فهرست مطالب

Archives of Neuroscience - Volume:4 Issue:2, 2017
  • Volume:4 Issue:2, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Farid Khan * Page 1
    Background
    Aging is interpreted as a physiological process, which appears in the form of progressive waning in organ function. Oxidative stress is considered as one of the central mechanisms of aging, which can be controlled by life style modification.
    Objectives
    We aimed to understand the impact of exercise on aging and mental health in light of the current research.
    Methods
    Article search was performed using PubMed search engine.
    Conclusions
    Exercise is the key to boost anti-oxidant pathways to slow aging and thus improve brain function and mental health.
    Keywords: Exercise, Brain, Aging, Brain, Aging, Brain, Neuroplasticity Mental Health
  • Francesco Raudino* Page 2
    Context: The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy increases with age and it is possible that they are interlinked.
    Evidence Acquisition: Medline literature search before April 2016.
    Results
    In general, all authors agree that seizures, especially partial simplex or complex, can appear at any stage of the disease with greater frequency in the later stages or in younger subjects with familial Alzheimer’s disease. Seizures are often unrecognized by standard electroencephalograms but using prolonged recordings are recorded in more than 60% of the subjects. Some associated diseases, especially vascular complications or therapies, can help the appearance of the seizures. According to some authors, amyloid-β peptide or some metabolites trigger intermittent aberrant excitatory neuronal activity in the cortex and hippocampus.
    Conclusions
    In Alzheimer’s disease, the seizures are frequent also in the early stages and can worsen the cognitive impairments. The national institute of neurological and communicative diseases and stroke/alzheimer’s disease and related disorders association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria state that the appearance of seizures at the onset or at very early stages of the Alzheimer’s disease is unlikely, but in light of the current knowledge, this statement needs to be modified.
    Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia, Epilepsy, Seizure
  • Giovanni Casella *, Ignazio Santilli, Camillo Di Bella, Valentina Crisafulli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti Page 3
    Cerebellar ataxia (CA) is one of the most frequent neurological manifestations related to celiac disease (CD). Celiac disease is found in patients with a percentage ranging from 1.9% to 16.7%. Gluten cerebellar ataxia is purely cerebellar and involves the entire cerebellum. The clinical signs of CA are gait ataxia, limb ataxia, dysarthria, pyramidal signs, altered eyes motions, and progressive impairment of stability, and erect position. The patients affected by Gluten CA show an immunological response against a primarily brain expressed TG, such as TG6. The prolonged gluten consumption in patients with gluten ataxia leads to a progressive loss of purkinje cells in the cerebellum. An early diagnosis of CA and gluten related disorders (GRD) increases the possibility to improve the neurological process. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is defined by clinical evidence of improvement of symptoms following the introduction of GFD in the absence of enteropathy. The increased recognition of the whole spectrum of Gluten related disorders (GRD) is the best way to improve the time of the diagnosis and to avoid patients with neurological manifestation remaining untreated if duodenal biopsy does not reveal an enteropathy. Cerebellar Ataxia is equally responsive to GFD in CD and NCGS patients.
    Keywords: CA, CD, NCGS
  • Samaneh Mohamadpour, Fakhri Tajikzadeh *, Abdolaziz Aflakseir Page 4
    Objective
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on self-efficacy and anxiety among epileptic patients.
    Methods
    The present study with a pretest-posttest control-group design was performed on epileptic patients in public healthcare centers of Kuhdasht, Iran. Through randomized sampling, 15 patients were selected for the experimental group and 15 epileptic patients for the control group. The experimental group received MBCT once a week during 8 sessions, while the control group was engaged in usual activities. The data collection tools included the general self-efficacy scale (GSES) and Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS). For statistical analysis, descriptive tests and repeated measures analysis of variance were performed.
    Results
    Data analysis showed significant differences in self-efficacy and anxiety scores between the experimental and control groups (P
    Conclusions
    According to the results, MBCT can increase self-efficacy and decrease anxiety in epileptic patients.
    Keywords: Mindfulness, Based Cognitive Therapy, Self, efficacy, Anxiety, Epilepsy
  • Aric F. Logsdon, Brandon P. Lucke-Wold, Ryan C. Turner, Xinlan Li, Chris E. Adkins, Afroz S. Mohammad, Jason D. Huber, Charles L. Rosen, Paul R. Lockman* Page 5
    Neuropsychiatric symptom development has become more prevalent with 270,000 blast exposures occurring in the past 10 years in the United States. How blast injury leads to neuropsychiatric symptomology is currently unknown. Preclinical models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury have been used to demonstrate blood-brain barrier disruption, degenerative pathophysiology, and behavioral deficits. Vascular injury is a primary effect of neurotrauma that can trigger secondary injury cascades and neurodegeneration. Here we present data from a novel scaled and clinically relevant mouse blast model that was specifically developed to assess the outcome of vascular injury. We look at the biochemical effects and behavioral changes associated with blast injury in young-adult male BALB/c mice. We report that blast exposure causes focal vascular injury in the Somatosensory Barrel Field cortex, which leads to perivascular astrocyte reactivity, as well as acute aberrant behavior. Biochemical analysis revealed that mild blast exposure also invokes tauopathy, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Overall, we propose our model to be used to evaluate focal blood-brain barrier disruption and to discover novel therapies for human neuropsychiatric symptoms.
    Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury, Blood, Brain Barrier Disruption, Astrocyte Reactivity, Tauopathy, Neuropsychiatric Behavior
  • Sareh Shahmohammadi, Seyed Ehsan Mohammadianinejad, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi * Page 6
    Interferon beta-1α (IFN β-1α) is one of the most widely used disease-modifying drugs, resulting in reduced annualized relapse rates and MRI activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Years of experience has indicated the relative safety of this class of medications in patients with MS. Despite its overall safety profile, an increasing number of reports have revealed serious adverse events in form of angiopathic complications in the preceding years. Herein, we present the case of a patient with chronic MS under treatment with IFN β-1α, presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) without any other identifiable causes. The present report, along with various cases of bleeding in patients receiving IFN, indicates a possible association between IFN therapy and ICH.
    Keywords: Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Multiple Sclerosis, Interferon Beta, 1?
  • Farshad Nemati * Page 7
    Geometric-optical illusions have been the subjects of research interest in a number of disciplines in science. Moreover, investigation of the patients’ reactions to illusory configurations has been somewhat instrumental in the understanding of impaired neuro-cognitive processes underlying some of the neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. Recently, neuroscientists have made some progress in understanding the neural underpinning of the geometric-optical illusions. However, a closer collaboration between psychology and neuroscience may lead to a better understanding of not only the neural basis of the illusions but the function of the brain in general. The purpose of the present analysis is to outline a sound epistemological ground for such a relationship and to demonstrate how psychological theories may potentially play a guiding role in the context of scientific discoveries in the neuroscience of illusory phenomena. In order to do so, two concepts of the “many-one” relationship between the mental and the neural states and “context-sensitivity” will be described with regard to the possible relationships between perception and brain in the context of research on illusions. In addition, the implications of the top-down strategy for research in Psychiatry will be explained and the strategy will be discussed as a path towards the unification of scientific explanations.
    Keywords: Brain, Computation, Epistemology, Illusion, Perception, Psychiatric disorder, Top, down strategy
  • Ashkan Mowla *, Navdeep S. Lail, Peyman Shirani Page 8
  • Beuy Joob *, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 10