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Research in Applied Linguistics - Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2017
  • Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language, Discourse and Pragmatics
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 38
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  • Zahra Jamshidzadeh, Bashir Jam Pages 7-13
    The present study aims to investigate the system of the visual transitivity by analyzing the images of American English file (2014) and Cutting edge (2005) series based on Halliday’s (1976) systemic functional linguistics and Kress and van leuween’s (1997-2006) social semiotics. The system of visual transitivity refers to a type of process which determines how represented participants are labelled, how many of them are involved, and what roles they play. As a result, two points emerged: The first point showed the usefulness of these theories in determining the fact that these images are not neutral. In the second place, the analyses of these images determined many processes (e.g., action, reaction, and symbolic) and (e.g., material, mental, and relational) which were required in representing and interpreting these images and their processes.
    Keywords: Visual Transitivity, Systemic Functional Theory, Social Semiotics Theory, Visual Grammar
  • Mahmood Hashemian, Maryam Farhang-Ju Pages 14-20
    This study was an attempt to investigate Iranian and Spanish intermediate nonnative English learners’ request strategies to their faculty. To this aim, 74 (50 Iranian and 24 Spanish) nonnative English intermediate learners participated in this study. A discourse completion test (DCT) was used to elicit the request strategies used by the participants. The findings suggested the participants employed the conventionally indirect request strategy to their faculty in a higher percentage. The results revealed that the effect of L1 was not significance on the choice of request strategies by the participants to the faculty.
    Keywords: Request Strategies, Indirectness, Politeness
  • Ozra Gholamshahi Pages 21-28
    This study investigated the role of the principal in managing teaching and learning. It examined how and to whom principals distributed the management of teaching and learning. It was found that participants thought principals could improve school effectiveness most by engaging in activities that develop a good climate and ensure appropriate resources are available for instruction. There is a growing understanding that leadership is embedded in various organizational contexts within school communities, not centrally vested in a person or an office. This study has left the researcher with a great respect for the all encompassing role of the principal.
    Keywords: management, distributed leadership, Instructional Leadership, academic achievements
  • Zohreh Jarrahzadeh, Zahra Rezaee Zadeh Pages 29-36
    This paper aimed at manifesting the role of significant attributes of conversation analysis in social interviews from a functional perspective. In this paper the concern would be on how these attributes of conversation analysis acted as important elements in analyzing the interviews. In particular, the author discussed some samples of B.B.C learning English interviews which considered some conversation ways and then analyzed it in order to find best solutions of how these techniques could be more effective. Moreover, in this paper, analyzing these features of conversation analysis in interview sections derived from the organization of the speech exchange system and of the types of actions sanctioned. Furthermore, utilizing this kind of didactic application such as B.B.C learning English and applied solutions in conversations highlighted the purpose of study. Finally, the results of the study indicates that, these features of conversation analysis can influence on the ways of using attributes in different situations and English learners can exploit the methods in their daily conversations and apply them in the best way.
    Keywords: Conversation Analysis, Social Interviews, Conversation Attributes, B.B.C Learning English Podcasts, Didactic Application
  • Mehran Memri, Mehdi Zia, Amir Zalpour Pages 37-42
    The language used by women and men differ in all speech communities. In order to examine some of these variations, the present study aimed to investigate the differences in an informal written discourse. For this purpose, a comparison between men’s and women’s informal language was made regarding length of utterances, questions, intensifiers, and hedges. Results revealed that men employed higher length of utterance and slightly more hedges than women. On the other hand, women tended to ask more questions and used more intensifiers than men. The findings may pave the way to better understand the world of communication.
    Keywords: Gender, utterance, Questions, Intensifiers, Hedge
  • Aiyoub Jodairi Pineh, Seyed Farid Beheshti Nezhad, Robab Khosravi Pages 43-59
    This study reports on the findings of a genre teaching course for developing academic writing of a class of EFL students in Iran. The information report genre was taught in a cyclical way of teaching and learning, which was started from ‘setting the context’ and ‘deconstruction’ of prototype information report genre, and continued with ‘joint construction’, ‘independent construction’, and finally ‘comparing’ with different academic genres. Results of the analysis revealed that the students have taken a significant leap towards controlling macro genre structures. Some progressions were also observed at micro language features such as lexical density and the frequency of embedded clauses. The findings of the analysis revealed that the consciousness-raising approach in genre teaching course might be a contributing factor for text development.
    Keywords: Genre-based Pedagogy, Consciousness-raising Approach, Information Report Genre, Academic Writing, Volunteered EFL Students
  • Azizeh Chalak, Behnam Ghasemi Pages 60-66
    Critical Discourse Analysis uncovers the relationship between discourse, ideology, and power. This study investigated and analyzed contents, social relations, and subject positions in conversations of four popular advanced ELT textbooks. The findings indicated that for contents, giving/asking for information and interaction were outstandingly significant. Regarding social relations, friend was the most conspicuous item. For subject positions, societal, friendship, and occupational took the first to third positions, respectively. The language utilized in ELT textbooks was not value free and discourse, tone, and intonation were based on the western ideology. Neo-liberalism, neoclassical ideology selected by the producers had effect on learners’ attitudes towards social problems.
    Keywords: Content, Critical Discourse Analysis, Ideology, Social Relation, Subject Position
  • Azizeh Chalak Pages 67-74
    This study aimed at investigating the English textese of Iranian EFL learners by scrutinizing the linguistic features through a qualitative design. In doing so, 700 messages were collected from 43 MA Iranian EFL learners of both genders. The features were categorized and analyzed calculating the frequency and percentage. The findings of the study showed that Iranian EFL students used different types of linguistic features with different density in their textese. They had consistency in textism and their text messaging language was mostly standard. The findings of the study could be used to raise students’ awareness on the linguistic features in choosing the right kind of language when communicating with others.
    Keywords: Iranian EFL Students, Linguistic Features, Text Messages, Textese
  • Hossein Heidari Tabrizi Pages 75-83
    This study investigated two major types of metadiscourse markers as used in typical sales contracts, written by English natives and Iranian non-natives. In so doing, 60 sales contracts were selected, 30 written by native English and 30 by Iranian non-natives. Based on Hyland and Tse’s taxonomy, the contracts were codified and classified in terms of the frequency and percentage of the interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers found. The results revealed that Iranian non-natives used more interactive metadiscourse markers while natives used more interactional metadiscourse markers. The latter also used more hedges in their sales contracts compared to non-natives.
    Keywords: Business Correspondence, Interactive metadiscourse markers, Interactional Metadiscourse Markers, Iranian Non-native Discourse, Sales Contracts
  • Sara Shahani, Azizeh Chalak Pages 84-89
    The present research aimed at investigating the interaction of the classroom talk to have a better understanding of the teachers’ practice teaching which can pave the way for reflection on teaching. The study benefitted from conversation analytic perspective to qualitatively and interpretively examine the classroom discourse of the teacher-learner interaction. The classroom talk was analyzed through conversation analysis perspective with taking the extracts of the learners’ and teacher’s interactions into account to see whether tasks paved the way for the learners to learn the target from through ‘Focus on Form’ approach. The findings could be beneficial for the practitioners in the field.
    Keywords: Classroom Discourse Analysis, Conversation Analysis, Teacher-learner Interaction, Reflective Practice
  • Fariba Alipour, Bahram Hadian Pages 90-96
    This study investigated the translation strategies of culture-specific items in translation of 'Othello' by William Shakespeare into Persian by Abdolhossein Nooshin. First, the English culture-specific items and their corresponding translations were identified. Then, the frequency of the strategies used by the translator according to Newmark's translation model and Venuti's domestication and foreignization theory were determined. After collecting and analyzing the data, it was concluded that cultural equivalent and domestication strategies were the most frequently used strategies applied by the translator. The findings also suggested that Venuti's theory is not adequate enough because it is too general and it should have some more subcategories.
    Keywords: Culture- Specific Items, Newmark's Translation Strategies, Othello, Venuti's Theory
  • Mehdi Azadsarv, Javad Kia Heirati, Arash Golzari Pages 97-103
    Framed in Farahzad’s (2009) critical discourse analysis (CDA) model, the present research aimed at analyzing these influences in two Persian translations of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland at micro and macro levels. To do so, the textual features at micro-level, while the constituent aspects about the translated texts at macro-level were examined. As to the micro-level analysis, it was found that the significations of the formal words, used by Honarmandi (1960), seemed to be more familiar for the adults and the educated groups than for common people. However, Pirzad (2001) adopted a realistic approach to make use of less formal phrases and more of popular lexical items.
    Keywords: Translation Criticism, Farahzad's CDA Model, Micro-level, Macro-level
  • Ezatollah Kalantari Khandani Pages 104-124
    Without knowing the speech act functions, it would be difficult to make correct requests in a language. Studies in pragmalinguistics have shown that conventionally direct and indirect requestive patterns are perceived differently in different speech communities. This study investigates the perception of the requestive speech acts by Persian native speakers to determine the socially appropriate requestive patterns in Persian. It also examines whether there is any relationship between the use of the requestive patterns and contextual factors, namely relative power, distance, and rank of imposition. To these ends a total of 24 situations designed in the form of a questionnaire were used for written elicitation. The results show that Persian native speakers consider direct request strategy when accompanied with modifiers as an appropriate norm of making request in situations where interlocutors are socially intimate and where the speaker is more powerful than the hearer. On the basis of the results of the study, examining and investigating the notions of directness and appropriateness should be based on cultural norms and expectations as well as rational linguistic behavior.
    Keywords: Pragmatics, Speech acts, Direct, Indirect Request Strategy, Politeness Theory
  • Maryam Kahkesh, Mohammad Alipour Pages 125-135
    The purpose of this study was to compare metadiscourse markers in forty English and Persian university lectures. Twenty of them were selected from the British Academic Spoken English corpus. The other 20 were selected from an Iranian website (www.maktoobkhane.com). We used Hyland’s (2005) model of metadiscourse. The metadiscourses were collected. Further, the frequency of each type was studied. Finally, native English data were compared to Persian ones. Data were analyzed through Chi-square and findings revealed there were meaningful differences between the two corpora. However, as for boosters, the difference was not meaningful in both lectures.
    Keywords: Metadiscourse, Interactive, Interactional, University Lecture
  • Reza Banari, Mehran Memari, Bita Asadi Pages 136-149
    Academic writing is typically encoded by relatively negotiable and arguable resources indicating the potentially dialogistic nature of its discourse community, and has been the area of investigation from different perspectives. One of these perspectives has been the way that determines dialogistic resources in the rhetorical formation of textbooks. Thus, this study is conducted to explore and explain the strategies which are applied by writers to expand or contract the dialogistic voices of written texts. To this end, four texts of applied linguistics writers, two Persian and two English, were selected and then analyzed on the proposed framework of the appraisal by Martin and White (2005), particularly the one which is about engagement. Results showed that this dialogistic positioning, i.e., engagement, is relatively equally favored by both English and Persian applied linguists which indicate that both English and Persian writers are inclined to establish and maintain writer/reader interactional relationship, make allowance for other voices, and observe collegial deference. In respect to the subcategories of engagement, the result showed that in both English and Persian textbooks writers show a marked difference for coding engagement as entertain than other subcategories. The reason comes from the fact that by utilizing instances of entertain the writer indicates its position is but one of possible positions, so makes dialogistic space for any other possibilities.
    Keywords: Appraisal Framework, Engagement Resources, Dialogistic Language
  • Reza Banari, Ali Bardide, Anahita Bordbar Pages 150-163
    Academic writing might incorporate evaluative strategies with the aim of construing and registering attitudinal positionings of writers towards other people, objects, and state of affairs included in the texts, and has been the area of investigation from different perspectives. One of these perspectives has been the way that determines attitudinal assessments in the rhetorical formation of textbooks. Thus, this study is done in order to explore and explain the way that language is employed by writers to project their attitudinal assessments of objects and entities, and also to clarify how authors apply evaluative stance to establish their presence. In this regard, four texts of applied linguistics writers, two Persian and two English, were selected and then analyzed on the proposed framework of the appraisal by Martin and White (2005), particularly the one which is about attitude. Results showed that writers were disinclined to express their feelings and judge people as affect and judgment in construing their arguments; however, they showed marked preference for coding attitude as appreciation which is concerned with positive and negative assessments of objects.
    Keywords: Appraisal Framework, Attitudinal Resources, Evaluative Language
  • Mina Zandrahimi, Mohammad Reza Marzban Pages 164-170
    The existence of cultural gaps causes problems in translation process and harms the aesthetic aspects of texts. In this paper, it was tried to recognize the factors which cause inconsistency between the style of original lyrics and its translations and also find out which translation strategies increase the rate of this distortion. The framework of the study was translation quality assessment by House. The strategies were analyzed based on Vinay & Darbelnet model. The data included Pink Floyd lyrics as well as their two different translations. The results revealed most of the distortions were in the change of style. Moreover, literal translation caused the majority of errors.
    Keywords: Translation Quality Assessment, Style, Lyrics, Strategies, Literal Translation
  • Seyyed Rahim Moosavinia, Elham Shishebor Pages 171-175
    Ray Bradbury’s The Martian Chronicles is a futuristic, science fiction novel that chronicles the colonization of Mars by humans, projecting the United States’ colonial and immigrant past on to a symbolic future. Bradbury’s use of language is mostly picturesque and sensory. The present paper applies a text-oriented analysis of stylistic elements that construct meaning in the text and evoke the novel’s themes, using the analytic model developed by Leech and Short (2007). The study’s focus is on the lexical category—general lexicon, nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs—of chapters that are stylistically representative of Bradbury’s descriptive and metaphorically-rich style.
    Keywords: stylistics, lexical category, Metaphor, semantics, science fiction
  • Anahita Bordbar, Mehran Memari, Bita Asadi Pages 176-182
    An emotion icon, better known as emoticon is a metacommunicative pictorial representation of a facial expression that, in the absence of body language and prosody, serves to draw a receiver's attention to the tenor or temper of a sender's nominal verbal communication, changing and improving its interpretation. The present study investigates the use of these nonverbal cues in whatsapp public chat. The analysis focuses on the multifunctionality of emoticons, their role in online relational work, and possible connections between emoticon use and language proficiency and thus contributes to a more complete understanding of emotive communication online. Its ultimate goal is to help clarify the role of emoticons within a larger conceptual framework of emotive and relational meaning. To this end, this study takes a micro-analytic approach to show how English as foreign language learners use emoticons in text chat. The analysis shows that emoticons are highly context-sensitive and can display affect or serve as contextual cues to signal illocutionary force or humor.
    Keywords: Emotion Icon, Sociolinguistic, Text Chat
  • Anahita Bordbar, Ali Bardideh, Reza Banari Pages 183-191
    Complimenting behavior, as a common speech act of human beings, has become an intriguing topic in linguistics and its sub-branches. Compliment responses can be seen as solutions for maintaining a balance between (1) a preference to avoid self-praise and (2) a preference to accept or agree with the compliment (Pomerantz 1978). In the present study, the definition of a compliment draws on the work of Holmes (1988).The present study explored compliment responses in of 454 Iranian university students according to the Manes & Wolfson’s (1981) study that demonstrated compliments are highly Formulaic. Therefore the main concern in this study was to determine the basic syntactic forms and categories that carry the compliment’s positive evaluation in Farsi. The Collected data were analyzed according to the syntactic patterns and topics of the compliments in relation to the sex of the participants.
    Keywords: Syntactic Pattern, Complimenting Behavior
  • Mina Zandrahimi, Hossein Afzoon Pages 192-199
    The different writing systems of English and Persian makes translation of acronyms, initialisms and abbreviations challenging. This study aimed at finding which strategies were applied most frequently in translating acronyms, initialisms and abbreviations from English to Persian especially in journalistic texts. The study was done based n Descriptive Translation Study of Toury and strategies proposed by Kuzmina et al (2015) for translation of abbreviation. To this sense, 50 cases in the translation of acronyms, initialisms and abbreviations were extracted. They were compared with their translation to see which strategies were applied most. The result of the study revealed that the translators preferred to keep the same English letters in Persian so most cases were transcribed.
    Keywords: Abbreviation, Translation, Initialism, Acronyms, Political, Sport News
  • Bahloul Salmani, Fatemeh Khalili Pages 200-209
    In today's world, literature does not seem to be merely a piece of art for human's spiritual excellence, but is something likely controlled subtly and already planned for a specific purpose and specific audience. Through many literary works Harry Potter series seem to be the most effective work that took the lead. It is officially turned into a phenomenon for all generations. This article attempts to dig deep through the probable conducting ideologies which lead today's literature, specifically the children's literature with the aim of creating a new unite generation in near future. This study benefits the theory of Semiotics and Socio- Semiotic by D. Chandler and other scholars in the same field. Furthermore, Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis is applied for a better understanding. Also, the method of this paper is a mixed qualitative- interpretive one. The findings of this paper revealed that literature is becoming and already has become a device to transfer some political ideologies conducted by some groups that subsequently enters other languages and cultures by the use of translation that accordingly transfers the same ideologies and functions in another way which needs a perceptive and alert translator to recognize and handle these ideologies equipped with signs.
    Keywords: Translation, Semiotics, Socio- Semiotics, Political Function
  • Ezat Amirbakzadeh Kalati, Mehran Memari Pages 210-220
    Learning strategies play leading roles on students’ understanding information and solving problems. Not being aware of learning strategies and their use may lead to students’ failure. Furthermore, conducting research on learning strategies is difficult as they are not observable directly and selecting a reliable method is an issue. Accordingly, this paper aims to investigate the significant contribution to the development of learning strategies within English Language Teaching (ELT) studies through reviewing three research-based related articles to adapt the findings to new research. The articles’ framework, designs, and methods investigated to choose the appropriate ones for a new study and ensure the reliability and validity of it. Regarding different sections of this paper, it explains the learning strategies related to the new study and describes its pedagogical context. Moreover, it compares and contrasts the articles’ research strategies and designs, methods of data collection and data analysis, validity, reliability as well as ethics. It also considers their shortcomings and discusses general implications for the new research project. Finally, it decides to conduct a case study design in a university setting in Iran consists of 22 undergraduate male and female students studying Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) motivated in acquiring English well. It will also employ mixed method research to collect more reliable data, apply think-aloud protocol and administer Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire, use descriptive and content analysis and cross-check the findings in order to recognize students’ learning strategy usage.
    Keywords: Investigating, Learning Strategies, Three Articles, Significant Contribution, Autonomous Learners
  • Mohammad Javadi, Zeinab Azizinejad Pages 221-231
    As an analytical type of approach, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) deals with the emphasis on social practice, identity, power, and ideology built through text and speech in socio-political and educational contexts. Having proposed a theoretical framework, it uncovered all discrepant ways through which power and societal practices are produced in written and spoken texts. Moreover, mingled with text and talk, textbooks play a pivotal role in determining a standard curriculum. To this end, using a mixed-methods design, a questionnaire was applied to compare the perceptions of 103 Iranian EFL teachers of Yasouj, Dehdasht, and Gachsaran English institutes and junior high schools with each other towards the Prospect 1 and Four Corners 1 textbooks. Furthermore, a semi-structured interview was also conducted from 9 teachers. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were applied for analyzing the data. The results revealed that the two textbooks differed in terms of ‘layout’, ‘language type’, and ‘whole aspect’ whereas they were similar in light of ‘activities’, ‘content’, and ‘skills’. Also, findings gained from the interview suggest that the textbooks more or less failed to consistently take the needs of language learners into account. This study might be beneficial to textbook designers and language teachers and learners.
    Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), Textbook, perception, Learner's Needs, Four Corners 1, Prospect 1
  • Elkhas Veysi, Payman Rajabi, Ahmad Reza Jamshidipour Pages 232-244
    The present paper investigated the effect of teacher’s follow‐up move approach on Iranian EFL learners’ conversation quality. Ninety students were selected in a senior high school in Poldokhtar, Iran. Through an oral test sixty out of ninety students whose scores were between one standard deviation (SD) above and below the mean were selected as the participants of the study. Then they were divided into two equal homogeneous groups of experimental and control. The experimental group received the treatment which was five units of Top Notch A and was taught under the supervision of the teacher using follow- up (F-move) strategy but the control group was taught in the traditional way. After the teaching period was over, a posttest was presented to both groups to see whether the teacher's follow-up moves had been effective. The scores obtained through the pre and the posttest were analyzed using the Paired and Independent Samples t-test procedure and the results reported. The results indicated that the experimental group of EFL learners under the supervision of teachers applying follow-up move acted better than their counterpart (control group) that paved the way in traditional way.
    Keywords: Follow-up Move, Conversation Quality, EFL Learners, Interaction
  • Elkhas Veysi Pages 245-261
    Critical discourse analysis as a type of social practice reveals how linguistic choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action.The present study examines the relationship between language and ideology and explores how such a relationship is represented in the analysis of spoken text and to show how declarative knowledge¡ beliefs¡ attitudes¡ and ideology act and perform in the representation of macrostructures following Van Djik's (2005) Knowledge Management Model of Critical Dimension of Discourse Analysis was followed to determine the way in which spoken discourse involves jointly constructed interactions. Results indicate that communication skills are essential to social interaction and contribute to coherent discourse and features of situation affect participant's perceptions and their conscious behavioral decisions.
    Keywords: Authority Conception, Conversational Styles, Dominant Ideology, Social Function, Mental Mechanisms, Controllability
  • Rahman Sahragard, Mohammad Reza Farangi Pages 262-271
    Classroom learning consists of a variety of pedagogic relations including teachers and learners’ interactions, inclusions and exclusions of learners and evaluations. The purpose of this paper was to comprehensively examine the nature of these interactions using Rose (2014) pedagogic exchange model. The researchers qualitatively investigated the interactions of an experienced male EFL teacher with their students within their classrooms. The results revealed that the teacher acted and transmitted knowledge, included and excluded students, initiated, anticipated and responded. It was also found that the learners played a determining role in shaping pedagogic discourse. These results may have some implications for language teachers and teacher educators.
    Keywords: Pedagogic Exchange, Classroom discourse, Knowledge Exchange, Action Exchange, EFL Teachers
  • Nahid Yarahmadzehi, Afshin Rezaee, Parisa Kogani Baharvand Pages 272-280
    The present study investigated the way elementary school teachers perceive the importance of phonological awareness in their classroom experiences. To achieve the aim, 75 elementary school teachers of both genders with diverse years of experience and qualifications from 25 elementary schools in Khorram Abad, Iran were selected. In order to obtain the data, the modified version of the Likert-type questionnaire designed and developed by Dahmer (2010) was used. The findings indicated that the teachers not only do recognize the importance of phonological awareness as a reading skill but they also consider it as a prevention strategy for reading acquisition which can play a vital role in elementary school students’ reading ability. The data was useful in bringing about an awareness of how theoretical understandings linked to phonological awareness relevance and usage are actually occurring in the context of elementary classroom.
    Keywords: Phonological Awareness, Elementary School Teachers, Reading Programs, Reading Ability
  • Samaneh Alemi Neisi, Mohammad Alipour Pages 281-290
    The present investigation sought to comparatively explore the effect of length of residence (LOR) as well as EFL instruction on the pragmatic competence of Iranian learners. The participants were 45 EFL learners in Iran and 45 learners in Canada selected based on snowball sampling and each group was divided into three sub-groups based on the years of learning English in an EFL or a natural setting. The instrument used to collect data was a Pragmatic Test developed by Roever (2006) consisting of three subtests i.e. implicature, routines, and speech act sections, each containing 12 items. Initially, the participants in classroom settings in Iran were asked to complete the Pragmatic Test. As for the learners in the natural setting, the participants were requested to complete the test which was sent to them through social networks such as instagram, and submit it. The results of independent samples t-test and ANOVA indicated those residing in Canada were more competent in terms of pragmatic competence; however, the length of residence in Canada and also years of classroom experience did not have any significant effect on learners’ pragmatic competence. The findings of the current study have implications for material developers, syllabus designers, and EFL teachers.
    Keywords: EFL Setting, Natural setting, Pragmatic Competence
  • Marjan Asadi, Masoud Azizinezhad, Elahe Ehsani Fard Pages 291-298
    To explore the effects of formative assessment on student engagement in classroom, 60 upper-intermediate level EFL students, were chosen out of a convenience sample of 120, using the Oxford Placement Test and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. After the intervention, the students were asked to complete the Student Course Engagement Questionnaire. Independent sample t-test results using SPSS revealed that the difference between the two groups’ engagement scores was statistically significant and that formative assessment and feedback were highly correlated with students’ engagement. Results also indicated that formative assessment and meaningful feedback can facilitate teachers’ efforts to improve student engagement in classroom activities.
    Keywords: Assessment, Feedback, Formative Assessment, Student Engagement
  • Mehran Memari, Amir Zalpour, Mehdi Zia Pages 299-303
    An increase of asynchronous online discussions in website provides much opportunity for L2 learners from different global communities to be exposed to the target language at their own pace and time. However, no research looking at the essentials of social presence and cognitive presence in creating a supportive learning environment in such a context has been done. This study investigated the patterns of social presence and cognitive presence in context of Iran. It also examined the relationship between social presence and cognitive presence. Using content analysis, the data were analyzed from 304 online messages. The findings showed that levels of social presence and cognitive presence were significantly related and supported the notion that social presence plays a significant role in sustaining cognitive presence in discussions.
    Keywords: Discussion Forum, Social Presence, Cognitive Presence
  • Fateme Chahkandi Pages 304-311
    The aim of the present article is to probe the functions of the cultural schema of Ta’ne (sarcasm) in Persian. Results from 100 recorded instantiations of Ta’ne accumulated through ethnographic approach indicated that it served different functions including complaint, criticism, insult, contempt, humor, and compliment. The results were then discussed with reference to the cultural differences in the instantiation of the schema (use of the schema for humorous and complimentary functions) and the other schemas underlying the enactment of Ta’ne. In addition, some implications of the study were discussed with reference to the necessity of the cultural knowledge in order to prevent misunderstandings and miscommunications.
    Keywords: Cultural Schema, Cultural Linguistics, Tane, Sarcasm, Persian Language
  • Bahman Gorjian Pages 312-318
    This study investigated the impact of writing checklist on composing descriptive essays among EFL learners at the intermediate level. Sixty participants were assigned to experimental and control groups. Both groups were given a pre-test of writing a descriptive essay including 150 words. The experimental group used checklist for learning while the control used teacher correcting technique in each session. Finally, the participants took the post-test of writing descriptive essays at the end of course. Data analysis revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group. The implications suggest that using the writing checklists could be beneficial in writing activates.
    Keywords: Writing Checklist, Descriptive Essay, Paragraph Development
  • Mona Moradi Motlagh, Mohammad Taghi Farvardin Pages 319-329
    This quasi-experimental study investigated the effect of bottom-up and top-down instructional approaches on English as a foreign language (EFL) vocabulary recall and retention. To this end, 44 high school students from two intact classes were assigned to bottom-up (n = 21) and top-down (n = 23) groups. The participants were exposed to 20 hours of explicit vocabulary instruction during 10 weeks (2 sessions per week). Two tests, vocabulary size test (VST) and controlled productive knowledge tests (CPKT), were administered to measure the participants’ achievement before and after the treatment. The results of two-way repeated measures ANOVAs and independent samples t-tests revealed that the bottom-up group outperformed the top-down group on both immediate and delayed post-tests.
    Keywords: Bottom-up Approach, Top-down Approach, EFL Learners, Recall, Retention
  • Seyed Yousef Savaedi, Sedigheh Vahdat Pages 330-339
    Although a surfeit of studies have examined the students’ attitude towards foreign and / or second language both inside and outside Iran, it seems scanty studies have been devoted to evaluate Prospect-trained students’ attitude towards English. This quantitative study investigated the students’ attitudes towards English language learning among 80 junior high school students in Ahvaz, Iran. These students have been exposed to English through Prospect course-books (the newly designed course-books in Iranian Educational system) for three years. To this end the researchers adapted a Likert scale questionnaire some items of which have been taken from Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) designed by Gardner. The questions comprised three parts each of which represented one aspect of students’ attitude towards English language (Cognitive, Behavioral, and Emotional aspects). The choices opted by the participants have been calculated using descriptive statistics (minimum score, maximum score, mean, and standard deviation).The results indicated that the participants enjoyed a positive attitude towards all three aspects with differing degrees. Additionally, participants’ demographic information was used to justify some parts of the findings. The findings can be inspiring for teachers and material designers to consider attitude aspects more than ever.
    Keywords: Attitude, cognitive, Behavioral, emotional, Demographic Information
  • Bahman Gorjian Pages 340-346
    This study investigated the effectiveness of discourse structure-based graphic organizers (GOs) on students’ reading comprehension. Seventy learners were randomly divided in two equal experimental and control groups. They took a pre-test of reading comprehension. Then the experimental group analyzed the textual structures based on the frameworks of GOs and discussed the cohesive and coherent devices in each passage while the control group read the passage and do the textbook exercises. Data analysis revealed that GOs significantly affected the student's reading comprehension. The implications suggest that familiarizing the learners with graphical structures could facilitate reading comprehension.
    Keywords: Discourse Structure, Graphic Organizers (GOs), Reading Comprehension
  • Seyed Yousef Savaedi, Alireza Jalilifar Pages 347-364
    With the growth in sociality and interaction around touching national and international topics, news sites are increasingly becoming places for communities to discuss and address issues spurred by news articles. Proponents of cyberspace promise that online discourse will increase political participation and pave the road for a democratic utopia (Papacharissi, 2004). Comment writers, according to Nagar (2011), essentially represent a well informed community that is highly involved in the political process (p.23). On March 9, 2015 Republican Senators (GOP) wrote a letter to the leaders of Iran telling them that they would not honor the JCPOA (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action) after Obama leaves office. This study explored the on-line comments put by Americans dealing with the GOP letter to provide space for that sort of public attitude. This attitude was analyzed through two different perspectives; on one side,it focused on the ways in which participants utilized the markers ofAppraisal to interact directly with on-line readers and express their attitude towards the GOP letter. On the other side, the attitude toward the letter was coded as either "agree" for comments showing support; "disagree" for comments showing disagreement with the letter in terms of denouncing it or condemning it; or "neither agree nor disagree" for comments neither rejected nor supported the GOP letter.
    Keywords: Appraisal, Attitudinal Analysis, Online Comments
  • Abdolreza Pazhakh, Samir Alkasir Pages 365-376
    This study was to explore facilitative function of using multimodal channels over single channel presentation and comprehension of idiomatic expressions to Iranian EFL intermediate proficiency learners. Out of a pool of 90, sixty intermediate participants were homogenized by a QPT test, using a quasi-experimental design. They were randomly assigned to three equal groups: WhatsApp-, SMS- and Classroom-based groups. A pretest determined their idiomatic knowledge status. Only experimental groups received materials via technologically mediated instruction. A post-test tapped their competence after the treatment. A questionnaire was used to illicit the experimental group’s attitudes towards using technology. The results of ANOVA and t-tests showed the superiority of multimodality channel over single channel. The superiority was, WhatsApp-based, SMS-based, and SMS-based groups, respectively. The findings also revealed a strong correlation between student's attitudes towards the use of technology and their idiomatic competence.
    Keywords: Audio-visually Oriented Instruction, Idiomatic Competence, Multimedia