- Volume:2 Issue:1, 2017
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/10
- تعداد عناوین: 7
Pages 185-186Vitamin D is one of the essential metabolic and physiological processes in the human body. Generally all people need 200-600 IU daily (Koutkia, Chen & Holick 2001). Production of vitamin D in the skin depends on some factors such as age, skin pigmentation and the amount of ultraviolet B (UVB)) available. The amount of UVB radiation is affected by geographic location, season, time and level of atmospheric pollution. The highest amount of vitamin D is provided to sunlight exposure (Gartner & Greer 2003) as well as obtaining from oily fish, fortified foods and supplement. The recommended vitamin D receiving depends on age, gender and deficiency treatment (Dobnig et al 2008).
Despite excessive oral vitamin D intake cause toxicity (Koutkia, Chen & Holick 2001), excessive sunlight exposure cannot cause vitamin D toxicity because UVB converts excess vitamin D3 to biologically inert isomers (Holick 2007).
Different factors like physical inactivity, chronic acidosis, malnutrition, delayed puberty and mal-absorption effect on bone mineralized (De Schepper 1990).
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) compensate for reduced serum calcium with calcium absorption from the bones, causing bone deformities and that this action has been done through activating osteoclasts inhabit. Excessive activate osteoclasts inhabit can lead to osteoporosis and increased PTH and serum calcium or metastatic calcification (Holick 2007).
Severe vitamin D deficiency with corresponding elevations of PTH were reported in 88% of women who presented with muscle pains and weakness. Myalgia is generally the first manifestation of vitamin D deficiency(Glerup et al 2000). Vitamin D deficiency affects in all parts of the body (Gartner & Greer 2003).
The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with unspecified origin musculoskeletal pain was observed in the existed evidence (Gartner & Greer 2003). These studies represent there is significant relationship between unspecific pain and vitamin D deficiency that this relationship is independent of age group (Gartner & Greer 2003).
There is a strong relationship between vitamin D deficiency and persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pain. Therefore, the patients who suffering from unknown origin pain may be required to control their serum levels of vitamin D consequent to vitamin D therapy (Mascarenhas & Mobarhan 2004).
Studies have also shown that vitamin D therapy could improves extensive clinical complains regarding their bone pain and muscle weakness of women who referred to different clinics (Torrente de La Jara, Pecoud & Favrat 2004).Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, musculoskeletal pain, Myalgia, sunlight exposure
Occurrence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among School Teachers in Eastern and Northeastern Part of IndiaPages 187-192To determine the occurrence of Work related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD), its prevalence and risk factors among school teachers in India. 100 questionnaires was passed out and sent to teachers of different schools ranging from primary school to higher secondary schools across Kolkata and Aizawl. 72 percent of the teachers responded. A standardized Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (DMQ) was used. Neck pain was the most prevalent musculoskeletal complaint, reported by 53.52% of the respondents while chronic neck pain was not reported by the teachers. Shoulder and back pain were less prevalent than neck pain but the prevalence of chronic pain in these body sites were higher. Furthermore wrist/hand and knee pain were less prevalent than the other complaints. Working with hands above the shoulder was the highest reported risk factor (62.27%). School teachers are susceptible to WMSD with a significant prevalence for neck, shoulder, back, wrist/hand and knee pain. Prolonged working nature like bending the neck forward/backward or holding the neck in a Forward/backward posture, same movements with arms, hands or fingers many times, hands above the shoulder level, reaching with arms or hands and standing are important factors which affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.Keywords: Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD), Teachers, Rehabilitation, Posture, Prevalence
Social Cognitive Theory-Based Intervention and Low Back Pain among Health Care Workers in Qom Hospitals of IranPages 193-201The most common type of muscular-skeletal disorders among health care worker is low back pain (LBP). This study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) on low back pain severity in healthcare workers in hospitals located in Qom, Iran. In this interventional research study, 125 nursing aides were divided into two experimental and control groups. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire based on the predictor constructs of SCT. For the intervention group, training was administered by health education specialist in four 2-hour sessions In each session discussion regarding self-efficacy, self-control, outcome reinforcement, and emotional coping were taken into account carefully, respectively. Data were analyzed SPSS version18.0, IBM Corp.Keywords: Educational intervention, Social-Cognitive Theory, Health Care Workers
Do the Health, Motion, Function, and Occupational Performance of Iranian Police Personnel Change with Hydrotherapy Exercises?Pages 203-209Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMD) are a common health related problem throughout the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrotherapy training on health, function, motion, and occupational performance of the police personnel in Iran.
In this before/after prospective study, 30 participants were selected purposefully and divided into two experimental (n = 15) and control groups randomly (n = 15). The 8-week hydrotherapy training program was just assigned for intervention. The occupational performance and physical fitness tests, Health related Quality of Life (HRQoL) questionnaire and Visual analog Scale (VAS) were measured for both groups before and after intervention. data were analyzed through SPSS 16Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Hydrotherapy, Flexibility, Muscle strength, Health related Quality of Life
Pages 211-214Researched show that backpack is the most appropriate means to be carried by the primary students every day.As the weight of these backpack may be not standard, this study aimed to evaluate the Standards associated with the primary school students backpack in Karun, Iran. This cross-sectional study was done on primary school students studying in Karun, Iran in 2016. In this study, a randomized multi-stage sampling method was performed by which a total of 400 students were selected. A flat scale used to measure the students weight and a sliding scale used to measure the students backpack weight Furthermore, a checklist including the questions regarding standard items of backpack was completed. Collected data and information on the checklists were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statisticsKeywords: Backpack Standards, Primary Students, Iran
Knee Osteoarthritis Preventive Behaviors in Women over 40 Years referred to Health Centers in Shiraz, Iran: Application of TPBPages 215-221Adopted healthy lifestyle known as changing the high risk behaviors to protective behaviors regarding Knee Osteoarthritis (KO) prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive behaviors of KO in women over 40 years referred to health centers in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study randomized 151 women over 40 years, who referred to the health centers in Shiraz in 2016. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including demographic questions and measures based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs regarding KO. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22.Keywords: Knee Osteoarthritis, Theory of Planned Behavior, Women
The effect of Exercise Training on Disability due to Low Back Pain in Pregnant Women referred to the Health Centers of Karaj, IranPages 223-229Since back pain is the most common pregnancy-related symptom, this study aimed to determine the effect of exercise training on disability due to low back pain in pregnant women.
In this interventional study 120 pregnant women referring to the health centers in Karaj, were randomly assigned into two intervention (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups, respectively. The demographic questions and standardized Quebec questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver. 21 and appropriate statistical tests.
Totally 120 pregnant women (60 participants in each group) took part in this study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of disability due to low back pain before the intervention (P > 05). However, after intervention, the disability score in intervention group was less than the control group significantly (1.4 ± 0.86 in intervention group compared to 2.23 ± 1.12 in control group with PKeywords: Low back pain, Pregnancy, Disability