAA values was 9.29±0.43 µg/mL at 8hrs post-surgery while goats in group B had a peak of 10.94±1.22 µg/mL SAA at 24hrs post-surgery. SAA responses of group A indicates stress at 0hr steadily throughout the first 72 hours but peaked at 8hrs post-surgery. Similarly, group B showed significant stress at 8 hours onwards with peak values at 24 and 48 hours post-surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance- SAA as an acute phase protein could be used to determine early complications following laparo-rumenotomy in the goat and offers good prognosis especially when several APP variables are combined in an index.Keywords: Serum amyloid A, Goats, Sutures, Rumenotomy, Anaesthetics
Pages 7-13ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of performing echocardiography in apparently healthy pigeons, and measurement of the quantitative cardiac indices using B-mode and Doppler techniques.Design- Experimental studyAnimals- Ten apparently healthy pigeonsProceduresEchocardiography was performed in ventromedian and right parasternal approaches after evaluating pigeon's heart radigraphically. Cardiac chambers, valves and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated subjectively and objectively by the B-Mode, color and pulse-wave Doppler techniques. The mean and the standard deviation of the quantitative measurements were presented as the objective as well as subjectiveResultsThe right parasternal approach was more efficient than the ventromedian approach in obtaining high-quality image. Evaluation of the ventricles, atria and aorta was possible objectively by B-mode technique. Valvular function and quality of the blood flow was assessable subjectively by color Doppler technique. Measuring the hemodynamic parameters in the atrioventricular and aortic valves was feasible as quantitative parameters using pulse-wave Doppler echocardiography. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy.Conclusion and Clinical RelevanceEchocardiography showed high accuracy and reliability in determination of avian cardiac indices. Therefore it can be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for morphological and functional evaluation of avian cardiac system and can be helpful in diagnosis of avian cardiac disorders.Keywords: Echocardiography, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pigeon, Bird
Pages 15-19Objective- The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonographic appearance of the normal eye and obtaining reference values of ocular structures in Iranian native donkey.
Design- Experimental study.
Animals- Five Iranian native donkeys.
Procedures- After preparation of the animals, ocular structures were imaged and biometric measurements were recorded.
Results- The cornea, ciliary body, anterior and posterior lens capsule, lens, anterior chamber, vitreous chamber and retrobulbar structures were studied. The ultrasonographic appearance of the donkey`s eye was generally similar to other species and especially equine eye with differences in structural measurements.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance- Ultrasonography is a valuable, non-invasive diagnostic method to evaluate ocular structures. Ultrasonography allows visualization of the intraocular and retrobulbar structures and help in diagnosis of their abnormalities but reference values are needed exclusive for every species or breed. The results of this study could help veterinary practitioners to evaluate the structural changes and pathologic conditions in the eye of Iranian native donkey.Keywords: Eye, Iranian native donkey, Ultrasonography
Transplantation of Cardiogenic Pre-Differentiated Autologous Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Mechanical Loading Improves Cardiac Function Following Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rabbit ModelPages 21-30Objective- Investigate myocardial performance after autologous adipose-derived (ASCs) mesenchymal stem cell differentiated under equiaxial cyclic strain, transplantation in rabbits with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Design- Prospective, randomized experimental study
Animals- 20 New Zealand White rabbits (2-3 kg)
Procedure- ASCs were studied in four distinct groups of mechanical (ADM), chemical (ADC), undifferentiated (AD) and control (C) groups. According to this categorization, the cells were exposed to cyclic mechanical loading or 5-azacytidine as the chemical factor. 10 6 ASC cells were transplanted intramyocardially in rabbits with AMI (Acute Myocardial Infarction). Echocardiographic study was used to evaluate effects of cells on cardiac function.
Results- Left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly increased in the ADM (mechanically-differentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell) group at 2 months follow-up. Fractional shortening (FS) also showed a similar pattern as LVEF and increased in ADM group in compare to control and AD (undifferentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell) group.
Conclusion and clinical prevalence- The results indicate that intramyocardial transplantation of mechanically-differentiated ASCs improves cardiac function of ischemic myocardium. Transplantation of mechanically-differentiated ASCs for myocardial regeneration may become the future therapy for acute myocardial infarction.Keywords: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell, Equiaxial strain, Acute myocardial infarction, Echocardiography
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Uterine Hook Application in Large Breed Canine Ovariohysterectomy: Physiological StudyPages 31-38Objective- The aim of this study was to compare the duration of surgery as well as some physiological stress indicators in large breed dogs undergoing open ovariohysterectomy with or without use of uterine hook.
Design- Experimental study
Animals- Fourteen healthy dogs underwent open OHE with (N=7) or without use of uterine hook (N = 7).
Procedures- Physiological measurements as well as serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were measured 30 minutes before the surgery, and at 2, 6 and 24 hours postoperatively. CRP concentrations were measured as well. Values at each time point were compared between the two groups.
Results- Our results indicated significantly lower serum glucose at 6 and 24 hours after surgery in the hook group compared to other group. Serum cortisol concentrations didnt show significant difference. Significantly lower serum CRP concentrations were detected in hook group at 24 hours after OHE. The average temperature, heart rate and breathing at any time between the two study groups were not significantly different.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance- Amount of blood sugar and serum CRP level in OHE with hook group was lower, which may be indicator of decreased surgical stress. Ovariohysterectomy with hook has a series of advantages and disadvantages. It can be concluded that using uterine hook to exteriorize the horns of uterus during OHE may lead to shorter abdominal incision and result in fewer trauma and surgical stress after operation, if uterine hook is applied by an experienced and skilled surgeon.Keywords: Uterine hook, Ovariohysterectomy, Stress, Dog
Pages 39-42Objective- to describe the vertebral heart score (VHS) measurement in the lateral view of the clinically normal native dog in khorasan province, Iran
Design- Descriptive study
Animals- 30 clinically healthy native dog
Material and Methods- Normal dogs in clinical, laboratory, electrocardiography and radiography examination were recruited in this study. Both true lateral view of thoracic cavity were imaged. VHS was measured in both left and right lateral projection.
Results- Mean±SD of the VHS in right-to-left and left-to-right projection was about 9.76±0.68 and 9.78±0.42, respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between VHS in lateral views. Weight, age and stage of respiratory phase showed no significant correlation with VHS.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance- Mean VHS in native dog in khorasan province was in the general reference range reported previously. It is important to take into account the breed specific data in evaluation of cardiac size in radiography.Keywords: Radiography, VHS, Native dog, Khorasan province, Iran
Pages 43-51Objective- To studylocal effect of prostaglandin E1on sciatic nerve regeneration
Design- Experimental study
Animals- Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats
Procedures- Sixty animals were divided into four experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Trasnsected (TC), Sham-operation (SHAM), control (CHIT) and prostaglandin E1treated (CHIT/PGE) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In CHIT group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a chitosan conduit and filled with 10 µL phosphate buffered solution. In CHIT/PGE group defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit filled with 10 µL PGE. Each group from four group was again subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, 12 weeks after surgery.
Results- In all subgroups behavioral testing and sciatic nerve functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in CHIT/PGE than in CHIT group (P Conclusions and Clinical Relevance- Response to local treatment of prostaglandin E1 demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration.Keywords: Peripheral nerve repair, Prostaglandin E1, Chitosan conduit
Pages 53-56Case Description- A 6-year-old mare suffering from uterine prolapsed was presented to the veterinary clinic. The uterus was prolapsed 4 hours following a normal foaling.
Clinical Findings- Initial evaluations of the uterus revealed that prolapsed part of uterus (about 60 centimeters) was congested but its endometrial tissue was seen viable.
Treatment and Outcome- Before treatment, epidural anaesthesia was applied to prevent straining. Then the prolapsed uterine was washed by normal saline and following a distended bladder was drained by a soft rubber stallion catheter. Finally the prolapsed part of uterus was returned to its normal anatomic position by gentle manipulation. To prevent the recurrence of prolapse vulva was sutured by Buhner's method. Administrations of intramuscular oxytocin, systemic antibiotics with flunixin meglumine and calcium gluconate solution were post-operative procedures in 5 days.
Clinical Relevance- Uterine prolapse is not a common condition in the mare. Uterine prolapse in the mare is easy to replace when treated in the early period. If the uterine prolapse is recognized early and treated immediately, prognosis is usually good.Keywords: Uterine prolapse, Mare, Normal foaling, Buhner's Method
Pages 57-59Case Description- A six-month-old Doberman Pinscher male with sever laceration in the mucosa of the lip, nose and nostrils as well as the shoulder area was referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman.
Clinical Findings- The animal showed anorexia, depression, and sialorrhea. There was also a deep laceration over the right shoulder.
Treatment and Outcome- Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Submocusa and mocusa were sutured in separate layer using simple interrupted pattern of absorbable suture material, and the skin of the nostril was reconstructed with the same pattern and non-absorbable suture material.
Clinical Relevance- Injuries of the oral cavity in dogs happen in a variety of conditions. This report describes surgical reconstruction of lip and muzzle laceration in a Doberman pinscherKeywords: Doberman Pinscher, Lip, Nostrils
Management of Large Chronic Non-healing Wounds by Autogenous Platelet Rich Plasma and Reconstructive Surgery in Three CatsPages 61-66Case Description- Three domestic short haired cats (2, 5 and 4 years of age) were presented to the Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital, with the history of large chronic, full thickness wounds on the right lateral cervical, left caudal forearm and right lateral thoracic region respectively. Etiology of the wounds was trauma in two cases and thermal burns in the third case.
Clinical findings- Physical examination revealed yellowish colored wound with putrid odour and purulent discharge. The subcutaneous tissues were exposed; necrotic tissues and foreign debris were noticed.
Treatment and Outcome- In all the three cases, mechanical debridement of the open wound was done by lavaging with sterile normal saline (500 ml) mixed with amikacin sulphate (250 mg) with a 20 ml syringe fixed with a sterile 22 gauge needle to produce a lavaging pressure of 22 psi. Autologous platelet rich plasma was prepared, activated with calcium gluconate(10%) and applied on days 0, 7, 14 respectively on the open wound impregnated with chlorhexidene gauze and bandaging done. Once a healthy granulation bed was formed, reconstructive surgery was planned and performed to close the defect.
Clinical relevance- Application of platelet rich plasma remains a viable option for enhancing the granulation tissue formation and early wound bed preparation, before large wounds could be reconstructed with skin flaps. All the above three cases were treated with autologous platelet rich plasma for early granulation and recipient bed preparation followed by reconstructive surgery.Keywords: Cat, Chronic non-healing wound, Platelet Rich Plasma, Reconstruction